This page lists English translations of notable Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Roughly three centuries after the Late Bronze Age collapse of Mycenaean Greece, Greek urban poleis began to form in the 8th century BC, ushering in the Archaic period and colonization of the Mediterranean Basin. This was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedon, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Hellenistic period came to an end with the conquests and annexations of the eastern Mediterranean world by the Roman Republic, which established the Roman province of Macedonia in Roman Greece, and later the province of Achaea during the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.
|e causa ignota||of unknown cause||Often used in medicine when the underlying disease causing a symptom is not known.|
|E pluribus unum||out of many, one||Literally, out of more (than one), one. The former national motto of the United States, which "In God We Trust" latter replaced; therefore, it is still inscribed on many US coins and on the United States Capitol. Also the motto of S.L. Benfica. Less commonly written as ex pluribus unum.|
|ecce ancilla domini||behold the handmaiden of the Lord||From Luke 1:38 in the Vulgate Bible. Name of an oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti and motto of Bishopslea Preparatory School.|
|ecce homo||behold the man||From the Gospel of John in the Vulgate 19:5 (Douay-Rheims), where Pontius Pilate speaks these words as he presents Christ, crowned with thorns, to the crowd. It is also the title of Nietzsche's autobiography and of the theme music by Howard Goodall for the ITV comedy Mr. Bean , in which the full sung lyric is Ecce homo qui est faba ("Behold the man who is a bean").|
|ecce panis angelorum||behold the bread of angels||From the Catholic hymn Lauda Sion ; occasionally inscribed near the altar of Catholic churches; it refers to the Eucharist, the Bread of Heaven; the Body of Christ. See also: Panis angelicus.|
|editio princeps||first edition||The first published edition of a work.|
|ejusdem generis||of the same kinds, class, or nature||From the canons of statutory interpretation in law. When more general descriptors follow a list of many specific descriptors, the otherwise wide meaning of the general descriptors is interpreted as restricted to the same class, if any, of the preceding specific descriptors.|
|ego te absolvo||I absolve you||Part of the formula of Catholic sacramental absolution, i. e., spoken by a priest as part of the Sacrament of Penance .|
|ego te provoco||I challenge you||Used as a challenge; "I dare you". Can also be written as te provoco.|
|eheu fugaces labuntur anni||Alas, the fleeting years slip by||From Horace's Odes, 2, 14.|
|eluceat omnibus lux||let the light shine out from all||The motto of Sidwell Friends School.|
|emeritus||veteran||Retired from office. Often used to denote an office held at the time of one's retirement, as an honorary title, e. g. professor emeritus and provost emeritus. Inclusion in one's title does not necessarily denote that the honorand is inactive in the pertinent office.|
|ens causa sui||existing because of oneself||Or "being one's own cause". Traditionally, a being that owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a Supreme Being .|
|ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem||by the sword she seeks a serene repose under liberty||Motto of the US state of Massachusetts, adopted in 1775.|
|entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem||entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity||Occam's Razor or Law of Parsimony; arguments which do not introduce extraneous variables are to be preferred in logical argumentation.|
|entitas ipsa involvit aptitudinem ad extorquendum certum assensum||reality involves a power to compel certain assent||A phrase used in modern Western philosophy on the nature of truth.|
|eo ipso||by that very (act)||Technical term in philosophy and law. Similar to ipso facto . Example: "The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think." From the Latin ablative form of id ipsum ("that thing itself").|
|eo nomine||by that name|
|equo ne credite||do not trust the horse||From Virgil, Aeneid , II. 48–49; a reference to the Trojan Horse.|
|erga omnes||in relation to everyone||Used in law, especially international law, to denote a kind of universal obligation.|
|ergo||therefore||Denotes a logical conclusion.|
|errare humanum est||to err is human||Sometimes attributed to Seneca the Younger, but not attested: Errare humanum est, perseverare autem diabolicum, et tertia non datur (To err is human; to persist [in committing such errors] is of the devil, and the third possibility is not given.) Several authors contemplated the idea before Seneca: Livy, Venia dignus error is humanus (Storie, VIII, 35) and Cicero: is Cuiusvis errare: insipientis nullius nisi, in errore perseverare (Anyone can err, but only the fool persists in his fault) ( Philippicae , XII, 2, 5). Cicero, being well-versed in ancient Greek, may well have been alluding to Euripides' play Hippolytus some four centuries earlier. 300 years later Saint Augustine of Hippo recycled the idea in his Sermones, 164, 14: Humanum fuit errare, diabolicum est per animositatem in errore manere. The phrase gained currency in the English language after Alexander Pope's An Essay on Criticism of 1711: "To err is human, to forgive divine" (line 325).|
|erratum||error||I. e., mistake. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a work are often marked with the plural errata ("errors").|
|errantis voluntas nulla est||the will of a mistaken party is void||Roman legal principle formulated by Pomponius in the Digest of the Corpus Juris Civilis , stating that legal actions undertaken by man under the influence of error are invalid.|
|eruditio et religio||scholarship and duty||Motto of Duke University|
|esse est percipi||to be is to be perceived||Motto of George Berkeley for his subjective idealist philosophical position that nothing exists independently of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.|
|esse quam videri||to be, rather than to seem||Truly being a thing, rather than merely seeming to be a thing. The motto of many institutions. From Cicero, De amicitia (On Friendship), Chapter 26. Prior to Cicero, Sallust used the phrase in Bellum Catilinae, 54, 6, writing that Cato esse quam videri bonus malebat ("preferred to be good, rather than to seem so"). Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes , line 592: ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei ("he wishes not to seem the best, but to be the best").|
|est modus in rebus||there is measure in things||there is a middle or mean in things, there is a middle way or position; from Horace, Satires 1.1.106; see also: Golden mean (philosophy). According to Potempski and Galmarini (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9471-9489, 2009) the sentence should be translated as: "There is an optimal condition in all things", which in the original text is followed by sunt certi denique fines quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum ("There are therefore precise boundaries beyond which one cannot find the right thing").|
|esto perpetua||may it be perpetual||Said of Venice, Italy, by the Venetian historian Fra Paolo Sarpi shortly before his death. Motto of the US state of Idaho, adopted in 1867; of S. Thomas' College, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka; of Sigma Phi Society.|
|esto quod es||be what you are||Motto of Wells Cathedral School.|
|et adhuc sub iudice lis est||it is still before the court||From Horace, Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry) 1.78.|
|et alibi(et al.)||and elsewhere||A less common variant on et cetera ("and the rest") used at the end of a list of locations to denote unenumerated/omitted ones.|
|et alii (et al.)||and others||Used similarly to et cetera ("and the rest") to denote names that, usually for the sake of space, are unenumerated/omitted. Alii is masculine, and therefore it can be used to refer to men, or groups of men and women; the feminine et aliae is proper when the "others" are all female, but as with many loanwords, interlingual use, such as in reference lists, is often invariable. Et alia is neuter plural and thus in Latin text is properly used only for inanimate, genderless objects, but some use it as a gender-neutral alternative. APA style uses et al. (normal font) if the work cited was written by more than six authors; MLA style uses et al. for more than three authors; AMA style lists all authors if ≤6, and 3 + et al if >6. AMA style forgoes the period (because it forgoes the period on abbreviations generally) and it forgoes the italic (as it does with other loanwords naturalized into scientific English); many journals that follow AMA style do likewise.|
|et cetera (etc. (US English); etc (UK English))or(&c. (US); &c (UK))||and the rest||In modern usage, used to mean "and so on" or "and more".|
|et cum spiritu tuo||and with your spirit||A response in the Sursum corda element of the Catholic Mass.|
|Et facere et pati fortia Romanum est||Acting and suffering bravely is the attribute of a Roman||The words of Gaius Mucius Scaevola when Lars Porsena captured him.|
|et facta est lux||And light came to be or was made||From Genesis , 1:3: "and there was light". Motto of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Georgia, United States.|
|et hoc genus omne||and all that sort of thing||Abbreviated as e.h.g.o. or ehgo|
|et in Arcadia ego||and in Arcadia [am] I||In other words, "I too am in Arcadia".|
|et lux in tenebris lucet||and light shines in the darkness|
|et nunc reges intelligite erudimini qui judicatis terram||"And now, O ye kings, understand: receive instruction, you that judge the earth."||From the Book of Psalms , II.x. (Vulgate), 2.10 (Douay-Rheims).|
|et sequentes (et seq.)||and the following (masculine/feminine plural)||Also et sequentia ("and the following things": neut.), abbreviations: et seqq., et seq., or sqq. Commonly used in legal citations to refer to statutes that comprise several sequential sections of a code of statutes (e. g. National Labor Relations Act, 29 U.S.C. § 159 et seq.; New Jersey Prevention of Domestic Violence Act, N.J. Stat. Ann. § 2C:25-17 et seq.).|
|et suppositio nil ponit in esse||and a supposition puts nothing in being||More usually translated as "Sayin' it don't make it so".|
|Et tu, Brute?||And you, Brutus?||Or "Even you, Brutus?" or "You too, Brutus?" Indicates betrayal by an intimate associate. From William Shakespeare, Julius Caesar , based on the traditional dying words of Julius Caesar. However, these were almost certainly not Caesar's true last words: Plutarch quotes Caesar as saying in Greek, the language of the Roman elite at the time, καὶ σὺ τέκνον (Kaì sù téknon?), translated as "You too, (my) child?", quoting from Menander.|
|et uxor (et ux.)||and wife||A legal term.|
|et vir||and husband||A legal term.|
|Etiam si omnes, ego non||Even if all others, I will never||Saint Peter to Jesus Christ, from the Vulgate, Gospel of Matthew 26:33 ; New King James Version: Matthew 26:33 ).|
|etsi deus non daretur||even if God were not a given||This sentence synthesizes a famous concept of Hugo Grotius (1625).|
|ex abundanti cautela||out of an abundance of caution||In law, describes someone taking precautions against a very remote contingency. "One might wear a belt in addition to braces ex abundanti cautela". In banking, a loan in which the collateral is more than the loan itself. Also the basis for the term "an abundance of caution" employed by United States President Barack Obama to explain why the Chief Justice of the US Supreme Court John Roberts had to re-administer the presidential oath of office, and again in reference to terrorist threats.|
|ex abundantia enim cordis os loquitur||for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.||From the Gospel of Matthew , XII.xxxiv (Vulgate), 12.34 (Douay-Rheims) and the Gospel of Luke , VI.xlv (Vulgate), 6.45 (Douay-Rheims). Sometimes rendered without enim ("for").|
|ex aequo||from the equal||Denoting "on equal footing", i. e., in a tie. Used for those two (seldom more) participants of a competition who demonstrated identical performance.|
|ex Africa semper aliquid novi||"(There is) always something new (coming) out of Africa"||Pliny the Elder, Naturalis Historia , 8, 42 (unde etiam vulgare Graeciae dictum semper aliquid novi Africam adferre ), a translation of the Greek «Ἀεὶ Λιβύη φέρει τι καινόν».|
|ex amicitia pax||peace from friendship||Often used on internal diplomatic event invitations. A motto sometimes inscribed on flags and mission plaques of diplomatic corps.|
|ex animo||from the soul||Sincerely.|
|ex ante||from before||Denoting "beforehand", "before the event", or "based on prior assumptions"; denoting a prediction.|
|Ex Astris Scientia||From the Stars, Knowledge||The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy of Star Trek . Adapted from ex luna scientia, which in turn derived from ex scientia tridens.|
|ex cathedra||from the chair||A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Catholic Supreme Pontiff (Pope) when, preserved from the possibility of error by the Holy Spirit , he solemnly declares or promulgates ("from the chair" that was the ancient symbol of the teacher and governor, in this case of the Church) a dogmatic doctrine on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation. Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority.|
|ex cultu robur||from culture [comes] strength||The motto of Cranleigh School, Surrey.|
|ex Deo||from God|
|ex dolo malo||from fraud||"From harmful deceit"; dolus malus is the Latin legal term denoting "fraud". The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio ("an action does not arise from fraud"). When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.|
|ex duris gloria||From suffering [comes] glory||Motto of Rapha Cycling club.|
|ex facie||from the face||Idiomatically rendered "on the face of it". A legal term typically used to state that a document's explicit terms are defective absent further investigation.|
|ex fide fiducia||from faith [comes] confidence||Motto of St George's College, Harare and Hartmann House Preparatory School.|
|ex fide fortis||from faith [comes] strength||Motto of Loyola School in New York City, New York, United States.|
|ex glande quercus||from the acorn the oak||Motto of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, London, England, United Kingdom.|
|ex gratia||from kindness||More literally "from grace". Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely from kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being compelled to do it. In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or obligation.|
|ex hypothesi||from the hypothesis||Denoting "by hypothesis".|
|ex ignorantia ad sapientiam; ex luce ad tenebras(e.i.)||from ignorance into wisdom; from light into darkness||Motto of Miskatonic University in Arkham, Massachusetts|
|ex infra(e.i.)||"from below"||Recent academic notation denoting "from below in this writing".|
|ex juvantibus||from that which helps||The medical pitfall in which response to a therapeutic regimen substitutes proper diagnosis.|
|ex lege||from the law|
|ex libris||from the books||Precedes a person's name, denoting "from the library of" the nominate; also a synonym for "bookplate".|
|ex luna scientia||from the moon, knowledge||The motto of the Apollo 13 lunar mission, derived from ex scientia tridens, the motto of Jim Lovell's alma mater, the United States Naval Academy.|
|ex malo bonum||good out of evil||From Saint Augustine of Hippo, "Sermon LXI", in which he contradicts the dictum of Seneca the Younger in Epistulae morales ad Lucilium , 87:22: bonum ex malo non fit ("good does not come from evil"). Also the alias of the song "Miserabile Visu" by Anberlin in the album New Surrender .|
|ex mea sententia||in my opinion|
|ex mero motu||out of mere impulse, or of one's own accord|
|ex nihilo nihil fit||nothing comes from nothing||From Lucretius, and said earlier by Empedocles. Its original meaning is "work is required to succeed", but its modern meaning is a more general "everything has its origins in something" . It is commonly applied to the conservation laws in philosophy and modern science. Ex nihilo is often used in conjunction with "creation", as in creatio ex nihilo, denoting "creation out of nothing". It is often used in philosophy and theology in connection with the proposition that God created the universe from nothing. It is also mentioned in the final ad-lib of the Monty Python song Always Look on the Bright Side of Life .|
|ex novo||anew||Denotes something that has been newly made or made from scratch.|
|Ex Oblivione||from oblivion||The title of a short story by H. P. Lovecraft.|
|ex officio||from the office||By virtue or right of office. Often used when someone holds one office by virtue of holding another: for example, the President of France is an ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. A common misconception is that all ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote; but in some cases they do. In law ex officio can also refer to an administrative or judicial office taking action of its own accord, in the case of the latter the more common term is ex proprio motu or ex meru motu, for example to invalidate a patent or prosecute infringers of copyright.|
|ex opere operantis||from the work of the one working||A theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato, referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it.|
|ex opere operato||from the work worked||A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the minister or the recipient of the sacrament.|
|ex oriente lux||light from the east||Originally refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. Motto of several institutions.|
|ex parte||from a part||A legal term that means "by one party" or "for one party". Thus, on behalf of one side or party only.|
|ex pede Herculem||from his foot, so Hercules||From the measure of Hercules' foot you shall know his size; from a part, the whole.|
|ex post||from after||"Afterward", "after the event". Based on knowledge of the past. Measure of past performance.|
|ex post facto||from a thing done afterward||Said of a law with retroactive effect.|
|ex professo||from one declaring [an art or science]||Or 'with due competence'. Said of the person who perfectly knows his art or science. Also used to mean "expressly".|
|ex rel. or ex relatio||[arising] out of the relation/narration [of the relator]||The term is a legal phrase; the legal citation guide called the Bluebook describes ex rel. as a "procedural phrase" and requires using it to abbreviate "on the relation of," "for the use of," "on behalf of," and similar expressions. An example of use is in court case titles such as Universal Health Services, Inc. v. United States ex rel. Escobar|
|ex scientia tridens||from knowledge, sea power.||The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable to that of the trident-bearing Greek god Poseidon.|
|ex scientia vera||from knowledge, truth||The motto of the College of Graduate Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.|
|ex silentio||from silence||In general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition. An argumentum ex silentio ("argument from silence") is an argument based on the assumption that someone's silence on a matter suggests ("proves" when a logical fallacy) that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly.|
|ex situ||out of position||opposite of "in situ"|
|ex supra(e.s.)||"from above"||Recent academic notation for "from above in this writing".|
|ex tempore||from [this moment of] time||"This instant", "right away" or "immediately". Also written extempore.|
|Ex turpi causa non oritur actio||From a dishonorable cause an action does not arise||A legal doctrine which states that a claimant will be unable to pursue a cause of action, if it arises in connection with his own illegal act. Particularly relevant in the law of contract, tort and trusts.|
|ex umbra in solem||from the shadow into the light||Motto of Federico Santa María Technical University.|
|ex undis||from the waves [of the sea]||motto in the coat of arms of Eemsmond|
|Ex Unitate Vires||union is strength, or unity is strength||motto of South Africa.|
|ex vi termini||from the force of the term||Thus, "by definition".|
|ex vita discedo, tanquam ex hospitio, non tanquam ex domo||I depart from life as from an inn, not as from home||Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute (On Old Age) 23|
|ex vivo||out of or from life||Used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism.|
|ex voto||from the vow||Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow.|
|ex vulgus scientia||from crowd, knowledge||used to describe social computing, in The Wisdom of Crowds and discourse referring to it.|
|excelsior||higher||"Ever upward!" The state motto of New York. Also a catchphrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee.|
|exceptio firmat (or probat) regulam in casibus non exceptis||The exception confirms the rule in cases which are not excepted||A juridical principle which means that the statement of a rule's exception (e.g., "no parking on Sundays") implicitly confirms the rule (i.e., that parking is allowed Monday through Saturday). Often mistranslated as "the exception that proves the rule".|
|excusatio non petita accusatio manifesta||an excuse that has not been sought [is] an obvious accusation||More loosely, "he who excuses himself, accuses himself"—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse.|
|exeat||s/he may go out||A formal leave of absence.|
|exegi monumentum aere perennius||I have reared a monument more enduring than bronze||Horace, Carmina III:XXX:I|
|exempli gratia (e.g.)||for the sake of example, for example||Exempli gratiā , 'for example', is usually abbreviated "e.g." (less commonly, ex. gr.). The abbreviation "e.g." often is interpreted anglicised as 'example given'. It is not usually followed by a comma in British English, but it is in American usage. E.g. is often confused with i.e. ( id est , meaning 'that is' or 'in other words'). Some writing styles give such abbreviations without punctuation, as ie and eg.|
|exercitus sine duce corpus est sine spiritu||an army without a leader is a body without a spirit||On a plaque at the former military staff building of the Swedish Armed Forces.|
|exeunt||they leave||Third-person plural present active indicative of the Latin verb exire; also seen in exeunt omnes, "all leave"; singular: exit.|
|experientia docet||experience teaches||This term has been used in dermatopathology to express that there is no substitute for experience in dealing with all the numerous variations that may occur with skin conditions. The term has also been used in gastroenterology. It is also the motto of San Francisco State University.|
|experimentum crucis||experiment of the cross||Or "crucial experiment". A decisive test of a scientific theory.|
|experto crede||trust the expert||Literally "believe one who has had experience". An author's aside to the reader.|
|expressio unius est exclusio alterius||the expression of the one is the exclusion of the other||"Mentioning one thing may exclude another thing". A principle of legal statutory interpretation: the explicit presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others; e.g., a reference in the Poor Relief Act 1601 to "lands, houses, tithes and coal mines" was held to exclude mines other than coal mines. Sometimes expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum (broadly, "the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else").|
|extra domum||[placed] outside of the house||Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part of a group like a monastery.|
|extra Ecclesiam nulla salus||outside the Church [there is] no salvation||This expression comes from the Epistle to Jubaianus, paragraph 21, written by Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century. It is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation.|
|extra omnes||outside, all [of you]||It is issued by the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations before a session of the Papal conclave which will elect a new Pope. When spoken, all those who are not Cardinals, or those otherwise mandated to be present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel.|
|extra territorium jus dicenti impune non paretur||he who administers justice outside of his territory is disobeyed with impunity||Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction. Often cited in law of the sea cases on the high seas.|
|extrema ratio||"extreme solution", "last possibility", "last possible course of action"|
There is no consistent British style. For example, The Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors has "e.g." and "i.e." with points (periods); Fowler's Modern English Usage takes the same approach, and its newest edition is especially emphatic about the points being retained. The Oxford Guide to Style (also republished in Oxford Style Manual and separately as New Hart's Rules) also has "e.g." and "i.e."; the examples it provides are of the short and simple variety that often see the comma dropped in American usage as well. None of those works prescribe specifically for or against a comma following these abbreviations, leaving it to writers' own judgment.
Some specific publishers, primarily in news journalism, drop one or both forms of punctuation as a matter of house style. They seem more frequently to be British than American (perhaps owing to the AP Stylebook being treated as a de facto standard across most American newspapers, without a UK counterpart). For example, The Guardian uses "eg" and "ie" with no punctuation, while The Economist uses "eg," and "ie," with commas and without points, as does The Times of London. A 2014 revision to New Hart's Rules states that it is now "Oxford style" to not use a comma after e.g. and i.e. (which retain the points), "to avoid double punctuation". This is a rationale it does not apply to anything else, and Oxford University Press has not consistently imposed this style on its publications that post-date 2014, including Garner's Modern English Usage.
News style, journalistic style, or news-writing style is the prose style used for news reporting in media such as newspapers, radio and television.
A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although that term may have other meanings. These standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field.
The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is an English grammar style and usage guide created by American journalists working for or connected with the Associated Press over the last century to standardize mass communications. Although it is sold as a guide for reporters, it has become the leading reference for most forms of public-facing corporate communication over the last half-century. The Stylebook offers a basic reference to grammar, punctuation and principles of reporting, including many definitions and rules for usage as well as styles for capitalization, abbreviation, spelling and numerals.
By way of US comparison, The New York Times uses "e.g." and "i.e.", without a rule about a following comma – like Oxford usage in actual practice. The Chicago Manual of Style prefers "e.g.," and "i.e.,". However, it says of this entire class of expressions, including long phrases like "in other words" and "for example", that they are "traditionally" or "usually" followed by a comma, not that they must be, nor does it draw any dialectal distinctions on the matter (despite usually making American versus British assertions throughout). The AP Stylebook preserves both types of punctuation for these abbreviations.
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won 127 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper. The Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U.S.
"British" and "American" are not accurate as stand-ins for Commonwealth and North American English more broadly; actual practice varies even among national publishers. The Australian government's Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers preserves the points in the abbreviations, but eschews the comma after them (it similarly drops the title's serial comma before "and", which most UK and many US publishers would retain). Editing Canadian English by the Editors' Association of Canada uses the periods and the comma; so does A Canadian Writer's Reference. The government publication The Canadian Style uses the periods but not the comma.
North American English is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada. Because of their related histories and cultures and the similarities between the pronunciation, vocabulary, and accent of American English and Canadian English, the two spoken dialects are often grouped together under a single category. Due to historical and cultural factors, Canadian English and American English retain numerous distinctions from each other, with the differences being most noticeable in the two languages' written forms. Canadian spellings are primarily based on British usage as a result of Canada's longer-standing connections with the United Kingdom. Canadians are generally tolerant of both British and American spellings, with British spellings being favored in more formal settings and in Canadian print media. Spellings in American English have been highly influenced by lexicographers like Noah Webster, who sought to create a standardized form of English that was independent of British English. Despite these differences, the dialects of both Canada and the United States are similar. The United Empire Loyalists who fled the American Revolution (1765–1783) have had a large influence on Canadian English from its early roots.
In English language punctuation, a serial comma or series comma is a comma placed immediately before the coordinating conjunction in a series of three or more terms. For example, a list of three countries might be punctuated either as "France, Italy, and Spain", or as "France, Italy and Spain".
The Editors' Association of Canada, or Association canadienne des réviseurs in French, promotes professional editing as key in producing effective communication. The association has about 1500 members, representing both salaried and freelance editors, who work with individuals and organizations in the corporate, technical, government, not-for-profit, and publishing sectors.
Style guides are generally in agreement that both abbreviations are preceded by a comma or used inside a parenthetical construction, and are best confined to the latter and to footnotes and tables, rather than used in running prose.
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv., or abbrev.
Punctuation is the use of spacing, conventional signs and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text whether read silently or aloud. Another description is, "It is the practice action or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks."
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages. It has the same shape as an apostrophe or single closing quotation mark in many typefaces, but it differs from them in being placed on the baseline of the text. Some typefaces render it as a small line, slightly curved or straight but inclined from the vertical, or with the appearance of a small, filled-in figure 9.
The apostrophe character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets. In English it is used for several purposes:
In English writing, quotation marks or inverted commas, also known informally as quotes, talking marks, speech marks, quote marks, quotemarks or speechmarks, are punctuation marks placed on either side of a word or phrase in order to identify it as a quotation, direct speech or a literal title or name. They are also used to indicate that the meaning of the word or phrase they surround should be taken to be different from that typically associated with it ; in this way, they are often used to express irony. They also sometimes appear to be used as a means of adding emphasis, although this usage is usually considered incorrect.
In English grammar, a comma splice or comma fault is the use of a comma to join two independent clauses. For example:
It is nearly half past five, we cannot reach town before dark.
A language-for-specific-purposes dictionary is a reference work which defines the specialised vocabulary used by experts within a particular field, for example, architecture. The discipline that deals with these dictionaries is specialised lexicography. Medical dictionaries are well-known examples of the type.
The Latin adverb sic inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous, archaic, or otherwise nonstandard spelling. It also applies to any surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might be likely interpreted as an error of transcription.
Garner's Modern English Usage (GMEU), written by Bryan A. Garner and published by Oxford University Press, is a usage dictionary and style guide for contemporary Modern English. It was first published in 1998 as A Dictionary of Modern American Usage, with a focus on American English, which it retained for the next two editions as Garner's Modern American Usage (GMAU). It was expanded to cover English more broadly in the 2016 fourth edition, under the present title. The work covers issues of usage, pronunciation, and style, from distinctions among commonly confused words and phrases and notes on how to prevent verbosity and obscurity. In addition, it contains essays about the English language. An abridged version of the first edition was also published as The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style in 2000.
The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to U+002D-HYPHEN-MINUS and U+2212−MINUS SIGN, but differs from these symbols in both length and height. The most common versions of the dash are the en dash (–), equal to half the height of the font; the em dash (—), twice as long as the en dash; and the horizontal bar (―), whose length varies across typefaces.
A false, coined, fake, bogus or pseudo-title, also called a Time-style adjective and an anarthrous nominal premodifier, is a kind of appositive phrase before a noun. It is said to formally resemble a title, in that it does not start with an article, but is a common noun phrase, not a title. An example is the phrase convicted bomber in "convicted bomber Timothy McVeigh".
The full point, full stop or period is a punctuation mark. It is used for several purposes, the most frequent of which is to mark the end of a declaratory sentence ; this sentence-terminal use is properly, or the precise meaning of, full stop.
Punctuation in the English language helps the reader to understand a sentence through visual means other than just the letters of the alphabet. English punctuation has always had two complementary aspects: on the one hand, phonological punctuation linked to how the sentence can be read aloud, particularly to pausing; and on the other hand, grammatical punctuation linked to the structure of the sentence. In popular discussion of language, incorrect punctuation is often seen as an indication of lack of education and of a decline of standards.
The word data has generated considerable controversy on whether it is an uncountable noun used with verbs conjugated in the singular, or should be treated as the plural of the now-rarely-used datum.
Both should always be printed lower case roman with two points and no spaces."
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