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Old Main, University of Arkansas
Old Main in 2007, with the recently added south tower clock face
|Architect||John Mills Van Osdel|
|Architectural style||Second Empire|
|NRHP reference #||70000131|
|Added to NRHP||June 15, 1970|
Old Main is the oldest building on the University of Arkansas campus in Fayetteville, Arkansas.It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the University (especially to alumni and residents of the state of Arkansas), and of higher education in general in Arkansas.
The University of Arkansas is a public land-grant, research university in Fayetteville, Arkansas. It is the flagship campus of the University of Arkansas System and the largest, best-known university in the state. Founded as Arkansas Industrial University in 1871, its present name was adopted in 1899 and classes were first held on January 22, 1872. It is noted for its strong architecture, agriculture, business, communication disorders, creative writing, history, law, and Middle Eastern studies programs.
Fayetteville is the third-largest city in Arkansas and county seat of Washington County. The city is centrally located within the county and has been home of the University of Arkansas since the institution's founding in 1871. Fayetteville is on the outskirts of the Boston Mountains, deep within the Ozarks. Known as Washington until 1829, the city was named after Fayetteville, Tennessee, from which many of the settlers had come. It was incorporated on November 3, 1836 and was rechartered in 1867. The four-county Northwest Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area is ranked 105th in terms of population in the United States with 463,204 in 2010 according to the United States Census Bureau. The city had a population of 73,580 at the 2010 Census.
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians. The state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U.S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta.
Old Main was constructed between 1873 and 1875 as part of a land grant for the state of Arkansas.At this time it was known as University Hall. It was designed by Chicago architect John Mills Van Osdel, and construction was carried out by William Mayes of the firm of Mayes and Oliver. G. N. Wright was one of the contractors. In 1873, the University of Arkansas purchased Van Osdel's plans for the University Hall at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (demolished in 1938) and erected an identical structure.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450 (2017), it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, often referred to as Chicagoland, and the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States. The metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, and the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area.
The contract to construct the Hall was signed by the superintendent of public instruction, Joseph Carter Corbin,who was the highest elected African American official in Arkansas during Reconstruction.
Most of the building materials used in Old Main came from local areas,because the nearest river port was 60 miles away and the nearest railroad was 150 miles away. 136 miles of lumber came by oxen-drawn wagons from the Peter Van Winkle Sawmill near historic War Eagle Mill in Benton County. The red exterior bricks were made from clay dug on campus and fired in kilns built west of Old Main. The brown sandstone used for the foundation and basement was also quarried from near the building site. The five-story building contained 2,600,000 bricks when originally constructed.
War Eagle Mill is a working gristmill in Benton County, Arkansas. A mill has been located on the site as early as 1832, but was destroyed three times, and last rebuilt in 1973. The mill currently operates as an undershot gristmill, and houses a store and restaurant. The mill is located approximately 10 miles east of the city of Rogers in War Eagle, Arkansas.
Benton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 221,339, making it the second-most populous county in Arkansas. The county seat is Bentonville. The county was formed on September 30, 1836 and was named after Thomas Hart Benton, a U.S. Senator from Missouri. In 2012, Benton County voters elected to make the county wet, or a non-alcohol prohibition location.
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types, materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks.
After nearly a hundred years of use, Old Main had really begun to show its age, and in 1981 the building was closed for safety reasons.After a considerable period of debate over whether to restore the old building or tear it down, restoration work began in the summer of 1989 and Old Main was renovated extensively. The renovation proceeded ahead of schedule, and it was finished during the spring semester of 1991 at a cost of $10 million. It was rededicated during the Fall of 1991.
Prior to the extensive restoration of 1986–1991, the building was fondly remembered for its large, open, and decorative central stairwell.[ citation needed ] However, this stairwell effectively formed a chimney which violated any number of building codes to which the renovated building would have to conform. To preserve the stairwell's appearance and function while still conforming to modern safety standards, an innovative automated fire protection system was installed which would slide out and close protective fire doors from concealed storage areas on each floor, effectively sealing the stairwell off.[ citation needed ]
In the original building, stairwells were also sited at either end of the central "shotgun" hallway. These were closed off during the 1986–1991 restoration. Additional stairwells were sited at the ends of the wings, again to conform to building codes.
The original 19th century Corinthian iron columns, featured prominently in almost all photographs of Old Main's wings, remain in place to this day. To conform to building codes, all but one floor's worth have been reinforced with welded steel and encased in fireproof boxes.[ citation needed ]
The original columns in Giffels Auditorium were preserved in the renovation process. In order to preserve these columns while still conforming to building codes, they needed to be rendered non-structural. The north wing of the building was therefore completely reconstructed such that loads are carried by the walls instead of the columns. The distinctive "inset" look of the windows of the modern Giffels auditorium are a result of this restructuring and reinforcement.[ citation needed ]
In 2005 the building underwent another round of renovations. At that time, it received a new roof, aging mortar was replaced, and a clock facewas installed in the south tower.
During its history, Old Main has housed many different departments and served many different administrative functions. It currently houses the offices of the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, its honors program and five academic departments, as well as classrooms and meeting spaces.
The north tower stands 130 feet tall and the south tower stands 123 feet tall. The front doors of the building still retain their original hinges.[ citation needed ] The cornerstone of the building lists its original cost in 1871 dollars, $186,000.[ citation needed ] The sweeping stairwell leading to the attic of the building found at the center of the top floor is original to the structure.[ citation needed ] The walls of the rooms in the central "shotgun" hallway are structural and largely conform to the plan of the original building.[ citation needed ] The cast-iron sides of the seats in the Giffels auditorium are supposedly cast from original molds.[ citation needed ]
The arboretum (the large lawn area in front of Old Main) is a home to one of every type of tree in Arkansas (with a few exceptions, such as the umbrella magnolia, Magnolia tripetala) and once used to be a training ground for military officers when military tactics were taught at the University. It also served as a place where the band would march and play. Today, the band practices in Baum East (a parking lot on campus), and the arboretum is simply a green space where students can study, play games, or simply stroll through and enjoy.
In 2002, a statue of former student, law faculty member, president of the University, congressman,senator, and namesake of the college housed in Old Main, J. William Fulbright, was erected in the rear courtyard of the building. President Bill Clinton gave a much-anticipated speech at the dedication ceremony.
In 1879, the first official bell for Old Main was installed. That bell still exists today, but is no longer in regular use. The last two times it was used was when it rang 10 times in 1985 to mark the $10 million received through donations for the restoration process and in July 1989 to mark the beginning of renovation.[ citation needed ] Electronic bells were installed during 1949, and dedicated to those students lost in any war.[ citation needed ] These bells wore out and were replaced with a computerized bell device.[ citation needed ] It plays the Westminster Chimes every hour from 8 am- 8 pm, a musical selection after noon and the alma mater after five o'clock.[ citation needed ]
Senior Walk is a tradition unique to the University of Arkansas. Senior Walk was established in 1905 by president John Tillman. Each year, all graduates have their name carved into the sidewalk that circles, and cuts through campus. The walk begins directly in front of Old Main with the first graduating class, of 1876.
Even though when Old Main was built, the southern tower was meant to hold a clock, one was not put in when the building was constructed. Although there was no clock face, the building did have a bell [ citation needed ] When President Bill Clinton gave a much-anticipated speech at the J. William Fulbright statue dedication ceremony, Clinton asked Chancellor John White, "Where is the clock?" [ citation needed ] Three years later, Old Main received a clock face.in the opposite tower that rang every hour and half-hour and could be heard all over campus, as well as most of downtown Fayetteville and surrounding areas.
On October 27, 2005, after more than 130 years without a functioning clock face, a specially constructed clock was completed and dedicatedon the South Tower. This was in celebration of reaching a "Campaign for Twenty-First Century" campaign goal of $1 billion and also included the replacement of aging mortar between bricks, replacing the roof, and other minor aesthetic improvements to the building.
The Jussieu Campus is a higher education campus located in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. It is the main campus of the Faculty of Science of Sorbonne University. The Paris Diderot University, was also originally located on the Jussieu campus but moved to its new independent campus in the Paris Rive Gauche neighborhood in 2006-2012. Many ties continue to exist between the two universities.
Old Main is The Pennsylvania State University's first building of major significance. First completed in 1867, the current incarnation of the building was completed in 1930. Today, Old Main serves as the administrative center of Penn State, housing the offices of the president and other officials. It is located in the Farmers' High School Historic District, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1981.
The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is part of the University of Arkansas System, a state-run university in the U.S. state of Arkansas. The main campus is located in Little Rock and consists of five colleges including one graduate school, seven institutes, a statewide network of community educational centers, and the UAMS Medical Center.
The Main Building is a structure at the center of the University of Texas at Austin campus in Downtown Austin, Texas, United States. The Main Building's 307-foot (94 m) tower has 27 floors and is one of the most recognizable symbols of the university and the city.
The Attenborough Building is the tallest building on the campus of the University of Leicester, and houses arts and humanities departments.
The William Oxley Thompson Memorial Library is the main library at Ohio State University's Columbus campus. It is the university's largest library and houses its main stacks, special collections, rare books and manuscripts, university archives, and many departmental subject libraries. The library was originally built in 1912, and was renovated in 1951, 1977, and 2009. It is named in honor of the university's fifth president, William Oxley Thompson.
The Main Campus is the primary campus of North Carolina State University, located in Raleigh, North Carolina, US, inside the Beltline. Notable features of Main Campus include the Bell Tower and D. H. Hill Library. The campus is known for its distinctive red brick buildings, sidewalks, plazas, and sculptures; some are dotted with decorative brick mosaics. University Plaza is nicknamed "The Brickyard" because it is mostly a flat, open, bricked area.
William J. Samford Hall is a structure on the campus of Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama. It is an icon of Auburn University and houses the school's administration. The building is named for William J. Samford, the Governor of Alabama from 1900 to 1901.
University Hall is the oldest original building on the Northwestern University campus in Evanston, Illinois, and the second building to have been constructed after Old College, which stood on campus until the 1970s. The building has served a wide range of different roles since its construction, and currently houses the university's English department.
Richard L. "Dick" Barclay is a Certified Public Accountant in Rogers, a city in Benton County in the northwestern corner of Arkansas, United States, who was a Republican member of the Arkansas House of Representatives from December 31, 1976 to December 31, 1992. He was also the director of the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration under Republican Governor Michael Dale "Mike" Huckabee. In 1992, he lost a primary election for the United States House of Representatives to then fellow State Representative Tim Hutchinson of Bentonville, the seat of government of Benton County.
Todd Shields is a political scientist at the University of Arkansas, where he is Dean of the J. William Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences. He completed his B.A. in psychology and political science at Miami University in 1990, and received his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Kentucky in 1991 and 1994. His research interests lie broadly in American campaigns and elections, though he also researches in political psychology, political communication, and research methods. The author of many journal articles, his first book examines the likely effects of campaign finance referenda on congressional elections. He is the co-author of Money Matters: The Effects of Campaign Finance Reform on Congressional Elections and the co-editor of The Clinton Riddle: Interdisciplinary Perspectives of the 42nd President. He is Professor, Chair of the Department of Political Science, Associate Director of the Fulbright Institute, and the Director of the Diane D. Blair Center of Southern Politics and Society, for which he organized the New South Consortium, 2005 Conference, chaired by Senator David Pryor.
The Fay Jones School of Architecture and Design at the University of Arkansas offers education in these fields: architecture, landscape architecture, interior design.
The History of the University of Arkansas began with its establishment in Fayetteville, Arkansas, in 1871 under the Morrill Act, as the Arkansas Industrial College. Over the period of its nearly 140-year history, the school has grown from two small buildings on a hilltop to a university with diverse colleges and prominent graduate programs. Its presidents have included Civil War general Daniel Harvey Hill, John C. Futrall, and J. William Fulbright.
The University of Arkansas Campus Historic District is a historic district that was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 23, 2009. The district covers the historic core of the University of Arkansas campus, including 25 buildings.
David Wiley Mullins was an American academic. He was the president of University of Arkansas in Fayetteville, Arkansas from 1960 to 1974, the second longest serving president.
Durfee Hall is a freshman residential dormitory on the Old Campus of Yale University. Built in 1871, it is the second oldest residential building at Yale, only after Farnam Hall. Currently, the building is used to house first-year students of Morse College, who stay there for the duration of their freshman year before moving into Morse College proper.
The Washington County Courthouse is the name of a current courthouse and that of a historic one in Fayetteville, Arkansas, the county seat of Washington County. The historic building, built in 1905, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. The historic courthouse is the fifth building to serve Washington County, with the prior buildings located near the Old Post Office on the Historic Square. The building is one of the prominent historic buildings that compose the Fayetteville skyline, in addition to Old Main.
The Ōkuma Auditorium, officially the Waseda University Ōkuma Memorial Hall, is a Tudor Gothic auditorium of Waseda University in Totsuka, Shinjuku, Tokyo. Designed primarily by Kōichi Satō, construction of the auditorium was planned to begin in 1923 following the death of Waseda founder Ōkuma Shigenobu. Its construction was halted by the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake but eventually began in 1926. It opened in 1927, commemorating the 45th anniversary of the founding of Waseda University. The auditorium includes a large hall with a capacity of over 1,100 seats and a basement hall of about 300 seats. The university's activities, lectures and concerts are held in the auditorium. The clock tower chimes six times a day.
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