Tie-break systems are used in chess Swiss system tournaments to break ties between players who have the same total number of points after the last round. This is needed when prizes are indivisible, such as titles, trophies, or qualification for another tournament. Otherwise players often share the tied spots, with cash prizes being divided equally among the tied players. If the players are still tied after one tie-break system is used, another system is used, and so on, until the tie is broken. Most of the methods are numerical methods based on the games that have already been played or other objective factors, while some methods require additional games to be played, etc. Strength of schedule is the idea behind the methods based on the games already played: that the player that played the harder competition to achieve the same number of points should be ranked higher.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga sometime before the 7th century. Chaturanga is also the likely ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi, janggi, and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century; the modern rules were standardized in the 19th century.
In sports, strength of schedule (SOS) refers to the difficulty or ease of a team's/person's opponent as compared to other teams/persons. This is especially important if teams in a league do not play each other the same number of times.
Harry Golombek points out deficiencies in most of the tie-break systems and recommends a playoff if there is time. If not, he recommends Sonneborn-Berger and then the player who has the most wins. For Swiss tournaments, he recommends the Buchholz system and the Cumulative system ( Golombek 1977 :322).
Harry Golombek OBE was a British chess player, chess arbiter, chess author, and wartime codebreaker. He was three times British chess champion, in 1947, 1949, and 1955 and finished second in 1948.
The Buchholz system is a ranking or scoring system in chess developed by Bruno Buchholz in 1932, for Swiss system tournaments. It was originally developed as an auxiliary scoring method, but more recently it has been used as a tie-breaking system. It was probably first used in the 1932 Bitterfeld tournament. It was designed to replace the Neustadtl score.
For Swiss chess tournaments for individuals (not teams), FIDE recommends - in an Annex to the FIDE Tournament Regulations regarding tiebreaks:
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition. It is usually referred to by its French acronym FIDE.
The Median system is also known as the Harkness System, after its inventor Kenneth Harkness. For each player, this system sums the number of points earned by the player's opponents, but discarding the highest and lowest. If there are nine or more rounds, the top two and bottom two scores are discarded. Unplayed games by the opponents count ½ point. Unplayed games by the player count zero points. This is also known as the Median-Buchholz System ( Just & Burg 2003 :199–200).
Kenneth Harkness was a chess organizer. He is the creator of the Harkness rating system.
The Modified Median system is similar to the Median system, except:
This system is the same as the Median system, except that no scores are discarded ( Just & Burg 2003 :200). Ephraim Solkoff did not invent this system. He introduced it to the United States in 1950, but it was used in England prior to that ( Harkness 1967 :138).
To calculate this, sum the running score for each round. For example, if a player has (in order) a win, loss, win, draw, and a loss; his round-by-round score will be 1, 1, 2, 2½, 2½. The sum of these numbers is 9. Additionally, one point is subtracted from the sum for each unplayed win, and ½ point is subtracted for each unplayed draw. In the previous example, if the fourth-round draw was instead a ½ point bye, then ½ point would be subtracted and the final sum would be 8½.
This system places more weight on games won in the early rounds and the least weight on games won in the final rounds. The rationale for this system is that a player who scored well early in the tournament has most likely faced tougher opponents in later rounds and should therefore be favored over a player who scored poorly in the start before subsequently scoring points against weaker opponents ( Just & Burg 2003 :200–201).
This sums the cumulative scores of the player's opponents ( Just & Burg 2003 :202).
If the tied players played each other, if one of them won then he finishes higher on tie-break ( Just & Burg 2003 :201).
The player that had the black pieces the most times finishes highest on tie-breaks ( Just & Burg 2003 :201).
The player with the most wins finishes highest on tie-breaks. This is used as the first tie-break rule for individual tournaments in ICCF.
Invented by Isaac Kashdan, this system awards four points for a win, two points for a draw, one point for a loss, and none for an unplayed game. As a result, if players with no unplayed games tie, the one with fewer draws finishes higher on the tie-break (i.e. a win and a loss is better than two draws) ( Just & Burg 2003 :201).
Add the scores of every opponent the player beats and half of the score of every opponent the player draws ( Just & Burg 2003 :201). The system was named after William Sonneborn and Johann Berger, but it was invented by Oscar Gelbfuhs ( Harkness 1967 :137). The system is the main tie-breaking system in round robin tournaments, but is also used in Swiss tournaments. It is also called the Neustadtl score.
What we call the Sonneborn-Berger system was not invented by Sonneborn or Berger, and it was not originally designed for tie-breaking. It was invented by Oscar Gelbfuhs about 1873 to be used as a weighted score in round-robin tournaments. It would be used instead of the raw score for final places. In 1886 Sonneborn criticized the system and suggested an improvement that would give a better weighted score. His suggestion was to add the square of the player's points to the amount calculated as above. In 1887 and 1888 Berger studied Gelbfuhs' system and the suggestion of Sonneborn. This improvement became known as the Sonneborn-Berger system.[ citation needed ]
When the system is used to break ties between equally scoring players, adding in the square of the player's raw score does no good, so the Sonneborn improvement is omitted. However, the system has retained the Sonneborn-Berger name ( Harkness 1967 :136–37).
This method uses the average performance rating of the player's opponents. The "performance rating" of a player is basically the rating he would receive if he had started the tournament without a rating ( Just & Burg 2003 :202).
The average rating of the player's opponents ( Just & Burg 2003 :202).
Among tied players, the player whose first loss came last gets priority. If player A's first loss was in round 4 and player B's first loss was in round 2, player A gets priority. This was a tiebreaker used by POP in 2004-2005.
If a player arrives after the first round is paired, the player loses priority. This tiebreaker is currently used by POP.
The tie is broken by one or more games played with fast time control, or Fast chess.
FIDE rules provide for a single fast decisive game. Black gets five minutes on the clock whereas White gets six minutes but must win (i.e. a draw counts as a win for Black). The player who wins the draw of lots may choose which color he wants.
As a last resort, ties are broken by a random process such as a coin flip ( Just & Burg 2003 :203).
The U.S. Chess Federation (USCF) recommends these as the first four tie-breaking methods to be used ( Just & Burg 2003 :199):
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie. Usually, in tournaments a draw is worth a half point to each player, while a win is worth one point to the victor and none to the loser.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion. In addition to his success in chess, he is also a two-time World Rapid Chess Champion and four-time World Blitz Chess Champion. Carlsen first reached the top of the FIDE world rankings in 2010, and trails only Garry Kasparov at time spent as the highest rated player in the world. His peak classical rating of 2882 is the highest in history.
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The Sonneborn–Berger score is a scoring system often used to break ties in chess tournaments. It is computed by summing the conventional score of each defeated opponent, and half the conventional score of each drawn opponent.
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