Chess Olympiad

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Chess Olympiad
Sahovska olimpiada Bled 2002 1.JPG
35th Chess Olympiad in Bled in October 2002
StatusActive
GenreSports Event
FrequencyBiennial
Location(s)Various
Inaugurated1924 (1924)
Organised by FIDE

The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams representing nations of the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, FIDE held an Online Chess Olympiad in 2020 and 2021, with a rapid time control that affected players' online ratings.

Contents

The use of the name "Chess Olympiad" for FIDE's team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games.

Birth of the Olympiad

The first Olympiad was unofficial. For the 1924 Olympics an attempt was made to include chess in the Olympic Games but this failed because of problems with distinguishing between amateur and professional players. [1] While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad also took place in Paris. FIDE was formed on Sunday, July 20, 1924, the closing day of the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad. [2]

FIDE organised the first Official Olympiad in 1927 which took place in London. [1] The Olympiads were occasionally held annually and at irregular intervals until World War II; since 1950 they have been held regularly every two years. [1]

Growth of Chess Olympiads
There were 16 participating nations in the 1st Chess Olympiad, 1927. 1st Chess Olympiad.PNG
There were 16 participating nations in the 1st Chess Olympiad, 1927.
By the 41st Olympiad, 2014, there were 172 participating nations. 41st Chess Olympiad participants.png
By the 41st Olympiad, 2014, there were 172 participating nations.
Bobby Fischer's score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad Fischer Score Card.jpg
Bobby Fischer's score card from his round 3 game against Miguel Najdorf in the 1970 Chess Olympiad

Drug testing

As a sporting federation recognized by the IOC, and particularly as a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) conventions, [3] FIDE adheres to their rules, including a requirement for doping tests, [4] [5] which they are obligated to take at the events such as the Olympiad. The tests were first introduced in 2002 under significant controversy, [6] with the widespread belief that it was impossible to dope in chess. Research carried out by the Dutch chess federation failed to find a single performance-enhancing substance for chess. [7] According to Dr Helmut Pfleger, who has been conducting experiments in the field for around twenty years, "Both mentally stimulating and mentally calming medication have too many negative side effects". [7] Players such as Artur Yusupov, [8] Jan Timman [9] and Robert Hübner [10] either refused to play for their national team or to participate in events such as the Chess Olympiad where drug tests were administered. All 802 tests administered at the 2002 Olympiad came back negative. [11] However, in the 36th Chess Olympiad in 2004, two players refused to provide urine samples and had their scores cancelled. [12] [13] Four years later, Vassily Ivanchuk was not penalized for skipping a drug test at the 38th Chess Olympiad in 2008, with a procedural error being indicated instead. [14]

In 2010, a FIDE official commented that due to the work of the FIDE Medical Commission, the tests were now considered routine. [15] In November 2015, FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced they are working with WADA to define and identify doping in chess. [16]

Competition

Each FIDE recognized chess association can enter a team into the Olympiad. [1] Each team is made of up to five players, four regular players and one reserve (prior to the tournament in Dresden 2008 there were two reserves [17] ). [1] Initially each team played all other teams but as the event grew over the years this became impossible. [1] At first team seeding took place before the competition. [1] Later certain drawbacks were recognized with seeding and in 1976 a Swiss tournament system was adopted. [1]

The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup, [1] which was offered by the English magnate Frederick Hamilton-Russell as a prize for the 1st Olympiad (London 1927). The cup is kept by the winning team until the next event, when it is consigned to the next winner. The trophy for the winning women's team is known as the Vera Menchik Cup in honor of the first Women's World Chess Champion.

Results

YearEventHostGoldSilverBronze
1924 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad
The Chess Olympiad (individual)
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg Paris, France Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 31Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 30Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland 29
1926 2nd unofficial Chess Olympiad
The Team Tournament
(part of FIDE summit)
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Budapest, Hungary Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 9Flag of Yugoslavia (1918-1943).svg  Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 8Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 5
1927 1st Chess Olympiad Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London, United Kingdom Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 40Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 38½Flag of England.svg  England 36½
1928 2nd Chess Olympiad Flag of the Netherlands.svg The Hague, Netherlands Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 44Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 39½Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 37
1930 3rd Chess Olympiad Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg Hamburg, Germany Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 48½Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 47Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg  Germany 44½
1931 4th Chess Olympiad Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Prague, Czechoslovakia Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 48Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 47Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 46½
1933 5th Chess Olympiad Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Folkestone, United Kingdom Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 39Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 37½Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 34
1935 6th Chess Olympiad Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg Warsaw, Poland Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 54Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 52½Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 52
1936 3rd unofficial Chess Olympiad
non-FIDE unofficial Chess Olympiad
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Munich, Germany Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 110½Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 108Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Germany 106½
1937 7th Chess Olympiad Flag of Sweden.svg Stockholm, Sweden Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States 54½Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg  Hungary 48½Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 47
1939 8th Chess Olympiad Flag of Argentina.svg Buenos Aires, Argentina Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Germany 36Flag of Poland (1928-1980).svg  Poland 35½Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 33½
1950 9th Chess Olympiad Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 45½Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 43½Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 40½
1952 10th Chess Olympiad Flag of Finland.svg Helsinki, Finland Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union 21Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 19½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 19
1954 11th Chess Olympiad Flag of the Netherlands.svg Amsterdam, Netherlands Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union 34Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 27Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 26½
1956 12th Chess Olympiad Flag of the Soviet Union.svg Moscow, Soviet Union Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 31Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 26½Flag of Hungary (1949-1956; 1-2 aspect ratio).svg  Hungary 26½
1958 13th Chess Olympiad Flag of Germany.svg Munich, West Germany Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 34½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 29Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 25½
1960 14th Chess Olympiad Flag of East Germany.svg Leipzig, East Germany Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 34Flag of the United States.svg  United States 29Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 27
1962 15th Chess Olympiad Flag of Bulgaria (1948-1967).svg Varna, Bulgaria Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 31½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 28Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 26
1964 16th Chess Olympiad Flag of Israel.svg Tel Aviv, Israel Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 36½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 32Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 30½
1966 17th Chess Olympiad Flag of Cuba.svg Havana, Cuba Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 39½Flag of the United States.svg  United States 34½Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 33½
1968 18th Chess Olympiad Flag of Switzerland.svg Lugano, Switzerland Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 39½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 31Flag of Bulgaria (1948-1967).svg  Bulgaria 30
1970 19th Chess Olympiad Flag of Germany.svg Siegen, West Germany Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 27½Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 26½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 26
1972 20th Chess Olympiad Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Skopje, Yugoslavia Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 42Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 40½Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 38
1974 21st Chess Olympiad Flag of France.svg Nice, France Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 46Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 37½Flag of the United States.svg  United States 36½
1976 22nd Chess Olympiad *Flag of Israel.svg Haifa, Israel Flag of the United States.svg  United States 37Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 36½Flag of England.svg  England 35½
1976 Against Chess Olympiad Flag of Libya (1972-1977).svg Tripoli, Libya Flag of El Salvador.svg  El Salvador 38½Flag of Tunisia (1959-1999).svg  Tunisia 36Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 34½
1978 23rd Chess Olympiad Flag of Argentina.svg Buenos Aires, Argentina Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 37Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 36Flag of the United States.svg  United States 35
1980 24th Chess Olympiad Flag of Malta.svg Valletta, Malta Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 39Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 39Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 35
1982 25th Chess Olympiad Flag of Switzerland.svg Lucerne, Switzerland Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 42½Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 36Flag of the United States.svg  United States 35
1984 26th Chess Olympiad Flag of Greece.svg Thessaloniki, Greece Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 41Flag of England.svg  England 37Flag of the United States.svg  United States 35
1986 27th Chess Olympiad Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg Dubai, United Arab Emirates Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 40Flag of England.svg  England 39Flag of the United States.svg  United States 38
1988 28th Chess Olympiad Flag of Greece.svg Thessaloniki, Greece Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 40½Flag of England.svg  England 34½Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 34½
1990 29th Chess Olympiad Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg Novi Sad, Yugoslavia Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 39Flag of the United States.svg  United States 35½Flag of England.svg  England 35½
1992 30th Chess Olympiad Flag of the Philippines (navy blue).svg Manila, Philippines Flag of Russia (1991-1993).svg  Russia 39Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 35Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 34½
1994 31st Chess Olympiad Flag of Russia.svg Moscow, Russia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 37½Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1998).svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 35Flag of Russia.svg  Russia "B" 34½
1996 32nd Chess Olympiad Flag of Armenia.svg Yerevan, Armenia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 38½Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 35Flag of the United States.svg  United States 34
1998 33rd Chess Olympiad Flag of Russia.svg Elista, Russia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 35½Flag of the United States.svg  United States 34½Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 32½
2000 34th Chess Olympiad Flag of Turkey.svg Istanbul, Turkey Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 38Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 37Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 35½
2002 35th Chess Olympiad Flag of Slovenia.svg Bled, Slovenia Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 38½Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 37½Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 35
2004 36th Chess Olympiad Flag of Spain.svg Calvià, Spain Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 39½Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 36½Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 36½
2006 37th Chess Olympiad Flag of Italy.svg Turin, Italy Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 36Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 34Flag of the United States.svg  United States 33
2008 38th Chess Olympiad Flag of Germany.svg Dresden, Germany Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 19Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 18Flag of the United States.svg  United States 17
2010 39th Chess Olympiad Flag of Russia.svg Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 19Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 18Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 17
2012 40th Chess Olympiad Flag of Turkey.svg Istanbul, Turkey Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 19Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 19Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 18
2014 41st Chess Olympiad Flag of Norway.svg Tromsø, Norway Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 19Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 17Flag of India.svg  India 17
2016 42nd Chess Olympiad Flag of Azerbaijan.svg Baku, Azerbaijan Flag of the United States.svg  United States 20Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 20Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 18
2018 43rd Chess Olympiad Flag of Georgia.svg Batumi, Georgia Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 18Flag of the United States.svg  United States 18Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 18
2022 44th Chess Olympiad Flag of Russia.svg Moscow, Russia
2024 45th Chess Olympiad Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest, Hungary

*In 1976, the Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union, other communist countries and Arabic countries did not compete for political reasons.
The 2022 event was originally planned to be held in Minsk, Belarus, but it was rescheduled to Moscow, which originally was host of the 2020 Olympiad, which was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. FIDE also organized an online olympiad.

Starting from 2008, the first criterion for determining ranking is match point instead of board point. Team scores 2 points for a win, 1 point for a draw and 0 points for a loss (that is, a 4-0 win or 2.5-1.5 win will get the same match point).

Total team ranking

Symbol of the 6th Chess Olympiad in Warsaw 1935 by Jerzy Steifer OdznakaOS.jpg
Symbol of the 6th Chess Olympiad in Warsaw 1935 by Jerzy Steifer

The table contains the Open teams ranked by the medals won at the Chess Olympiad (not including the unofficial events), ranked by the number of first-place medals, ties broken by second-place medals, etc.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 181019
2Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 83314
3Flag of the United States.svg  United States 67922
4Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 37212
5Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia 3036
6Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 2237
7Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 2114
8Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 16613
9Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 1247
10Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 1113
11Flag of India.svg  India 1023
12Flag of England.svg  England 0336
13Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina 0325
14Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 0213
15Flag of Israel.svg  Israel 0112
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 0112
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 0112
18Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina 0101
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 0101
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg  Uzbekistan 0101
21Flag of Germany.svg  West Germany 0022
22Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 0011
Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia 0011
Totals (23 nations)464447137

Best individual results in the open section

The best individual results in order of overall percentage are:

Rank
Player     Country     Ol.Gms.  +    =     %   Medals    Number
of medals
  1  Mikhail Tal Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 8101 65 34  281.25 – 2 – 07
  2  Anatoly Karpov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 668 43 23  280.13 – 2 – 05
  3  Tigran Petrosian Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 10129 78 50  179.86 – 0 – 06
  4  Isaac Kashdan Flag of the United States.svg  USA 579 52 22  579.72 – 1 – 25
  5  Vasily Smyslov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 9113 69 42  279.64 – 2 – 28
  6  David Bronstein Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 449 30 18  179.63 – 1 – 04
  7  Garry Kasparov Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union (4) / Flag of Russia.svg  Russia (4)882 50 29  378.73 – 1 – 26
  8  Alexander Alekhine Flag of France.svg  France 572 43 27  278.52 – 2 – 04
  9  Milan Matulović Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia 678 46 28  476.91 – 2 – 03
10  Paul Keres Flag of Estonia.svg  Estonia (3) / Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union (7)10141 85 44 1275.95 – 1 – 17
11  Efim Geller Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 776 46 23  775.63 – 3 – 06
12  James Tarjan Flag of the United States.svg  USA 551 32 13  675.52 – 1 – 03
13  Bobby Fischer Flag of the United States.svg  USA 465 40 18  775.40 – 2 – 13
14  Mikhail Botvinnik Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union 673 39 31  374.72 – 1 – 25
15  Sergey Karjakin Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine (3) / Flag of Russia.svg  Russia (5)847 24 22  174.72 – 0 – 13
16  Salo Flohr Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia 782 46 28  873.22 – 1 – 14
Fischer and Tal at the 1960 Olympiad Bundesarchiv Bild 183-76052-0335, Schacholympiade, Tal (UdSSR) gegen Fischer (USA).jpg
Fischer and Tal at the 1960 Olympiad
Notes

See also

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