The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams representing nations of the world compete. FIDE organises the tournament and selects the host nation. Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, FIDE held an Online Chess Olympiad in 2020 and 2021, with a rapid time control that affected players' online ratings.
The use of the name "Chess Olympiad" for FIDE's team championship is of historical origin and implies no connection with the Olympic Games.
The first Olympiad was unofficial. For the 1924 Olympics an attempt was made to include chess in the Olympic Games but this failed because of problems with distinguishing between amateur and professional players.While the 1924 Summer Olympics was taking place in Paris, the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad also took place in Paris. FIDE was formed on Sunday, July 20, 1924, the closing day of the 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad.
FIDE organised the first Official Olympiad in 1927 which took place in London.The Olympiads were occasionally held annually and at irregular intervals until World War II; since 1950 they have been held regularly every two years.
As a sporting federation recognized by the IOC, and particularly as a signatory to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) conventions,FIDE adheres to their rules, including a requirement for doping tests, which they are obligated to take at the events such as the Olympiad. The tests were first introduced in 2002 under significant controversy, with the widespread belief that it was impossible to dope in chess. Research carried out by the Dutch chess federation failed to find a single performance-enhancing substance for chess. According to Dr Helmut Pfleger, who has been conducting experiments in the field for around twenty years, "Both mentally stimulating and mentally calming medication have too many negative side effects". Players such as Artur Yusupov, Jan Timman and Robert Hübner either refused to play for their national team or to participate in events such as the Chess Olympiad where drug tests were administered. All 802 tests administered at the 2002 Olympiad came back negative. However, in the 36th Chess Olympiad in 2004, two players refused to provide urine samples and had their scores cancelled. Four years later, Vassily Ivanchuk was not penalized for skipping a drug test at the 38th Chess Olympiad in 2008, with a procedural error being indicated instead.
In 2010, a FIDE official commented that due to the work of the FIDE Medical Commission, the tests were now considered routine.In November 2015, FIDE president Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced they are working with WADA to define and identify doping in chess.
Each FIDE recognized chess association can enter a team into the Olympiad.Each team is made of up to five players, four regular players and one reserve (prior to the tournament in Dresden 2008 there were two reserves ). Initially each team played all other teams but as the event grew over the years this became impossible. At first team seeding took place before the competition. Later certain drawbacks were recognized with seeding and in 1976 a Swiss tournament system was adopted.
The trophy for the winning team in the open section is the Hamilton-Russell Cup,which was offered by the English magnate Frederick Hamilton-Russell as a prize for the 1st Olympiad (London 1927). The cup is kept by the winning team until the next event, when it is consigned to the next winner. The trophy for the winning women's team is known as the Vera Menchik Cup in honor of the first Women's World Chess Champion.
|1924|| 1st unofficial Chess Olympiad |
The Chess Olympiad (individual)
|Paris, France||Czechoslovakia 31||Hungary 30||Switzerland 29|
|1926|| 2nd unofficial Chess Olympiad |
The Team Tournament
(part of FIDE summit)
|Budapest, Hungary||Hungary 9||Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes 8||Romania 5|
|1927||1st Chess Olympiad||London, United Kingdom||Hungary 40||Denmark 38½||England 36½|
|1928||2nd Chess Olympiad||The Hague, Netherlands||Hungary 44||United States 39½||Poland 37|
|1930||3rd Chess Olympiad||Hamburg, Germany||Poland 48½||Hungary 47||Germany 44½|
|1931||4th Chess Olympiad||Prague, Czechoslovakia||United States 48||Poland 47||Czechoslovakia 46½|
|1933||5th Chess Olympiad||Folkestone, United Kingdom||United States 39||Czechoslovakia 37½||Sweden 34|
|1935||6th Chess Olympiad||Warsaw, Poland||United States 54||Sweden 52½||Poland 52|
|1936|| 3rd unofficial Chess Olympiad |
non-FIDE unofficial Chess Olympiad
|Munich, Germany||Hungary 110½||Poland 108||Germany 106½|
|1937||7th Chess Olympiad||Stockholm, Sweden||United States 54½||Hungary 48½||Poland 47|
|1939||8th Chess Olympiad||Buenos Aires, Argentina||Germany 36||Poland 35½||Estonia 33½|
|1950||9th Chess Olympiad||Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia||Yugoslavia 45½||Argentina 43½||West Germany 40½|
|1952||10th Chess Olympiad||Helsinki, Finland||Soviet Union 21||Argentina 19½||Yugoslavia 19|
|1954||11th Chess Olympiad||Amsterdam, Netherlands||Soviet Union 34||Argentina 27||Yugoslavia 26½|
|1956||12th Chess Olympiad||Moscow, Soviet Union||Soviet Union 31||Yugoslavia 26½||Hungary 26½|
|1958||13th Chess Olympiad||Munich, West Germany||Soviet Union 34½||Yugoslavia 29||Argentina 25½|
|1960||14th Chess Olympiad||Leipzig, East Germany||Soviet Union 34||United States 29||Yugoslavia 27|
|1962||15th Chess Olympiad||Varna, Bulgaria||Soviet Union 31½||Yugoslavia 28||Argentina 26|
|1964||16th Chess Olympiad||Tel Aviv, Israel||Soviet Union 36½||Yugoslavia 32||West Germany 30½|
|1966||17th Chess Olympiad||Havana, Cuba||Soviet Union 39½||United States 34½||Hungary 33½|
|1968||18th Chess Olympiad||Lugano, Switzerland||Soviet Union 39½||Yugoslavia 31||Bulgaria 30|
|1970||19th Chess Olympiad||Siegen, West Germany||Soviet Union 27½||Hungary 26½||Yugoslavia 26|
|1972||20th Chess Olympiad||Skopje, Yugoslavia||Soviet Union 42||Hungary 40½||Yugoslavia 38|
|1974||21st Chess Olympiad||Nice, France||Soviet Union 46||Yugoslavia 37½||United States 36½|
|1976||22nd Chess Olympiad *||Haifa, Israel||United States 37||Netherlands 36½||England 35½|
|1976||Against Chess Olympiad||Tripoli, Libya||El Salvador 38½||Tunisia 36||Pakistan 34½|
|1978||23rd Chess Olympiad||Buenos Aires, Argentina||Hungary 37||Soviet Union 36||United States 35|
|1980||24th Chess Olympiad||Valletta, Malta||Soviet Union 39||Hungary 39||Yugoslavia 35|
|1982||25th Chess Olympiad||Lucerne, Switzerland||Soviet Union 42½||Czechoslovakia 36||United States 35|
|1984||26th Chess Olympiad||Thessaloniki, Greece||Soviet Union 41||England 37||United States 35|
|1986||27th Chess Olympiad||Dubai, United Arab Emirates||Soviet Union 40||England 39||United States 38|
|1988||28th Chess Olympiad||Thessaloniki, Greece||Soviet Union 40½||England 34½||Netherlands 34½|
|1990||29th Chess Olympiad||Novi Sad, Yugoslavia||Soviet Union 39||United States 35½||England 35½|
|1992||30th Chess Olympiad||Manila, Philippines||Russia 39||Uzbekistan 35||Armenia 34½|
|1994||31st Chess Olympiad||Moscow, Russia||Russia 37½||Bosnia and Herzegovina 35||Russia "B" 34½|
|1996||32nd Chess Olympiad||Yerevan, Armenia||Russia 38½||Ukraine 35||United States 34|
|1998||33rd Chess Olympiad||Elista, Russia||Russia 35½||United States 34½||Ukraine 32½|
|2000||34th Chess Olympiad||Istanbul, Turkey||Russia 38||Germany 37||Ukraine 35½|
|2002||35th Chess Olympiad||Bled, Slovenia||Russia 38½||Hungary 37½||Armenia 35|
|2004||36th Chess Olympiad||Calvià, Spain||Ukraine 39½||Russia 36½||Armenia 36½|
|2006||37th Chess Olympiad||Turin, Italy||Armenia 36||China 34||United States 33|
|2008||38th Chess Olympiad||Dresden, Germany||Armenia 19||Israel 18||United States 17|
|2010||39th Chess Olympiad||Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia||Ukraine 19||Russia 18||Israel 17|
|2012||40th Chess Olympiad||Istanbul, Turkey||Armenia 19||Russia 19||Ukraine 18|
|2014||41st Chess Olympiad||Tromsø, Norway||China 19||Hungary 17||India 17|
|2016||42nd Chess Olympiad||Baku, Azerbaijan||United States 20||Ukraine 20||Russia 18|
|2018||43rd Chess Olympiad||Batumi, Georgia||China 18||United States 18||Russia 18|
|2022||44th Chess Olympiad †||Moscow, Russia|
|2024||45th Chess Olympiad||Budapest, Hungary|
*In 1976, the Soviet Union, other communist countries and Arabic countries did not compete for political reasons.
†The 2022 event was originally planned to be held in Minsk, Belarus, but it was rescheduled to Moscow, which originally was host of the 2020 Olympiad, which was canceled due to the COVID-19 pandemic. FIDE also organized an online olympiad.
Starting from 2008, the first criterion for determining ranking is match point instead of board point. Team scores 2 points for a win, 1 point for a draw and 0 points for a loss (that is, a 4-0 win or 2.5-1.5 win will get the same match point).
The table contains the Open teams ranked by the medals won at the Chess Olympiad (not including the unofficial events), ranked by the number of first-place medals, ties broken by second-place medals, etc.
|18||Bosnia and Herzegovina||0||1||0||1|
|Totals (23 nations)||46||44||47||137|
The best individual results in order of overall percentage are:
|1||Mikhail Tal||Soviet Union||8||101||65||34||2||81.2||5 – 2 – 0||7|
|2||Anatoly Karpov||Soviet Union||6||68||43||23||2||80.1||3 – 2 – 0||5|
|3||Tigran Petrosian||Soviet Union||10||129||78||50||1||79.8||6 – 0 – 0||6|
|4||Isaac Kashdan||USA||5||79||52||22||5||79.7||2 – 1 – 2||5|
|5||Vasily Smyslov||Soviet Union||9||113||69||42||2||79.6||4 – 2 – 2||8|
|6||David Bronstein||Soviet Union||4||49||30||18||1||79.6||3 – 1 – 0||4|
|7||Garry Kasparov||Soviet Union (4) / Russia (4)||8||82||50||29||3||78.7||3 – 1 – 2||6|
|8||Alexander Alekhine||France||5||72||43||27||2||78.5||2 – 2 – 0||4|
|9||Milan Matulović||Yugoslavia||6||78||46||28||4||76.9||1 – 2 – 0||3|
|10||Paul Keres||Estonia (3) / Soviet Union (7)||10||141||85||44||12||75.9||5 – 1 – 1||7|
|11||Efim Geller||Soviet Union||7||76||46||23||7||75.6||3 – 3 – 0||6|
|12||James Tarjan||USA||5||51||32||13||6||75.5||2 – 1 – 0||3|
|13||Bobby Fischer||USA||4||65||40||18||7||75.4||0 – 2 – 1||3|
|14||Mikhail Botvinnik||Soviet Union||6||73||39||31||3||74.7||2 – 1 – 2||5|
|15||Sergey Karjakin||Ukraine (3) / Russia (5)||8||47||24||22||1||74.7||2 – 0 – 1||3|
|16||Salo Flohr||Czechoslovakia||7||82||46||28||8||73.2||2 – 1 – 1||4|
Alexander Genrikhovich Beliavsky is a Ukrainian and Slovenian chess player. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 1975. He is also a chess coach and in 2004 was awarded the title of FIDE Senior Trainer.
Ruslan Olegovich Ponomariov is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. He was FIDE World Chess Champion from 2002 to 2004. He won the Ukrainian Chess Championship in 2011.
Vladimir Akopian is an Armenian-American chess Grandmaster.
Alexander Sergeyevich Morozevich is a Russian chess player. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 1994. Morozevich is a two-time World Championship candidate, two-time Russian champion and has represented Russia in seven Chess Olympiads, winning numerous team and board medals.
Vasyl Mykhaylovych Ivanchuk, also transliterated as Vassily Ivanchuk, is a Ukrainian chess player. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 1988. A leading player since 1988, Ivanchuk has been ranked at No. 2 on the FIDE world rankings three times.
Anna Olehivna Muzychuk is a Ukrainian chess grandmaster. From 2004 to 2014 she played for Slovenia. She is the fourth woman, after Judit Polgar, Humpy Koneru and Hou Yifan, to cross the 2600 FIDE Elo rating mark, having achieved a rating of 2606 in July 2012.
The 36th Chess Olympiad, organized by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between October 14 and October 31, 2004, in Calvià on the Spanish island of Majorca. There were 129 teams in the open event and 87 in the women's event. In total, 1204 players were registered.
Emil Sutovsky is an Israeli chess player. He was awarded the title Grandmaster by FIDE in 1996. Sutovsky is the FIDE Director General since 2018. He was the president of the Association of Chess Professionals from 2012 to 2019.
The 38th Chess Olympiad, organized by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place between 12–25 November 2008 in Dresden, Germany. There were 146 teams in the open event and 111 in the women's event. In total, 1277 players were registered.
Leinier Domínguez Pérez is a Cuban-born American chess player. He was awarded the title Grandmaster by FIDE in 2001. A five-time Cuban champion, Domínguez Pérez was world champion in blitz chess in 2008. He competed in the FIDE World Chess Championship in 2002 and 2004, and the FIDE World Cup in 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015.
Below is a list of events in chess in 1992, as well as the top ten FIDE rated chess players of that year.
Events in chess in 1990;
The 39th Chess Olympiad, organised by FIDE and comprising an open and a women's tournament, as well as several other events designed to promote the game of chess, took place from September 19 to October 4, 2010 in Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia. There were 148 teams in the open event and 115 in the women's event. In total, 1306 players were registered.
Lê Quang Liêm is a Vietnamese chess player, the top-ranked of his country. He was awarded the title of Grandmaster by FIDE in 2006. Liem is the current Asian champion and he was world champion in blitz chess in 2013.
The Russian Federation competed at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, from 27 July to 12 August 2012. This was the nation's fifth consecutive appearance at the Summer Olympics as an independent nation. The Russian Olympic Committee sent a total of 436 athletes to the Games, 208 men and 228 women, to compete in 24 sports. For the first time in its Olympic history, Russia was represented by more female than male athletes.
The 42nd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising an open and women's tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Baku, Azerbaijan, from 1 to 14 September 2016. It was the first time that the Chess Olympiad had been hosted in Azerbaijan, the birthplace of former world champion Garry Kasparov; however, Azerbaijan had previously hosted strong tournaments, including the annual Shamkir Chess super-tournament in memory of Vugar Gashimov (1986–2014) and the Chess World Cup 2015.
Shaun Press is a Papua New Guinean chess player and official. He holds the titles of FIDE Master (FM) and International Arbiter (IA).
Jan-Krzysztof Duda is a Polish chess player. A prodigy, he achieved the title of grandmaster in 2013 at the age of 15 years and 21 days. Duda won the Polish Championship in 2018 and the Chess World Cup in 2021.
The 43rd Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising open and women's tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, was held in Batumi, Georgia, from 23 September to 6 October 2018. This was the first Chess Olympiad to take place in Georgia with the Georgian Chess Federation also hosting the Chess World Cup 2017 in Tbilisi.
The 44th Chess Olympiad, organised by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) and comprising open and women's tournaments, as well as several events designed to promote the game of chess, will be held in Moscow, Russia, during the summer of 2021. Initially, the event was supposed to take place in Khanty-Mansiysk, which hosted the Chess Olympiad 2010, along with the Chess World Cup 2019 but later FIDE decided to move it to Moscow. Thus, Moscow is set to become the first city to host the Chess Olympiad for a third time, after the city previously hosted the event in 1956 and 1994. Khanty-Mansiysk will, however, host the opening ceremony and the inaugural Chess Paralympics specifically designed for people with disabilities, who were allowed to participate as members of the teams representing blind, deaf and physically disabled players in the past. The event was originally scheduled to take place from 5–17 August 2020, but it was later postponed and rescheduled as a result of the growing concerns around the COVID-19 pandemic.