|Folding trapdoor spiders|
Temporal range: Cretaceous–present
|Antrodiaetus unicolor , female|
|2 genera, 35 species|
Antrodiaetidae, also known as folding trapdoor spiders, is a small spider family related to atypical tarantulas. They are found almost exclusively in the western and midwestern United States, from California to Washington and east to the Appalachian mountains.Exceptions include Antrodiaetus roretzi and Antrodiaetus yesoensis , which are endemic to Japan and are considered relict species. It is likely that two separate vicariance events led to the evolution of these two species.
Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs able to inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all orders of organisms. Spiders are found worldwide on every continent except for Antarctica, and have become established in nearly every habitat with the exceptions of air and sea colonization. As of July 2019, at least 48,200 spider species, and 120 families have been recorded by taxonomists. However, there has been dissension within the scientific community as to how all these families should be classified, as evidenced by the over 20 different classifications that have been proposed since 1900.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento. The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, and the country's second-most populous, after New York City. California also has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs.
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.
The three species of the former genus Atypoides are now included in the genus Antrodiaetus.
As of May 2019 [update] , the World Spider Catalog accepted the following genera:
The World Spider Catalog (WSC) is an online searchable database concerned with spider taxonomy. It aims to list all accepted families, genera and species, as well as provide access to the related taxonomic literature. The WSC began as a series of individual web pages in 2000, created by Norman I. Platnick of the American Museum of Natural History. After Platnick's retirement in 2014, the Natural History Museum of Bern (Switzerland) took over the catalog, converting it to a relational database.
Aliatypus is a genus of North American folding trapdoor spiders first described by C. P. Smith in 1908. They resemble members of Ctenizidae in morphology and behavior, but this is due to convergent evolution rather than direct relation. They are most closely related to members of Antrodiaetus, which build collar doors. It is likely that the shift from using collar doors to using trapdoors is what allowed them to survive in hot, dry conditions where their closest relatives could not.
Antrodiaetus is a genus of American and Japanese folding trapdoor spiders first described by Anton Ausserer in 1871. The name is a combination of the Greek "antrodiaitos" (αντροδιαιτος), meaning "living in caves", "antron" (αντρον), meaning "cave", and "diaita (διαιτα), meaning "way of life, dwelling".
Atypoides is a genus of mygalomorph spiders in the family Antrodiaetidae. It was synonymized with the genus Antrodiaetus, but in 2019 was restored to its former independent status.
The Mygalomorphae or mygalomorphs are an infraorder of spiders. The name is derived from the Greek mygalē, meaning "shrew", plus morphē meaning form or shape. An older name for the group is Orthognatha, derived from the orientation of the fangs which point straight down and do not cross each other.
Ctenizidae is a small family of medium-sized mygalomorph spiders that construct burrows with a cork-like trapdoor made of soil, vegetation and silk. They may be called trapdoor spiders, as are similar species, such as those of the families Liphistiidae, Barychelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae and some species in Idiopidae and Nemesiidae. In 2018, the family Halonoproctidae was split off from Ctenizidae, leaving only three genera.
Atypoidea is a clade of mygalomorph spiders, one of the two main groups into which the mygalomorphs are divided. It has been treated at the rank of superfamily. It contains five families of spiders:
Myrmekiaphila is a genus of North American mygalomorph trapdoor spiders in the Euctenizidae family, and was first described by G. F. Atkinson in 1886. All described species are endemic to the southeastern United States.
Aptostichus is a genus of North American mygalomorph spiders in the Euctenizidae family, and was first described by Eugène Simon in 1891. They are found predominantly in southern California, United States.
Stasimopus mandelai is a species of ctenizid trapdoor spider from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This species occurs syntopically with S. schoenlandi and a number of other mygalomorph spiders at the Great Fish River Nature Reserve. The species was named in 2004 by zoologists Brent Hendrixson and Jason Bond "honoring Nelson Mandela, the former president of South Africa and one of the great moral leaders of our time."
Stasimopus schoenlandi is a species of ctenizid trapdoor spider from South Africa. This species occurs syntopically with S. mandelai and a number of other mygalomorph spiders at the Great Fish River Nature Reserve.
The Euctenizidae are a family of mygalomorph spiders. They are now considered to be more closely related to Idiopidae.
Entychides is a genus of mygalomorph trapdoor spiders in the Euctenizidae family, and was first described by Eugène Simon in 1888. Originally placed with the Ctenizidae, it was moved to the wafer trapdoor spiders in 1985, then to the Euctenizidae in 2012.
Neoapachella is a monotypic genus of North American mygalomorph trapdoor spiders in the Euctenizidae family containing the single species, Neoapachella rothi. It was first described by Jason Bond & B. D. Opell in 2002, and has only been found in Arizona and New Mexico. They are small to medium-sized spiders, reaching about 20.7 mm (0.81 in) in body length. It is named in honor of the Apache Indian Nation as well as arachnologist Vincent D. Roth.
Apomastus is a genus of North American mygalomorph spiders in the Euctenizidae family, and was first described by Jason Bond & B. D. Opell in 2002. As of May 2019 it contains only two species, both found in the Los Angeles Basin of southern California: A. kristenae and A. schlingeri.
Antrodiaetus microunicolor is a species of antrodiaetid mygalomorph spider. It is found in the United States of America.
Antrodiaetus pugnax is a species of folding-door spider in the family Antrodiaetidae. It is found in the USA.
Antrodiaetus unicolor is a species of folding-door spider in the family Antrodiaetidae. It is found in the United States.
Antrodiaetus montanus is a species of folding-door spider in the family Antrodiaetidae. It is found in the United States.
Antrodiaetus gertschi is a species of folding-door spider in the family Antrodiaetidae. It is found in the United States.
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