Linyphiidae

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Dwarf spiders
Temporal range: Cretaceous–present
Drapetisca alteranda.JPG
Drapetisca alteranda
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Superfamily: Araneoidea
Family: Linyphiidae
Blackwall, 1859
Subfamilies

Dubiaraneinae
Erigoninae
Leptyphantinae
Linyphiinae
Micronetinae
Mynogleninae
Stemonyphantinae [1]

Contents

Diversity
620 genera, 4706 species
Distribution.linyphiidae.1.png

Linyphiidae, spiders commonly known as sheet weavers (from the shape of their webs), or money spiders (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and in Portugal, from the superstition that if such a spider is seen running on you, it has come to spin you new clothes, meaning financial good fortune) is a family of very small spiders comprising 4706 described species in 620 genera worldwide. [2] This makes Linyphiidae the second largest family of spiders after the Salticidae. The family is poorly understood due to their small body size and wide distribution, they are actually the most 3rd venomous spider worldwide after the black widow and Brazilian wandering spider;[ citation needed ] new genera and species are still being discovered throughout the world. The newest such genus is Himalafurca from Nepal, formally described in April 2021 by Tanasevitch. [2] Since it is so difficult to identify such tiny spiders, there are regular changes in taxonomy as species are combined or divided.

Distribution

Spiders of this family occur nearly worldwide. In Norway many species have been found walking on snow at temperatures of down to -7 °C.

While these spiders are light enough to utilize ballooning for travel, [6] they are limited by the physics of an often turbulent atmosphere and microclimate. [7] For this reason ballooning spiders have little control over where they land, [8] leading to a high mortality rate for the practice and its predominant usage by spiderlings and juveniles. The travel of money spiders by ballooning likely contributes to their vast distribution and speciation.

Predators and prey

Taxonomy

The Pimoidae are the sister group to the Linyphiidae. [1]

There are six subfamilies, of which Linyphiinae (the sheetweb spiders), Erigoninae (the dwarf spiders), and Micronetinae, contain the majority of described species.

Many species have been described in monotypic genera, especially in the Erigoninae, which probably reflects the scientific techniques traditionally used in this family. [1] Common genera include Neriene , Lepthyphantes , Erigone , Eperigone, Bathyphantes , Troglohyphantes , the monotypic genus Tennesseellum and many others. These are among the most abundant spiders in the temperate regions, although many are also found in the tropics. The generally larger bodied members of the subfamily Linyphiinae are commonly found in classic "bowl and doily" webs or filmy domes. The usually tiny members of the Erigoninae are builders of tiny sheet webs. These tiny spiders (usually 3 mm or less) commonly balloon even as adults and may be very numerous in a given area on one day, only to disappear the next. Some males of the erigonines are exceptional, with their eyes set up on mounds or turrets. This reaches an extreme in some members of the large genus Walckenaeria , where several of the male's eyes are placed on a stalk taller than the carapace.

A few spiders in this family include:

Genera

As of May 2021, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera: [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Oonopidae Family of spiders

Oonopidae, also known as goblin spiders, is a family of spiders consisting of over 1,600 described species in about 113 genera worldwide, with total species diversity estimated at 2000 to 2500 species. The type genus of the family is OonopsKeyserling, 1835.

<i>Savignia</i> Genus of spiders

Savignia is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by John Blackwall in 1833. The name honors the French naturalist Marie Jules César Savigny.

<i>Walckenaeria</i> Genus of spiders

Walckenaeria is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by John Blackwall in 1833. It is a senior synonym of Paragonatium, as well as Wideria, Cornicularia, Prosopotheca, Tigellinus, and Trachynella.

<i>Erigone</i> (spider) Genus of spiders

Erigone is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Jean Victoire Audouin in 1826. They are carnivorous, preying on small insects such as psylla and flies. One of the distinctive characters for this genus is the presence of teeth bordering the carapace.

<i>Lepthyphantes</i> Genus of spiders

Lepthyphantes is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Anton Menge in 1866.

<i>Tenuiphantes</i> Genus of spiders

Tenuiphantes is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Michael I. Saaristo & A. V. Tanasevitch in 1996.

<i>Agyneta</i> Genus of spiders

Agyneta is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by J. E. Hull in 1911.

Scotinotylus is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Centromerus</i> Genus of spiders

Centromerus is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by David B. Hirst in 1886.

Erigonoplus is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

Hilaira is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

Improphantes is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Michael I. Saaristo & A. V. Tanasevitch in 1996.

<i>Pelecopsis</i> Genus of spiders

Pelecopsis is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1864.

Styloctetor is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Tapinocyba</i> Genus of spiders

Tapinocyba is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Trichoncus</i> Genus of spiders

Trichoncus is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

Collinsia is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Octavius Pickard-Cambridge in 1913.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Hormiga, G. (1998). "The spider genus Napometa (Araneae, Araneoidea, Linyphiidae)" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 26: 125–132.
  2. 1 2 3 "Family: Linyphiidae Blackwall, 1859". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  3. jordancuff (2019-05-16). "Rolling in money spiders". Biocoenosis. Retrieved 2021-10-12.
  4. Sunderland, K. D.; Fraser, A. M.; Dixon, A. F. G. (1986). "Field and Laboratory Studies on Money Spiders (Linyphiidae) as Predators of Cereal Aphids". Journal of Applied Ecology. 23 (2): 433–447. doi:10.2307/2404027. ISSN   0021-8901.
  5. Harwood, James D.; Obrycki, John J. (2005-09-01). "Web-Construction Behavior of Linyphiid Spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae): Competition and Co-Existence Within a Generalist Predator Guild". Journal of Insect Behavior. 18 (5): 593–607. doi:10.1007/s10905-005-7013-8. ISSN   1572-8889.
  6. Suter, Robert B. (1992). "Ballooning: Data from Spiders in Freefall Indicate the Importance of Posture". The Journal of Arachnology. 20 (2): 107–113. ISSN   0161-8202.
  7. Suter, Robert B. (1999). "An Aerial Lottery: The Physics of Ballooning in a Chaotic Atmosphere". The Journal of Arachnology. 27 (1): 281–293. ISSN   0161-8202.
  8. "Invasion of the ballooning money spiders". BBC News. 2021-10-18. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  9. RSPB Birds magazine, Winter 2004