Linyphiidae

Last updated

dwarf spiders
Temporal range: Cretaceous–present
Drapetisca alteranda.JPG
Drapetisca alteranda
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Araneomorphae
Superfamily: Araneoidea
Family: Linyphiidae
Blackwall, 1859
Subfamilies

Dubiaraneinae
Erigoninae
Leptyphantinae
Linyphiinae
Micronetinae
Mynogleninae
Stemonyphantinae [1]

Contents

Diversity
611 genera, 5401 species
Distribution.linyphiidae.1.png

Linyphiidae is a family of very small spiders comprising 4667 described species in 618 genera worldwide. [2] This makes Linyphiidae the second largest family of spiders after the Salticidae. The family is poorly known; new genera and species are still being discovered throughout the world. The newest such genus is Yuelushannus from China, formally described in May 2020. [2] Because of the difficulty in identifying such tiny spiders, there are regular changes in taxonomy as species are combined or divided.

Names and classification

Spiders in this family are commonly known as sheet weavers (from the shape of their webs), or money spiders (in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand, and in Portugal, from the superstition that if such a spider is seen running on you, it has come to spin you new clothes, meaning financial good fortune).

There are six subfamilies, of which Linyphiinae (the sheetweb spiders), Erigoninae (the dwarf spiders), and Micronetinae, contain the majority of described species.

Common genera include Neriene , Lepthyphantes , Erigone , Eperigone , Bathyphantes , Troglohyphantes , the monotypic genus Tennesseellum and many others. These are among the most abundant spiders in the temperate regions, although many are also found in the tropics. The generally larger bodied members of the subfamily Linyphiinae are commonly found in classic "bowl and doily" webs or filmy domes. The usually tiny members of the Erigoninae are builders of tiny sheet webs. These tiny spiders (usually 3 mm or less) commonly balloon even as adults and may be very numerous in a given area on one day, only to disappear the next. Some males of the erigonines are exceptional, with their eyes set up on mounds or turrets. This reaches an extreme in some members of the large genus Walckenaeria , where several of the male's eyes are placed on a stalk taller than the carapace.

A few spiders in this family include:

Distribution

Spiders of this family occur nearly worldwide. In Norway many species have been found walking on snow at temperatures of down to -7 °C.

Predators

Among birds, goldcrests are known to prey on money spiders. [3]

Taxonomy

The Pimoidae are the sister group to the Linyphiidae. [1] Many species have been described in monotypic genera, especially in the Erigoninae, which probably reflects the scientific techniques traditionally used in this family. [1] As of July 2020, the World Spider Catalog accepts the following genera: [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Oonopidae Family of spiders

Oonopidae, also known as goblin spiders, is a family of spiders consisting of over 1,600 described species in about 113 genera worldwide, with total species diversity estimated at 2000 to 2500 species. The type genus of the family is OonopsKeyserling, 1835.

<i>Savignia</i> Genus of spiders

Savignia is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by John Blackwall in 1833. The name honors the French naturalist Marie Jules César Savigny.

<i>Walckenaeria</i> Genus of spiders

Walckenaeria is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by John Blackwall in 1833. It is a senior synonym of Paragonatium, as well as Wideria, Cornicularia, Prosopotheca, Tigellinus, and Trachynella.

<i>Erigone</i> (spider) Genus of spiders

Erigone is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Jean Victoire Audouin in 1826. They are carnivorous, preying on small insects such as psylla and flies. One of the distinctive characters for this genus is the presence of teeth bordering the carapace.

<i>Lepthyphantes</i> Genus of spiders

Lepthyphantes is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Anton Menge in 1866.

<i>Tenuiphantes</i> Genus of spiders

Tenuiphantes is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Michael I. Saaristo & A. V. Tanasevitch in 1996.

<i>Agyneta</i> Genus of spiders

Agyneta is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by J. E. Hull in 1911.

Scotinotylus is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Centromerus</i> Genus of spiders

Centromerus is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by David B. Hirst in 1886.

Erigonoplus is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

Hilaira is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Oedothorax</i> Genus of spiders

Oedothorax is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by A. Förster & Philipp Bertkau in 1883.

Oreonetides is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Embrik Strand in 1901.

<i>Pelecopsis</i> Genus of spiders

Pelecopsis is a genus of dwarf spiders that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1864.

Styloctetor is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Tapinocyba</i> Genus of spiders

Tapinocyba is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

<i>Trichoncus</i> Genus of spiders

Trichoncus is a genus of sheet weavers that was first described by Eugène Louis Simon in 1884.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Hormiga, G. (1998). "The spider genus Napometa (Araneae, Araneoidea, Linyphiidae)" (PDF). Journal of Arachnology. 26: 125–132.
  2. 1 2 3 "Family: Linyphiidae Blackwall, 1859". World Spider Catalog. Natural History Museum Bern. Retrieved 2019-04-22.
  3. RSPB Birds magazine, Winter 2004