Cultural depictions of Napoleon

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Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur a Cheval, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture. Napoleon in 1806.PNG
Napoleon is often represented in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval, with a large bicorne and a hand-in-waistcoat gesture.
A French Empire mantel clock representing Mars and Venus, an allegory of the wedding of Napoleon I and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. By the famous bronzier Pierre-Philippe Thomire, ca. 1810. Clock Thomire Louvre OA9511.jpg
A French Empire mantel clock representing Mars and Venus, an allegory of the wedding of Napoleon I and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria. By the famous bronzier Pierre-Philippe Thomire, ca. 1810.
Celebration of the anniversary of the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte involving historical reenactment groups in uniforms from the Napoleonic period on Napoleon Hill in Szczecin (Poland), 2008 Szczecin Wzgorze Napoleona (1).jpg
Celebration of the anniversary of the birth of Napoleon Bonaparte involving historical reenactment groups in uniforms from the Napoleonic period on Napoleon Hill in Szczecin (Poland), 2008

Napoleon I , Emperor of the French, has become a worldwide cultural icon generally associated with tactical brilliance, ambition and political power. His distinctive features and costume have made him a very recognizable figure in popular culture.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Cultural icon Artifact that is recognised by members of a culture or sub-culture as representing some aspect of cultural identity

A cultural icon is an artifact that is identified by members of a culture as representative of that culture. The process of identification is subjective, and "icons" are judged by the extent to which they can be seen as an authentic proxy of that culture. When individuals perceive a cultural icon, they relate it to their general perceptions of the cultural identity represented. Cultural icons can also be identified as an authentic representation of the practices of one culture by another.

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He has been portrayed in many works of fiction, his depiction varying greatly with the author's perception of the historical character. In the 1927 film Napoleon , young general Bonaparte is portrayed as a heroic visionary. On the other hand, he has been occasionally reduced to a stock character, depicted as short and bossy, sometimes comically so.

<i>Napoléon</i> (1927 film) 1927 film by Abel Gance

Napoléon is a 1927 silent French epic film written, produced, and directed by Abel Gance that tells the story of Napoleon's early years. On screen, the title is Napoléon vu par Abel Gance, meaning "Napoleon as seen by Abel Gance". The film is recognised as a masterwork of fluid camera motion, produced in a time when most camera shots were static. Many innovative techniques were used to make the film, including fast cutting, extensive close-ups, a wide variety of hand-held camera shots, location shooting, point of view shots, multiple-camera setups, multiple exposure, superimposition, underwater camera, kaleidoscopic images, film tinting, split screen and mosaic shots, multi-screen projection, and other visual effects. A revival of Napoléon in the mid-1950s influenced the filmmakers of the French New Wave.

A stock character is a stereotypical fictional character in a work of art such as a novel, play, film, or a movie whom audiences recognize from frequent recurrences in a particular literary tradition. Stock characters are archetypal characters distinguished by their flatness. As a result, they tend to be easy targets for parody and to be criticized as clichés. The presence of a particular array of stock characters is a key component of many genres. The point of the stock character is to move the story along by allowing the audience to already understand the character.

Automotive

Books

<i>Animal Farm</i> Novel by George Orwell

Animal Farm is an allegorical novella by George Orwell, first published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the fable reflects events leading up to the Russian Revolution of 1917 and then on into the Stalinist era of the Soviet Union. Orwell, a democratic socialist, was a critic of Joseph Stalin and hostile to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude that was critically shaped by his experiences during the Spanish Civil War. The Soviet Union, he believed, had become a brutal dictatorship, built upon a cult of personality and enforced by a reign of terror. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell described Animal Farm as a satirical tale against Stalin, and in his essay "Why I Write" (1946), wrote that Animal Farm was the first book in which he tried, with full consciousness of what he was doing, "to fuse political purpose and artistic purpose into one whole".

Thomas B. Costain Canadian writer

Thomas Bertram Costain was a Canadian-American journalist who became a best-selling author of historical novels at the age of 57.

Leo Tolstoy Russian writer, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer who is regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time. He received multiple nominations for Nobel Prize in Literature every year from 1902 to 1906, and nominations for Nobel Peace Prize in 1901, 1902 and 1910, and his miss of the prize is a major Nobel prize controversy.

Computer and video games

<i>Total War</i> (series) computer strategy game series

Total War is a series of strategy games developed by The Creative Assembly for personal computers. They combine turn-based strategy and resource management with real-time tactical control of battles. The first of the series, Shogun: Total War was released in June 2000. The most recent major game released was Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia on 3 May 2018. The series has sold over 20 million copies.

<i>Napoleon: Total War</i> video game

Napoleon: Total War is a turn-based strategy and real-time tactics video game developed by The Creative Assembly and published by Sega for the Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Napoleon was released in North America on 23 February 2010, and in Europe on 26 February. The game is the sixth stand-alone installment in the Total War series. The game is set in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Players assume the role of Napoleon Bonaparte, or one of his major rivals, on a turn-based campaign map and engage in the subsequent battles in real-time. As with its predecessor, Empire: Total War, which included a special United States storyline, Napoleon features three special campaigns that follow the general's career.

<i>Assassins Creed Unity</i> historical action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal

Assassin's Creed Unity is an action-adventure video game developed by Ubisoft Montreal and published by Ubisoft. It was released in November 2014 for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One. It is the eighth major installment in the Assassin's Creed series, and the successor to 2013's Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag. It also has ties to Assassin's Creed Rogue which was released for the previous generation consoles, the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 on the same date.

Culinary

Seattle City in Washington, United States

Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U.S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, and ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U.S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States.

Cherry Fruit of some plants of the genus Prunus

A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe.

Lollipop candy on a stick

A lollipop is a type of sugar candy usually consisting of hard candy mounted on a stick and intended for sucking or licking. Different informal terms are used in different places, including lolly, sucker, sticky-pop, etc. Lollipops are available in many flavors and shapes.

Film and television

Film

<i>Austerlitz</i> (1960 film) 1960 film by Abel Gance

Austerlitz is a 1960 film directed by Abel Gance and starring Jean Marais, Rossano Brazzi, Martine Carol, Jack Palance, Claudia Cardinale, Vittorio de Sica, Orson Welles, Leslie Caron and Jean-Louis Trintignant. Pierre Mondy portrays Napoleon in this film about his victory at the Battle of Austerlitz. Leslie Caron plays the role of his mistress Élisabeth Le Michaud d'Arçon.

Pierre Mondy actor

Pierre Mondy was a French film and theatre actor and director.

<i>The Battle of Waterloo</i> (film) 1913 British film

The Battle of Waterloo is a 1913 feature film created by British and Colonial Films to dramatize the eponymous battle ahead of its centenary. Hailed as the "first British epic film", The Battle of Waterloo was much longer and more costly than contemporary films but went on to great commercial and critical success. Though the film was shown in theaters around the world, all copies were thought lost until 2002, when about 22 minutes of the hour-and-a-half production were rediscovered at the British Film Institute archives. Since then, two reels and a fragment have been compiled, representing about half the completed film.

Television

SEE ALSO: Napoléon Bonaparte (Character) on IMDb

Geography

Hotels and Hospitality

Military

Music and Songs

Ornithology

Theatre

Napoleon's height

A caricature depicting a diminutive Napoleon Evacuation of Malta.jpg
A caricature depicting a diminutive Napoleon

British propaganda of the time depicted Napoleon as of smaller than average height and the image of him as a small man persists in modern Britain. [6] Confusion has sometimes arisen because of different values for the French inch (pouce) of the time (2.7 cm) and for the Imperial inch (2.54 cm).; [7] he has been cited as being from 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in), which made him the height of the average French male at that time, [8] and up to 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) tall, which is above average for the period [note 1] [10] Some historians believe that the reason for the mistake about his size at death came from use of an obsolete French yardstick. [8] Napoleon was a champion of the metric system (introduced in France in 1799) and had no use for the old yardsticks. It is more likely that he was 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in), the height he was measured at on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime. [8]

Napoleon's nickname of le petit caporal has added to the confusion, as some non-Francophones have mistakenly interpreted petit by its literal meaning of "small". In fact, it is an affectionate term reflecting on his camaraderie with ordinary soldiers. Napoleon also surrounded himself with the soldiers of his elite guard, required to be 1.83 m (6 ft) or taller, making him look smaller in comparison.

Napoleon's name has been lent to the Napoleon complex, a colloquial term describing an alleged type of inferiority complex which is said to affect some people who are physically short. The term is used more generally to describe people who are driven by a perceived handicap to overcompensate in other aspects of their lives. [11]

The Napoleon Delusion

Napoleon Bonaparte is one of the most famous individuals in the Western world. As delusional patients sometimes believe themselves to be an important or grandiose figure (see delusion), a patient claiming to be Napoleon has been a common stereotype in popular culture for delusions of this nature.

This cliché has itself been parodied:

Notes

  1. Napoleon's height was 5 ft 2 French inches according to Antommarchi at Napoleon's autopsy and British sources put his height at 5 foot and 4 British inches: both equivalent to 1.4 m. [9] Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and had a nickname of le petit caporal which was an affectionate term that reflected his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height.

Related Research Articles

House of Bonaparte imperial and royal European dynasty

The House of Bonaparte was an imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.

Napoleon (1769–1821) also known as Napoleon Bonaparte or Napoleon I, was a French military leader and emperor.

Napoleonic era Wikimedia disambiguation page

The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory. The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by revolution and war. He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which also helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing. The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households.

Pierre Augereau general, Marshal of France

Charles Pierre François Augereau, 1st Duc de Castiglione was a soldier and general and Marshal of France. After serving in the French Revolutionary Wars he earned rapid promotion while fighting against Spain and soon found himself a division commander under Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy. He fought in all of Bonaparte's battles of 1796 with great distinction. During the Napoleonic Wars, Emperor Napoleon entrusted him with important commands. His life ended under a cloud because of his poor timing in switching sides between Napoleon and King Louis XVIII of France. Napoleon wrote of Augereau that he "has plenty of character, courage, firmness, activity; is inured to war; is well liked by the soldiery; is fortunate in his operations."

Louis-Alexandre Berthier Marshal and Vice-Constable of France

Louis-Alexandre Berthier, 1st Prince of Wagram, Sovereign Prince of Neuchâtel, was a French Marshal and Vice-Constable of the Empire, and Chief of Staff under Napoleon.

Joseph Fouché French statesman

Joseph Fouché, 1st Duc d'Otrante, 1st Comte Fouché was a French statesman and Minister of Police under First Consul Bonaparte, who later became Emperor Napoleon. He was particularly known for his ferocity with which he suppressed the Lyon insurrection during the Revolution in 1793 and for being minister of police under the Directory, the Consulate, and the Empire. In English texts, his title is often translated as Duke of Otranto.

Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno French soldier and military commander

Claude Victor-Perrin, First Duc de Belluno was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He was made a Marshal of France in 1807 by Napoleon.

Napoléon Louis Bonaparte middle son of Louis I of Holland and Hortense de Beauharnais

Napoléon-Louis Bonaparte, also known as Louis II of Holland, was the middle son of Louis I of Holland and Hortense de Beauharnais. His father was the younger brother of Napoléon I and reigned as King of Holland from 1806 to 1810, while his mother was the daughter of Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoléon's first wife. He was the older brother of Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, future Emperor Napoleon III.

Jean Maximilien Lamarque French commander of the Napoleonic Wars and politician

Jean Maximilien Lamarque (1770–1832) was a French commander during the Napoleonic Wars who later became a member of French Parliament. Lamarque served with distinction in many of Napoleon's campaigns. He was particularly noted for his capture of Capri from the British, and for his defeat of Royalist forces in the Vendée in 1815. The latter campaign received great praise from Napoleon, who said Lamarque had "performed wonders, and even surpassed my hopes".

<i>Napoléon</i> (miniseries) historical miniseries

Napoleon is a 2002 historical miniseries which explored the life of Napoleon Bonaparte. It was the most expensive television miniseries in Europe up to that time, costing an equivalent of (USD) $46,330,000 to produce. The miniseries covered Napoleon's military successes and failures, including the battles of Eylau, Austerlitz, Waterloo and the retreat from Russia. It also delved into Napoleon's personal life: his marriage to and divorce from Josephine de Beauharnais, his marriage to Marie Louise, the Duchess of Parma and daughter of Francis II, and his affairs with Eleanore Denuelle and Marie Walewska. The series draws from Bonaparte historian Max Gallo's bestseller.

<i>The Emperors New Clothes</i> (2001 film) 2001 film by Alan Taylor

The Emperor's New Clothes is a 2001 film that was adapted from Simon Leys' novel The Death of Napoleon. Directed by Alan Taylor, the film stars Ian Holm as Napoleon and Eugene Lenormand, a Napoleon look-alike, Iben Hjejle as Nicole 'Pumpkin' Truchaut and Tim McInnerny as Dr. Lambert. The plot re-invents the history surrounding Napoleon Bonaparte's exile to St. Helena following his defeat at Waterloo.

Colonel Constantin Denis Bourbaki, was a Greek officer educated in France, and serving in the French military. He fought in the last phases of the Napoleonic Wars, and after 1825, joined the Greek War of Independence. He was killed in 1827 following his defeat at the Battle of Kamatero. He is the father of French General Charles Denis Bourbaki.

Jean-Rémy Moët French vintner

Jean-Rémy Moët (1758–1841) was a French vintner and merchant seaman who helped bring the Champagne house of Moët et Chandon to international prominence. He inherited the house from his grandfather and founder Claude Moët.

Line of succession to the French throne (Bonapartist)

The line of succession to the throne of the French Empire was vested in the descendants and relations of Napoleon Bonaparte until the abolition of the French Empire in 1870.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

The Fields of Death is the fourth and final book in Simon Scarrow's Wellington and Napoleon Quartet, which tells the story of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars from the point of view of Sir Arthur Wellesley and Napoleon Bonaparte.

Krazy's Waterloo is a short theatrical cartoon by Columbia Pictures, and one of the many films featuring Krazy Kat. The film is loosely based on the times of French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte. It is also perhaps the only film where Krazy is cast as someone other than himself.

The Napoleonic Wars were a defining event of the early 19th century, and inspired many works of fiction, from then until the present day.

References

  1. Gladir, George  (w),  Ruiz, Fernando  (p),  Lapick, Rudy  (i),  Grossman, Barry  (col),  Yoshida, Bill  (let),  Goldwater, Richard  (ed). "Hungry Hurried and Harried"Jughead 338(Feb 1985),Archie Comics Group
  2. Gladir, George  (w),  Ruiz, Fernando  (p),  Lapick, Rudy  (i),  Grossman, Barry  (col),  Yoshida, Bill  (let),  Goldwater, Richard  (ed). "Hungry Hurried and Harried"Jughead's Double Digest Magazine 90:37-42/6(Jan 2003),Archie Comic Publications, ISSN   1061-5482
  3. "Things named after Napoleon" commons.wikimedia.org
  4. "Monuments and memorials to Napoleon I of France" commons.wikimedia.org
  5. "Bogeyman Archived 2007-06-09 at the Wayback Machine ", "Period glossary", Napoleon.org . Retrieved 07-03-2007.
  6. Napoleon's height was put at just over 5 pieds 2 pouces by three French sources (his valet Constant, General Gourgaud, and Francesco Antommarchi at Napoleon's autopsy) which, using the French measurements of the time, equals around 1.69m. ( "La taille de Napoléon Bonaparte (Napoleon Bonaparte's height)". www.1789-1815.com. 2002-11-25. Retrieved 2008-05-28.) Two English sources (Andrew Darling and John Foster) put his height at around 5 ft 7 ins, equivalent, on the Imperial scale, to 1.70m. This would have made him around average height for a Frenchman of the time. ( "La taille de Napoléon (Napoleon's height)". La Fondation Napoléon. Retrieved 2008-05-30. "How tall was Napoleon?". La Fondation Napoléon. Retrieved 2005-12-18.) Nonetheless, some historians have claimed Napoleon would have been measured with a British measure at his autopsy, since he was under British control at St Helena, implying the 5 ft 2 ins is an Imperial measure, equal to about 1.58 meters. On the other hand, Francesco Antommarchi, Napoleon's personal physician, despised the English, considered their touch "polluting", and may never have used their yardstick to measure his emperor. (Antommarchi, F. G (1826). The Last Days of Napoleon: Memoirs of the Last Two Years of Napoleon's Exile. London: H.Colburn. pp.  M1 p157 . Retrieved 2007-11-01.)
  7. "Weights and Measures". historydata.com. Retrieved 2008-05-30.
  8. 1 2 3 Owen Connelly (2006). Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 7.
  9. Dunan 1963
  10. "Sarkozy height row grips France". BBC. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 13 September 2009.
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  12. Garza, Janiss, Allmovie. "Mixed Nuts (1925)", Review Summary, The New York Times . Retrieved 09-25-2006.
  13. "Napoleon Bunny-part", Scripts, Delenea's Bugs Bunny Page. Retrieved 07-18-2007.
  14. French, Philip ( The Observer ). "The Emperor's New Clothes", The Guardian , 02-04-2004. Retrieved 07-19-2006.