Napoleonic era

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Napoleonic era
1799–1815
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg
The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries by Jacques-Louis David
Preceded by French Directory, French Revolution
Followed by Bourbon Restoration, Concert of Europe
Monarch(s) Napoleon Bonaparte
Leader(s) Napoleon Bonaparte
Strategic situation of Europe 1798 Strategic Situation of Europe 1798.jpg
Strategic situation of Europe 1798
Strategic situation of Europe 1801 Strategic Situation of Europe 1801.jpg
Strategic situation of Europe 1801
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Strategic situation of Europe 1803
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Strategic situation of Europe 1805
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Strategic situation of Europe 1806
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Strategic situation of Europe 1807
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Strategic situation of Europe 1809
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Strategic situation of Europe 1812
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Strategic situation of Europe 1813
Strategic situation of Europe 1814 Strategic Situation of Western Europe 1814.jpg
Strategic situation of Europe 1814
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Strategic situation of Europe 1815

The Napoleonic era is a period in the history of France and Europe. It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the French Revolution, the first being the National Assembly, the second being the Legislative Assembly, and the third being the Directory. The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état , overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo (9 November 1799 – 18 June 1815). The Congress of Vienna soon set out to restore Europe to pre-French Revolution days. Napoleon brought political stability to a land torn by revolution and war. He made peace with the Roman Catholic Church and reversed the most radical religious policies of the Convention. In 1804 Napoleon promulgated the Civil Code, a revised body of civil law, which also helped stabilize French society. The Civil Code affirmed the political and legal equality of all adult men and established a merit-based society in which individuals advanced in education and employment because of talent rather than birth or social standing. The Civil Code confirmed many of the moderate revolutionary policies of the National Assembly but retracted measures passed by the more radical Convention. The code restored patriarchal authority in the family, for example, by making women and children subservient to male heads of households.

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Whilst working to stabilise France, Napoleon also sought to extend his authority throughout Europe. Napoleon's armies conquered the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, occupied lands, and he forced Austria, Prussia, and Russia to ally with him and respect French hegemony in Europe. The United Kingdom refused to recognise French hegemony and continued the war throughout.

The First French Empire began to unravel in 1812, when he decided to invade Russia. Napoleon underestimated the difficulties his army would have to face whilst occupying Russia. Convinced that the Tsar was conspiring with his British enemies, Napoleon led an army of 600,000 soldiers to Moscow. He defeated the Russian army at Borodino before capturing Moscow, but the Tsar withdrew and Moscow was set ablaze, leaving Napoleon's vast army without adequate shelter or supplies. Napoleon ordered a retreat, but the bitter Russian winter and repeated Russian attacks whittled down his army, and only a battered remnant of 30,000 soldiers managed to limp back to French territory. The allies then continued a united effort against Napoleon until they had seized Paris forcing his abdication in 1814. His return to power the next year was resisted by all the allies and his army was defeated by an Anglo-Allied force at Waterloo.

Rulers

Heads and leaders of states affected by Napoleon's regime and the Napoleonic wars:

Wars

Major battles

See also

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Charles Antoine Morand general of the French army during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars

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Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte

The military career of Napoleon Bonaparte spanned over 20 years. As emperor, he led the French Armies in the Napoleonic Wars. He is widely regarded as a military genius and one of the finest commanders in world history. He fought more than 70 battles, losing only eight, mostly at the end. The great French dominion collapsed rapidly after the disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. Napoleon was defeated in 1814; he returned and was finally defeated in 1815 at Waterloo. He spent his remaining days in British custody on the remote island of St. Helena.

References