Flexible display

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An example of a flexible display, created by Plastic Logic. PlasticLogic flexible display.jpg
An example of a flexible display, created by Plastic Logic.

A flexible display is an electronic visual display which is flexible in nature; as opposed to the more prevalent traditional flat screen displays used in most electronics devices. In recent years there has been a growing interest from numerous consumer electronics manufacturers to apply this display technology in e-readers, mobile phones and other consumer electronics.

An electronic visual display, informally a screen, is a display device for presentation of images, text, or video transmitted electronically, without producing a permanent record. Electronic visual displays include television sets, computer monitors, and digital signage. By the above definition, an overhead projector could reasonably be considered an electronic visual display since it is a display device for the presentation of an images, plain text, or video transmitted electronically without producing a permanent record. They are also ubiquitous in mobile computing applications like tablet computers, smartphones, and information appliances.

An e-reader, also called an e-book reader or e-book device, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for the purpose of reading digital e-books and periodicals.

Mobile phone portable device to make telephone calls using a radio link

A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to simply mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN). Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, and digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.



Flexible electronic paper based displays

A prototype flexible electronic paper display E-paper flexible.jpg
A prototype flexible electronic paper display

Flexible electronic paper (e-paper) based displays were the first flexible displays conceptualized and prototyped. Though this form of flexible displays has a long history and were attempted by many companies, it is only recently that this technology began to see commercial implementations slated for mass production to be used in consumer electronic devices.

Electronic paper and e-paper, also sometimes electronic ink or e-ink, are display devices that mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Unlike conventional backlit flat panel displays that emit light, electronic paper displays reflect light like paper. This may make them more comfortable to read, and provide a wider viewing angle than most light-emitting displays. The contrast ratio in electronic displays available as of 2008 approaches newspaper, and newly (2008) developed displays are slightly better. An ideal e-paper display can be read in direct sunlight without the image appearing to fade.

Mass production production of large amounts of standardized products

Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch production, it is one of the three main production methods.

Xerox PARC

The concept of developing a flexible display was first put forth by Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Company). In 1974, Nicholas K. Sheridon, a PARC employee, made a major breakthrough in flexible display technology and produced the first flexible e-paper display. Dubbed Gyricon, this new display technology was designed to mimic the properties of paper, but married with the capacity to display dynamic digital images. Sheridon envisioned the advent of paperless offices and sought commercial applications for Gyricon. [1] In 2003 Gyricon LLC was formed as a direct subsidiary of Xerox to commercialize the electronic paper technology developed at Xerox PARC. [2] Gyricon LLC's operations were short lived and in December 2005 Xerox closed the subsidiary company in a move to focus on licensing the technology instead. [3]

Gyricon is a type of electronic paper developed at the Xerox PARC. It has many of the same properties as paper: it is flexible, contains an image, and is viewable from a wide angle, but it can be erased and written thousands of times.

HP and ASU

In 2005, Arizona State University opened a 250,000 square foot facility dedicated to flexible display research named the ASU Flexible Display Center (FDC). ASU received $43.7 million from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) towards the development of this research facility in February 2004. [4] A planned prototype device was slated for public demonstration later that year. [5] However, the project met a series of delays. In December 2008, ASU in partnership with Hewlett Packard demonstrated a prototype flexible e-paper from the Flexible Display Center at the university. [6] HP continued on with the research, and in 2010, showcased another demonstration. [7] However, due to limitations in technology, HP stated "[our company] doesn't actually see these panels being used in truly flexible or rollable displays, but instead sees them being used to simply make displays thinner and lighter." [7]

Arizona State University public university located in the Phoenix metropolitan area, Arizona, United States

Arizona State University is a public metropolitan research university on five campuses across the Phoenix metropolitan area, and four regional learning centers throughout Arizona.

Hewlett-Packard American information technology company

The Hewlett-Packard Company or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses (SMBs) and large enterprises, including customers in the government, health and education sectors.

Between 2004-2008, ASU developed its first small-scale flexible displays. [8] Between 2008-2012, ARL committed to further sponsorship of ASU’s Flexible Display Center, which included an additional $50 million in research funding. [8] Although the U.S. Army funds ASU’s development of the flexible display, the center’s focus is on commercial applications. [9]

Plastic Logic

This company develops and manufactures monochrome plastic flexible displays in various sizes based on its proprietary organic thin film transistor (OTFT) technology. They have also demonstrated their ability to produce colour displays with this technology, however they are currently not capable of manufacturing them on a large scale. [10] [11] [12] The displays are manufactured in the company's purpose-built factory in Dresden, Germany, which was the first factory of its kind to be built - dedicated to the high volume manufacture of organic electronics. [13] These flexible displays are cited as being "unbreakable", because they are made completely of plastic and do not contain glass. They are also lighter and thinner than glass-based displays and low-power. Applications of this flexible display technology include signage, [14] [15] wristwatches and wearable devices [16] as well as automotive and mobile devices. [17]

Organic User Interfaces and the Human Media Lab

In 2004, a team led by Prof. Roel Vertegaal at Queen's University's Human Media Lab in Canada developed PaperWindows, [18] the first prototype bendable paper computer and first Organic User Interface. Since full-colour, US Letter-sized displays were not available at the time, PaperWindows deployed a form of active projection mapping of computer windows on real paper documents that worked together as one computer through 3D tracking. At a lecture to the Gyricon and Human-Computer Interaction teams at Xerox PARC on May 4, 2007, Prof. Vertegaal publicly introduced the term Organic User Interface (OUI) as a means of describing the implications of non-flat display technologies on user interfaces of the future: paper computers, flexible form factors for computing devices, but also encompassing rigid display objects of any shape, with wrap-around, skin-like displays. The lecture was published a year later as part of a special issue on Organic User Interfaces [19] in the Communications of the ACM. In May 2010, the Human Media Lab partnered with ASU's Flexible Display Center to produce PaperPhone, [20] the first flexible smartphone with a flexible electrophoretic display. PaperPhone used bend gestures for navigating contents. Since then, the Human Media Lab has partnered with Plastic Logic and Intel to introduce the first flexible tablet PC and multi-display e-paper computer, PaperTab, [21] at CES 2013, debuting the world's first actuated flexible smartphone prototype, MorePhone [22] in April 2013.


Since 2010 Sony Electronics, AU Optronics and LG Electronics have all expressed interest in developing flexible e-paper displays. [23] [24] However, only LG have formally announced plans for mass production of flexible e-paper displays. [25]

Flexible OLED-based displays

Research and development into flexible OLED displays largely began in the late 2000s with the main intentions of implementing this technology in mobile devices. However, this technology has recently made an appearance, to a moderate extent, in consumer television displays as well.

Nokia Morph and Kinetic concepts

Nokia first conceptualized the application of flexible OLED displays in mobile phone with the Nokia Morph concept mobile phone. Released to the press in February 2008, the Morph concept was project Nokia had co-developed with the University of Cambridge. [26] WIth the Morph, Nokia intended to demonstrated their vision of future mobile devices to incorporate flexible and polymorphic designs; allowing the device to seamlessly change and match a variety of needs by the user within various environments. [27] Though the focus of the Morph was to demonstrate the potential of nanotechnology, it pioneered the concept of utilizing a flexible video display in a consumer electronics device. [27] Nokia renewed their interest in flexible mobile devices again in 2011 with the Nokia Kinetic concept. [28] Nokia unveiled the Kinetic flexible phone prototype at Nokia World 2011 in London, alongside Nokia’s new range of Windows Phone 7 devices. [29] The Kinetic proved to be a large departure from the Morph physically, but it still incorporated Nokia's vision of polymorphism in mobile devices. [28]


Demonstration of a 4.1" prototype flexible display from Sony Ecran oled flexible.jpg
Demonstration of a 4.1" prototype flexible display from Sony

Sony Electronics expressed interest for research and development towards a flexible display video display since 2005. [30] In partnership with RIKEN (the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Sony promised to commercialize this technology in TVs and cellphones sometime around 2010. [30] In May 2010 Sony showcased a rollable TFT-driven OLED display. [31]


Samsung's Youm concept device was used as a basis for the Galaxy Note Edge. Samsung Galaxy Note Edge (15224474846).jpg
Samsung's Youm concept device was used as a basis for the Galaxy Note Edge.

In late 2010, Samsung Electronics announced the development of a prototype 4.5 inch flexible AMOLED display. [32] The prototype device was then showcased at Consumer Electronics Show 2011. [33] During the 2011 Q3 quarterly earnings call, Samung’s vice president of investor relations, Robert Yi, confirmed the company’s intentions of applying the technology and releasing products utilizing it by early 2012. [34] In January 2012 Samsung acquired Liquavista, a company with expertise in manufacturing flexible displays, and announced plans to begin mass production by Q2 2012. [35] [36] During Samsung's CES 2013 keynote presentation, two prototype mobile devices codenamed "Youm" that incorporated the flexible AMOLED display technology were shown to the public. [37]

Samsung subsequently released the Galaxy Round, a smartphone with an inward curving screen and body, in October 2013. [38] One of the Youm concepts, which featured a curved screen edge used as a secondary area for notifications and shortcuts, was developed into the Galaxy Note Edge released in 2014. [39] In 2015, Samsung applied the technology to its flagship Galaxy S series with the release of the Galaxy S6 Edge, a variant of the S6 model with a screen sloped over both sides of the device. [40] During a developer conference in 2018, Samsung showed a foldable smartphone prototype, which is a tablet when it's fully opened and a phone when it's closed. [41] Samsung unveiled a production model called the Galaxy Fold in February 2019 along with the Galaxy S10 line; it retails for $1,980. [42]


The Flexible Display Center (FDC) at Arizona State University announced a continued effort in forwarding flexible displays in 2012. [43] On May 30, in partnership with Army Research Lab scientists, ASU announced that it has successfully manufactured the world's largest flexible OLED display using thin-film transistor (TFTs) technology. [44] ASU intends the display to be used in "thin, lightweight, bendable and highly rugged devices." [44]


In January 2019, Chinese manufacturer Xiaomi showed a smartphone prototype with folding display that morphs from a tablet into a smartphone. [45] CEO Lin Bin of Xiaomi demoed the device in a video on the Weibo social network. The device features a large foldable display that curves 180 degrees inwards on two sides. The tablet turns into a smartphone, with a screen diagonal of 4,5 inch, adjusting the user interface on the fly.

Technical details

Electronic paper

Flexible displays using electronic paper technology commonly use Electrophoretic or Electrowetting technologies. However, each type of flexible electronic paper vary in specification due to different implementation techniques by different companies.

Arizona State University and HP's flexible display demonstrated in 2008 at the university's Flexible Display Center Flexible display.jpg
Arizona State University and HP's flexible display demonstrated in 2008 at the university's Flexible Display Center

HP and ASU e-paper

The flexible electronic paper display technology co-developed by Arizona State University and HP employs a manufacturing process developed by HP Labs called Self-Aligned Imprint Lithography (SAIL). [46] The screens are made by layering stacks of semi-conductor materials and metals between pliable plastic sheets. The stacks need to be perfectly aligned and stay that way. Alignment proves difficult during manufacturing when heat during manufacturing can deform the materials and when the resulting screen also needs to remain flexible. The SAIL process gets around this by ‘printing’ the semiconductor pattern on a fully composed substrate, so that the layers always remain in perfect alignment. The limitation of the material the screen is based on allows only a finite amount of full rolls, hence limiting its commercial application as a flexible display. [7] Specifications provided regarding the prototype display are as follows:

  • flexible and rollable up to "about half a dozen times" [7]
  • "unbreakable" [6]

Asu e-paper

The flexible electronic paper display announced by AUO is unique as it is the only solar powered variant. A separate rechargeable battery is also attached when solar charging is unavailable. [47] Specifications [23]

  • 6-inch diagonal display size
  • radius of curvature can reach 100mm
  • 9:1 high contrast ratio
  • reflectance of 33%
  • 16 gray levels
  • solar powered
  • "unbreakable"

LG e-paper

Specifications: [48]

  • 6-inch diagonal display size
  • 1024x768 (XGA) resolution
  • 4:3 aspect ratio
  • TFT based electronic display
  • "allows bending at a range of 40 degrees from the center of the screen"
  • 0.7mm thickness from the side
  • 14g weight
  • can drop from 1.5m above ground with no resultant damage
  • "unbreakable" (from tests with a small urethane hammer)

List of displays by their reported curvature

ModelDiagonal (in)Radius of curvature*Curved along its wider / shorter side?
Samsung Round5.7400 millimetres (16 in)shorter
LG G Flex6700 millimetres (28 in)wider
Samsung KN55S9C54.64,500 millimetres (180 in)wider
LG 55EA980054.65,000 millimetres (200 in)wider

*Lower is more sharply curved


Many of the e-paper based flexible displays are based on OLED technology and its variants. Though this technology is relatively new in comparison with e-paper based flexible displays, implementation of OLED flexible displays saw considerable growth in the last few years.


Specifications: [49]

  • 6-inch diagonal display size
  • 480x360 4k resolution
  • 4:3 aspect ratio
  • OLED display technology with a TFT back plane
PaperPhone (2011) by Human Media Lab and ASU was the first flexible smartphone prototype. PaperPhone Flexible Smartphone.jpg
PaperPhone (2011) by Human Media Lab and ASU was the first flexible smartphone prototype.


Specifications: [36] [50]

  • 4.5-inch diagonal display size [33]
  • 800x480 WVGA, 1280x720 WXGA and WQXGA (2560×1600) resolutions [51]
  • AMOLED display technology
  • "unbreakable"

Concept devices

Mobile devices

In May 2011, Human Media Lab at Queen's University in Canada introduced PaperPhone, the first flexible smartphone, in partnership with the Arizona State University Flexible Display Center. [20] PaperPhone used 5 bend sensors to implement navigation of the user interface through bend gestures of corners and sides of the display. In January 2013, the Human Media Lab introduced the first flexible tablet PC, PaperTab, [21] in collaboration with Plastic Logic and Intel Labs, at CES. PaperTab is a multi-display environment in which each display represents a window, app or computer document. Displays are tracked in 3D to allow multidisplay operations, such as collate to enlarge the display space, or pointing with one display onto another to pull open a document file. In April 2013 in Paris, the Human Media Lab, in collaboration with Plastic Logic, unveiled the world's first actuated flexible smartphone prototype, MorePhone. [22] MorePhone actuates its body to notify users upon receiving a phone call or message.

Nokia introduced the Kinetic concept phone at Nokia World 2011 in London. [28] The flexible OLED display allows users to interact with the phone by twisting, bending, squeezing and folding in different manners across both the vertical and horizontal planes. [52] The technology journalist website Engadget described interactions such as "[when] bend the screen towards yourself, [the device] acts as a selection function, or zooms in on any pictures you're viewing." [53] Nokia envisioned this type of device to be available to consumers in "as little as three years", and claimed to already possess "the technology to produce it." [28]

At CES 2013, Samsung showcased the two handsets which incorporates AMOLED flexible display technology during its keynote presentation, the Youm and an unnamed Windows Phone 8 prototype device. [54] [55] The Youm possessed a static implementation of flexible AMOLED display technology, as its screen has a set curvature along one of its edges. [51] The benefit of the curvature allows users "to read text messages, stock tickers, and other notifications from the side of the device even if [the user] have a case covering the screen." [51] The unnamed Windows Phone 8 prototype device was composed of a solid base from that extends a flexible AMOLED display. [55] The AMOLED display itself bends and was described as "virtually unbreakable even when dropped" according to Samsung representatives. [37] Brian Berkeley, the senior vice president of Samsung Display, believes that this flexible form factor "will really begin to change how people interact with their devices, opening up new lifestyle possibilities ... [and] allow our partners to create a whole new ecosystem of devices." [37] The Youm's form factor was ultimately utilized on the Galaxy Note Edge, [39] and future Samsung Galaxy S series devices. [56]

ReFlex is a flexible smartphone created by Queen’s University’s Human Media Lab. [57]

Curved OLED TVs

LG Electronics and Samsung Electronics both introduced curved OLED televisions with a curved display at CES 2013 hours apart from each other. [58] [59] Both companies recognized their respective curved OLED prototype television as a first-of-its-kind due to its flexed OLED display. [60] [61] The technology journalist website The Verge noted the subtle curve on 55" Samsung OLED TV allowed it to have a "more panoramic, more immersive viewing experience, and actually improves viewing angles from the side." [58] The experience was also shared viewing the curved 55" LG OLED TV. The LG set is also 3D capable, in addition to the curvature. [59]

ModelDiagonal (in)Radius of curvature (mm)*
Samsung KN55S9C54.64,500 [62] [63] [64]
LG 55EA980054.65,000 [62] [63] [64]

*Lower is more sharply curved

See also

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Rollable display

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Upcoming flexible mobile technology [1] </ref>