Joe Kapp

Last updated
Joe Kapp
Joe Kapp VPL 44011 (15707508290).jpg
Kapp in 1960
No. 82, 22, 11
Position: Quarterback
Personal information
Born: (1938-03-19) March 19, 1938 (age 84)
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Height:6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
Weight:215 lb (98 kg)
Career information
High school: Hart (Santa Clarita, California)
College: California
NFL Draft: 1959  / Round: 18 / Pick: 209
Career history
As a player:
 * Offseason and/or practice squad member only
As a coach:
As an administrator:
Career highlights and awards
Career NFL statistics
Passing yards:5,911
Completion percentage:48.9%
Passer rating:55.1
Passing attempts:918
Passing completions:449
Career CFL statistics
Passing yards:22,725
Passing attempts:2,709
Passing completions:1,476
Player stats at

Joseph Robert Kapp (born March 19, 1938) is an American former football player, coach, and executive. He played college football as a quarterback at the University of California, Berkeley. Kapp played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL) with the Calgary Stampeders and the BC Lions and then in the National Football League (NFL) with the Minnesota Vikings and the Boston Patriots. Kapp returned to his alma mater as head coach of the Golden Bears from 1982 to 1986. He was the general manager and president of the BC Lions in 1990.


Kapp is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the B.C. Sports Hall of Fame, the BC Lions Wall of Fame, the College Football Hall of Fame, and the University of California Athletic Hall of Fame. Kapp's #22 jersey is one of eight numbers retired by the Lions. [1] In November 2006, Kapp was voted to the Honour Roll of the CFL's top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN. [2] Sports Illustrated once called him "The Toughest Chicano." [3] Kapp is the only player to play quarterback in the Super Bowl, Rose Bowl, and the Grey Cup.

Early years

Born in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Kapp's mother (Florence García) was of Mexican-American heritage, his father of German descent. [3] Raised in California in the San Fernando Valley and Salinas, [3] he played quarterback for Hart High School in Newhall, now a part of Santa Clarita.

Kapp played college football at the University of California, Berkeley, where he led the Golden Bears to a Pacific Coast Conference championship in 1958 and the Rose Bowl, where they lost to Iowa. This remains California's most recent Rose Bowl appearance. Kapp was named an All-American, and was also awarded the W. J. Voit Memorial Trophy in 1958 as the outstanding football player on the Pacific Coast. A two-sport athlete and fraternity member of Kappa Alpha Order in college, he also played on the basketball team and was a member of the 1956–57 and 1957–58 squads that won the Pacific Coast championships. [3] He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in physical education from the university in 1959.

Professional career

Canadian Football League

Kapp was selected in the 18th round of the 1959 NFL Draft by the Washington Redskins, who owned his rights to play professional football in the United States. After the draft, Washington did not contact him, so his only choice was to accept the offer from Jim Finks, the general manager of the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League (CFL).

Kapp joined the Calgary Stampeders of the CFL for his rookie season in 1959. The following year, Kapp led Calgary to their first playoff appearance in years. The season was a difficult one, because he injured his knee against the Toronto Argonauts early in the season, but did not miss any games, because he played heavily taped.

In 1961, the BC Lions, then the CFL's newest franchise, traded four starting players to the Calgary Stampeders for Joe Kapp. The move paid off for the Lions when Kapp led the team to a Grey Cup appearance in 1963. The following season, Kapp led the Lions to their first Grey Cup victory in 1964. However, the Lions proved unable to defend their championship in 1965.

By that time, Kapp had proven he was an elite quarterback, and also developed the reputation of being a tough player and a great leader. While most quarterbacks dislike being hit, Kapp was the opposite. He loved to hit and when he took off on a run he'd try to run over defenders.

Before the 1967 CFL season, Kapp made the decision to return to the U.S. to play pro football. The AFL's Oakland Raiders, San Diego Chargers, and Houston Oilers were heavily pursuing him.

Kapp ended up signing with the NFL's Minnesota Vikings in a multi-player "trade" between the CFL and NFL teams, one of the very few transactions to ever occur between the two leagues.

The Minnesota Vikings in 1965 had drafted running back Jim Young out of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He had spent the 1965 and 1966 seasons with the Vikings, but wanted to return to Canada. The BC Lions were very interested in acquiring Young, but the Toronto Argonauts had his CFL rights.

The Minnesota Vikings general manager was Jim Finks, who had brought Kapp to Canada in 1959, and their head coach was Bud Grant, who had faced Kapp while coaching the Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Both Finks and Grant thought Joe Kapp would be the best replacement for Fran Tarkenton, who had been traded to the New York Giants. To make this transaction possible, the BC Lions traded all-star defensive lineman Dick Fouts, and future Canadian Football Hall of Fame running back Bill Symons to Toronto for the CFL rights to future Canadian Football Hall of Fame wide receiver Jim Young. They then managed to get Kapp waived out of the CFL. The Vikings managed to get Jim Young waived out of the NFL, which allowed the BC Lions to sign him. The expansion New Orleans Saints wanted Young and it took some work from Finks to keep them from claiming Young. Kapp, now waived from the CFL, was free to sign with the Vikings, who had previously claimed his NFL playing rights from Washington.

National Football League

In 1967, Kapp's first season in the NFL, he started 11 of 14 games for the Vikings, compiling an unusual record of 3 wins, 5 losses and 3 ties. Kapp completed only 47 percent of his pass attempts with 8 touchdowns and 17 interceptions. Kapp also scored two rushing touchdowns. Of note, the team was winless without Kapp starting at quarterback. The Green Bay Packers won the division (and the Super Bowl).

In 1968, Kapp led Minnesota to their first ever playoff appearance, losing to the favored Baltimore Colts, 24–14. The Colts were upset a few weeks later by the New York Jets in Super Bowl III.

Early in the 1969 season, Kapp tied an all-time record when he threw for seven touchdown passes against the defending NFL champion Colts on September 28. [4] He is tied with seven other players (Sid Luckman, Adrian Burk, George Blanda, Y. A. Tittle, Nick Foles, Peyton Manning, and Drew Brees). Kapp led the Vikings to a 12–2 record, and a berth in Super Bowl IV after defeating the Los Angeles Rams 23–20 in the Western Conference championship game, and the Cleveland Browns 27–7 in the last NFL Championship game ever played. However, he was unable to lead the team to victory in the Super Bowl, as the Vikings lost 23–7 to the Kansas City Chiefs. In 1970, the NFL and AFL consummated the merger that had been agreed to in 1966, and the NFL Championship game was retired after 37 editions and 50 years of NFL competition. On July 20, 1970, Sports Illustrated dubbed Kapp "The Toughest Chicano" on the cover of its weekly magazine. [3] He received the team MVP, but refused the team MVP award, saying, "There is no one most valuable Viking. There are 40 most valuable Vikings." [5]

Prior to the 1969 season, the Vikings had exercised the option clause of his contract, so Kapp had played the entire season without a new contract. It was unusual for teams to use the team's option and not to offer a new contract prior to a season. This dispute made him a free agent for the 1970 season, by the NFL's own rules.

Despite Kapp being a Super Bowl quarterback, no team in the NFL made contact with him until after the start of the 1970 regular season, [6] when the Boston Patriots (1–1) signed him on October 2 to a four-year contract, [7] [8] [9] making him the highest paid player in the league. Pete Rozelle stepped in and forced the Patriots to give up two number-one draft picks as compensation to the Vikings. His first appearance for Boston was on October 11 at Kansas City, relieving starter Mike Taliaferro in the third quarter of a 23–10 loss. [10] [11]

The Patriots of 1970 were a poor-performing team and the late-arriving Kapp played poorly himself that season, leading the team to the 26-team league's worst record at 2–12. When the year ended, Rozelle demanded that Kapp sign a standard player contract. After conferring with his lawyer and the NFL Players Association, Kapp refused to sign.

With the top pick in the 1971 NFL Draft, the Patriots selected quarterback Jim Plunkett of Stanford, the winner of the Heisman Trophy. Kapp reported to the newly-renamed New England Patriots' training camp in 1971, refused to sign a standard contract, and departed. [12] [13] The headlines in the Boston papers read "KAPP QUITS!". After this incident Kapp never played again; his 12-year career as a professional football player was over.

Kapp started an anti-trust lawsuit vs. the NFL, claiming the standard NFL contract was unconstitutional and a restraint of trade. He won the summary judgment after four years. The court had ruled that Kapp's trade was indeed restrained. It was two years later (April 1, 1976) in the trial for damages, that the jury decided that Kapp was not damaged.

Although Kapp was not awarded any damages, in 1977 the rules at issue in the Kapp case were later revised, a new system was instituted, and a multimillion-dollar settlement was made between the NFL and the NFL Players Association.

Post-football playing career

Acting career

In the 1970s and early 1980s, Kapp appeared in several television programs as well as theatrical film titles. In most cases, the character roles were minor. Programs included Ironside , The Six Million Dollar Man , Adam-12 , Emergency! , Police Woman , Captains and the Kings , and Medical Center . Movies included "Climb An Angry Mountain (1972)", 'The World's Greatest Athlete (1973), The Longest Yard (1974), Breakheart Pass (1975), Two-Minute Warning (1976), Smash-Up on Interstate 5 (1976), Semi-Tough (1977), The Frisco Kid (1979), and Off Sides (Pigs vs. Freaks) (1984).

California head coach

In 1982, Kapp was hired as the head football coach at his alma mater, the University of California, Berkeley. He had never coached before. [14] In his first year as head coach, he was voted the Pacific-10 Conference Coach of the Year.

In December 1981, Kapp made a promise to the football team that he would not consume any of his favorite alcoholic beverage, tequila, until the Golden Bears reached the Rose Bowl, which they did not under Kapp; indeed, as of 2020, the Golden Bears have yet to return to the Rose Bowl – they were Pac-10 co-champions in 2006 but a loss to USC sent them to the Holiday Bowl instead (in a 1994 interview, Kapp stated that he had resorted to drinking rum instead). [15]

Kapp had several philosophies while coaching at Cal. He called his special teams the "special forces." He told his players to play "One hundred percent for 60 minutes." He also wanted the players to have fun. On Sundays, he would have his players play a game of "garbazz", described as a mix of basketball and football where the only objective is to pass the ball downfield. There are no football rules such as offsides or forward passes. [14]

Kapp's first season as head coach in 1982 concluded with The Play, the famous five-lateral kickoff return by Cal to score the winning touchdown on the final play of the Big Game against archrival Stanford.

During the 1986 season, the Bears lost to Boston College, defeated Washington State, then lost to San Jose State. Following an embarrassing 50–18 loss at Washington on October 4, Kapp expressed frustration unzipping his pants in front of the Seattle media. [16] [17] [18] He was notified that he would be released after the Big Game, played in Berkeley. The Bears responded to the student section's pre-game chants of "Win one for the zipper" by beating the Gator Bowl-bound #16 Cardinal 17–11, which gave Kapp a 3–2 record in the Big Game. He was carried off the field by his players, [19] amid chanting from the student section, "We want Kapp!" echoing a cheer from his playing days with the Boston Patriots.

General manager of the BC Lions

In an effort to recapture their past glory, the BC Lions of the Canadian Football League (CFL) hired Kapp as the team's new general manager in 1990. Kapp's tenure was marked by his tendency to recruit ex-NFL players such as Mark Gastineau whose best football days had passed. Kapp was fired eleven games into the Lions' schedule, his most valuable legacy was the signing of quarterback Doug Flutie, who would blossom into a star in the CFL during the 1990s.

Sacramento Attack head coach

In 1992, Kapp was named the head coach of the Arena Football League's Los Angeles Wings, [20] but the franchise never came into existence in Los Angeles, and moved to Sacramento as the Attack. [21] The franchise went 4–6 under Kapp, losing in the first round of the playoffs to the Detroit Drive. After the season, the franchise moved to Miami, Florida.

Personal life

Kapp lives in Los Gatos, California, and makes himself available as a guest speaker. He has a wife and four children and four grandchildren. He was one of the owners of Kapp's Pizza Bar & Grill in Mountain View, California, which contained memorabilia from his career and closed in 2015. His son, Will, followed in his footsteps as a fullback at UC Berkeley. [22] In 2015, grandson Frank Kapp, continued the Cal football tradition as a freshman tight end with the Golden Bears. [23]

Kapp and fellow Canadian Football Hall of Fame player Angelo Mosca came to blows at a 2011 Canadian Football League Alumni luncheon. The source of the bad blood between Kapp and Mosca is a hit Mosca made on Kapp's teammate Willie Fleming in the 1963 Grey Cup game. The hit, which Kapp and many others considered dirty, forced Fleming out of the game. Mosca's Tiger-Cats defeated Kapp's Lions 21–10 for the 1963 championship. [24]

In February 2016, the San Jose Mercury News reported that Kapp was suffering from Alzheimer's disease. [25]

Head coaching record


California Golden Bears (Pacific-10 Conference)(1982–1986)
1982 California 7–44–46th
1983 California 5–5–13–4–18th
1984 California 2–91–810th
1985 California 4–72–710th
1986 California 2–92–79th

Other Records

Until 2021, Kapp held the UC Berkeley record for most rushing yards by a quarterback. This was broken by Chase Garbers.

Related Research Articles

Super Bowl IV Fourth AFL–NFL Championship Game

Super Bowl IV was an American football game played on January 11, 1970 at Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana. It was the fourth and final AFL–NFL World Championship Game in professional football prior to the AFL–NFL merger taking effect the following season. The American Football League (AFL) champion Kansas City Chiefs defeated the National Football League (NFL) champion Minnesota Vikings by the score of 23–7. This victory by the AFL squared the Super Bowl series with the NFL at two games apiece as the two leagues merged into one after the game.

Doug Flutie American football quarterback (born 1962)

Douglas Richard Flutie is an American former football quarterback whose professional career spanned 21 seasons. He played 12 seasons in the National Football League (NFL), eight seasons in the Canadian Football League (CFL), and one season in the United States Football League (USFL). Flutie played college football at Boston College, where he won the Heisman Trophy in 1984 amid a season that saw him throw the iconic game-winning touchdown pass in the final seconds against Miami. He chose to begin his professional career with the USFL's New Jersey Generals; his unavailability to NFL teams resulted in him selected 285th overall by the Los Angeles Rams in the 11th round of the 1985 NFL Draft, the lowest drafting of a Heisman winner. After the USFL folded, Flutie played his first four NFL seasons with the Chicago Bears and New England Patriots.

BC Lions Canadian Football League team

The BC Lions are a professional Canadian football team based in Vancouver, British Columbia. The Lions compete in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL), and play their home games at BC Place.

Bud Grant Gridiron football coach

Harold Peter "Bud" Grant Jr. is a former head coach and player of American football, Canadian football, and a former player in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Grant served as the head coach of the Minnesota Vikings of the National Football League (NFL) for 18 seasons; he was the team's second (1967–83) and fourth (1985) head coach, leading them to four Super Bowl appearances, 11 division titles, one league championship and three National Football Conference championships. Before coaching the Vikings, he was the head coach of the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League (CFL) for ten seasons, winning the Grey Cup four times. Grant is the most successful coach in Vikings history, and the fifth most successful professional football coach overall with a combined 286 wins in the NFL and CFL. Grant was elected to the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1983 and to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1994. He was the first coach to guide teams to the Grey Cup and the Super Bowl, the only other being Marv Levy.

Jim Finks American and Canadian football player and coach, sports executive

James Edward Finks was an American football and Canadian football player, coach, and executive.

Babe Parilli American gridiron football player (1930–2017)

Vito "Babe" Parilli was an American gridiron football quarterback and coach who played professionally for 18 seasons. Parilli spent five seasons in the National Football League (NFL), three in the Canadian Football League (CFL), and 10 in the American Football League (AFL). He played college football at Kentucky, where he twice received consensus All-American honors and won two consecutive bowl games.

Interception American football play in which a defensive player catches a pass, resulting in a turnover

In ball-playing competitive team sports, an interception or pick is a move by a player involving a pass of the ball—whether by foot or hand, depending on the rules of the sport—in which the ball is intended for a player of the same team but caught by a player of the team on defense, who thereby usually gains possession of the ball for their team. It is commonly seen in football, including American and Canadian football, as well as association football, rugby league, rugby union, Australian rules football and Gaelic football, as well as any sport by which a loose object is passed between players toward a goal. In basketball, a pick is called a steal.

Michael Edward McMahon is a former American football quarterback who played for five seasons in the National Football League (NFL), mostly serving in a backup quarterback role. He spent one season in the Canadian Football League (CFL), and one season in the United Football League (UFL). After playing college football for Rutgers, he was drafted by the Detroit Lions in the fifth round of the 2001 NFL Draft. He played for the Lions for four seasons from 2001 to 2004, and for the Philadelphia Eagles in 2005. McMahon played for the Toronto Argonauts and Montreal Alouettes of the CFL in 2007. He signed with the California Redwoods of the UFL in 2009 and played for the Virginia Destroyers from 2011 to 2012. He last played for the Uppsala 86ers of the Swedish Superseries in 2013.

Jack Pardee American gridiron football player and coach (1936–2013)

John Perry Pardee was an American football linebacker and the only head coach to helm a team in college football, the National Football League (NFL), the United States Football League (USFL), the World Football League (WFL), and the Canadian Football League (CFL). Pardee was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a player in 1986.

Jeff Tedford American football player and coach (born 1961)

Jeffrey Raye Tedford is an American football coach and former player who is currently serving as the head coach at Fresno State, a position which he also previously held from 2017 to 2019. From 2002 to 2012, Tedford was the head football coach at California, where he was twice named Pac-10 Coach of the Year and holds the California program records for most wins, games coached, and bowl game victories.

1984 NFL season Sports season

The 1984 NFL season was the 65th regular season of the National Football League. The Colts relocated from Baltimore, Maryland to Indianapolis, Indiana before the season.

Jarious Jackson American gridiron football player and coach (born 1977)

Jarious K. Jackson is a professional Canadian football pass game coordinator and quarterbacks coach for the Edmonton Elks of the Canadian Football League (CFL). He has also been a coach for the Toronto Argonauts, Saskatchewan Roughriders, and BC Lions. Jackson played professionally in the CFL for eight seasons with the Lions and one year with the Argonauts where he won three Grey Cup championships in 2006, 2011, and 2012. He has also been a member of the Denver Broncos (NFL), to whom he was drafted 214th overall in the 2000 NFL Draft, and the Barcelona Dragons. Jackson played college football for the Notre Dame Fighting Irish.

Jim Young Canadian gridiron football player (born 1943)

James Norman Young is a former professional American football and Canadian football player. Young played running back and wide receiver for the NFL's Minnesota Vikings for two seasons (1965–66), and the CFL's BC Lions for thirteen seasons (1967–79). Young is a member of Canada's Sports Hall of Fame, the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the BC Sports Hall of Fame, and the Queen's University Football Hall of Fame. Young's #30 jersey is one of ten numbers retired by the BC Lions. In 2003, Young was voted a member of the BC Lions All-Time Dream Team as part of the club’s 50th anniversary celebration. In 2006, Young was voted to the Honour Roll of the CFL's top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN.

Cal Murphy was a Canadian football coach, general manager and scout, most notably for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League. In his career as a coach and/or general manager, he led various teams to nine Grey Cup championships, earning a spot in the Canadian Football Hall of Fame. In his retirement years he spent some time as a scout for the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League.

Willie Fleming American gridiron football player (born 1939)

Willie Fleming is a former professional Canadian football player with the Canadian Football League's BC Lions. Fleming played collegiately as a halfback at the University of Iowa, where he was a member of the Hawkeyes' 1959 Rose Bowl championship team. He is a member of the Canadian Football Hall of Fame, the BC Sports Hall of Fame, and the BC Lions Wall of Fame. Fleming's number 15 jersey is one of eight numbers retired by the Lions. In 2003, Fleming was voted a member of the BC Lions All-Time Dream Team as part of the club's 50th anniversary celebration. In 2006, Fleming was voted to the Honour Roll of the CFL's Top 50 players of the league's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN.

1970 Boston Patriots season Season of National Football League team the Boston Patriots

The 1970 Boston Patriots season was the franchise's first season in the National Football League and eleventh overall. They ended the season with a record of two wins and twelve losses, fifth (last) in the AFC East Division.

Cameron Wake American gridiron football player (born 1982)

Derek Cameron Wake is a former American Football defensive end. He played college football for Penn State University, and was signed by the New York Giants as an undrafted free agent in 2005.

Joe Galat was born in Painesville, Ohio and has extensive experience in professional football as a player, coach, general manager, broadcaster, and youth executive. He is best known as a former college and professional football coach who starred at Miami University (Ohio) as a player. In addition to an extensive college coaching career, Galat has coached in the National Football League as a coach with the New York Giants and Houston Oilers, as well as in Canada. Galat also worked as a national color commentator for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) in Canada. He is the president of American Youth Football & Cheer. Established in 1996, the organization currently operates in 50 states and has more than 250,000 documented participants.

Michael Brooks American gridiron football player (born 1991)

Mic'hael Goubron Brooks is a former Canadian football defensive tackle. He was most recently a member of the Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League (CFL). He played college football at East Carolina University and attended Bartlett Yancey High School in Yanceyville, North Carolina. He was a member of the Seattle Seahawks team that won Super Bowl XLVIII. Brooks has also been member of the Detroit Lions and BC Lions and Saskatchewan Roughriders.


  1. "BC Lions Retired Numbers". Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  2. "TSN Top 50 Honour Roll". November 28, 2006. Retrieved May 1, 2007.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 Kapp, Joe (July 20, 1970). "A man of machismo". Sports Illustrated. p. 26.
  4. "Kapp's 7 TD passes take kick out of Colts". Pittsburgh Press. UPI. September 29, 1969. p. 36.
  5. "Joe Kapp, NFL Quarterback". Retrieved April 8, 2002.
  6. "Ex-player sees move to cool off Joe Kapp". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. October 1, 1970. p. 19.
  7. "Patriots obtain Joe Kapp; terms being worked out". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. October 2, 1970. p. 3B.
  8. "Patriots sign Kapp". The Bulletin. (Bend, Oregon). UPI. October 2, 1970. p. 7.
  9. "Kapp says 'We'll be a winner' after signing with Patriots". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. October 3, 1970. p. 10.
  10. "Chiefs still bother Kapp; Patriots shattered, 23–10". Lawrence Daily Journal-World. (Kansas). Associated Press. October 12, 1970. p. 15.
  11. "Kansas City stops Boston Pats, 23–10". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. October 12, 1970. p. 8.
  12. "Joe Kapp leaves Patriots". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. July 17, 1971. p. 14.
  13. "Kapp quits camp without contract". Nashua Telegraph. (New Hampshire). Associated Press. July 17, 1971. p. 13.
  14. 1 2 Fimrite, Ron (September 1, 1983). "The Anatomy of a Miracle". Sports Illustrated. pp. 212–228.
  15. Cheatham, Dan (May 3, 1994). "Interview with Joe Kapp". Cal Band Archive. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  16. "Kapp unzipped; heat's on at Cal". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). wire services. October 7, 1986. p. 3D.
  17. Cawood, Neil (October 7, 1986). "Beavers have their own problems". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). p. 3D.
  18. Reilly, Rick (November 17, 1986). "Coming out of the desert darkness with the Sun Devils". Sports Illustrated. p. 32.
  19. "Bears give Kapp a win for farewell". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. November 23, 1986. p. 9C.
  20. Lonnie White (March 6, 1992). "Joe Kapp to Coach New L.A. Team : Arena football: The sport attempts comeback in city. Club will play at Sports Arena". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  21. Shav Glick (April 22, 1992). "L.A. Arena Football Team Scrubs Plans for Season". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
  22. Cal Bears Archived November 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  23. "Frank Kapp – Football".
  24. Toni Monkovic (November 28, 2011). "Joe Kapp, the C.F.L. and a 48-Year-Old Grudge". New York Times. Retrieved November 4, 2013.
  25. "The struggles of Joe Kapp: A football family copes with game's painful aftermath". February 5, 2016.