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In plumbing and piping, a nipple is a fitting, consisting of a short piece of pipe, usually provided with a male pipe thread at each end, for connecting two other fittings.
The length of the nipple is usually specified by the overall length with thread. It may have a hexagonal section in the center for a wrench to grasp (sometimes referred to as a "hex nipple"), or it may simply be made from a short piece of pipe (sometimes referred to as a "barrel nipple" or "pipe nipple"). A "close nipple" has no unthreaded area; when screwed tightly between two female fittings, very little of the nipple remains exposed. A close nipple can only be unscrewed by gripping one threaded end with a pipe wrench which will damage the threads and necessitate replacing the nipple, or by using a specialty tool known as a nipple wrench (or known as an internal pipe wrench) which grips the inside of the pipe, leaving the threads undamaged. When the ends are of two different sizes it is called a reducer or unequal nipple.
Threads used on nipples are BSP, BSPT, NPT, NPSM and Metric.
A chase nipple is a short pipe fitting, which creates a path for wires between two electrical boxes. A chase nipple has male threads on one end only. The other end is a hexagon. The chase nipple passes through the knockouts of two boxes, and is secured by an internally threaded ring called a lock nut.
Chase-Shawmut Company, of Boston, is the company which first produced chase nipples.
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Plumbing uses pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids. Heating and cooling (HVAC), waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing, but it is not limited to these applications. The word derives from the Latin for lead, plumbum, as the first effective pipes used in the Roman era were lead pipes.
A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera; or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term "flange" is also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be assembled and disassembled easily.
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid.
American National Standard Pipe Thread standards, often called national pipe thread (NPT) standards for short, are U.S. national technical standards for screw threads used on threaded pipes and pipe fittings. They include both tapered and straight thread series for various purposes including rigidity, pressure-tight sealing, or both. The various types are each named with a symbol and a full name; examples of the symbols include NPT, NPS, NPTF, NPSC, and others.
In electrical and mechanical trades and manufacturing, each half of a pair of mating connectors or fasteners is conventionally assigned the designation male or female. The female connector is generally a receptacle that receives and holds the male connector. Sometimes the terms plug and socket or jack are used, particularly in reference to electrical connectors. In some cases, the pins on the connector may have the opposite nominal gender to the mounted connector, such as the RCA connector.
A socket wrench is a type of wrench that inserts into a socket to turn a fastener, typically in the form of a nut or bolt.
A hose clamp or hose clip or hose lock is a device used to attach and seal a hose onto a fitting such as a barb or nipple.
A street elbow is a type of plumbing or piping fitting intended to join a piece of pipe and another fitting at an angle. The difference between a street elbow and a regular elbow is the gender of its two connections.
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder, usually but not necessarily of circular cross-section, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders and masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
British Standard Pipe (BSP) technical standards for screw threads that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing pipes and fittings by mating an external (male) thread with an internal (female) thread. It has been adopted as standard in plumbing and pipe fitting, except in North America, where NPT and related threads are used.
A threaded pipe is a pipe with screw-threaded ends for assembly.
A coupling is a very short length of pipe or tube, with a socket at one or both ends that allows two pipes or tubes to be joined, welded (steel), brazed or soldered together.
A fitting or adapter is used in pipe systems to connect straight sections of pipe or tube, adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes such as regulating fluid flow. These fittings are used in plumbing to manipulate the conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in domestic or commercial environments, within a system of pipes or tubes.
A screw and a bolt are similar types of fastener typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread. Screws and bolts are used to fasten materials by the engagement of the screw thread with a similar female thread in the matching part.
A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used for moving fluids or to protect electrical or optical cables and wires.
A bolt is a form of threaded fastener with an external male thread requiring a matching pre-formed female thread such as a nut. Bolts are very closely related to screws.
ISO 2852Stainless steel clamp pipe couplings for the food industry was an international standard that defines a non-permanent sanitary food-grade piping interconnect method, commonly used in the food processing industry and with dairy farm equipment.
An electrical conduit is a tube used to protect and route electrical wiring in a building or structure. Electrical conduit may be made of metal, plastic, fiber, or fired clay. Most conduit is rigid, but flexible conduit is used for some purposes.
ASME is a non-profit organization that continues to develop and maintains nearly 600 codes and standards in a wide range of disciplines. Some of which includes the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC), Elevators and Escalators, Piping and Pipelines, Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE), Nuclear Facility Applications (NQA), Process Performance Test Codes (PTC), and Valves, Flanges, Fittings and Gaskets (B16).