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A needle valve is a type of valve with a small port and a threaded, needle-shaped plunger. It allows precise regulation of flow, although it is generally only capable of relatively low flow rates.
An instrument needle valve uses a tapered pin to gradually open a space for fine control of flow. The flow can be controlled and regulated with the use of a spindle. A needle valve has a relatively small orifice with a long, tapered seat, and a needle-shaped plunger on the end of a screw, which exactly fits the seat.
As the screw is turned and the plunger retracted, flow between the seat and the plunger is possible; however, until the plunger is completely retracted, the fluid flow is significantly impeded. Since it takes many turns of the fine-threaded screw to retract the plunger, precise regulation of the flow rate is easily possible.
The virtue of the needle valve is from the vernier effect of the ratio between the needle's length and its diameter, or the difference in diameter between needle and seat. A long travel axially (the control input) makes for a very small and precise change radially (affecting the resultant flow).
Needle valves may also be used in vacuum systems, when a precise control of gas flow is required, at low pressure,such as when filling gas-filled vacuum tubes, gas lasers and similar devices.
Needle valves are usually used in flow-metering applications, especially when a constant, calibrated, low flow rate must be maintained for some time, such as the idle fuel flow in a carburettor.
Needle valves are also commonly used to provide shut off for the pressure gauge or on applicators to shut off the supply of NH3 to the knives in anhydrous ammonia (NH3) applications.
Since flow rates are low and many turns of the valve stem are required to completely open or close, needle valves are not used for simple shutoff applications.
Since the orifice is small and the force advantage of the fine-threaded stem is high, needle valves are usually easy to shut off completely, with merely "finger-tight" pressure. The spindle and/or seat of a needle valve, especially one made from brass, are easily damaged by excessive turning force when shutting off the flow.
Small, simple needle valves are often used as bleed valves in water-heating applications.
Unlike a ball valve or valves with a rising stem, it is not easy to tell from examining the handle position whether the valve is open or closed.
A pump is a device that moves fluids, or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action, typically converted from electrical energy into hydraulic energy. Pumps can be classified into three major groups according to the method they use to move the fluid: direct lift, displacement, and gravity pumps.
A valve is a device or natural object that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure. The word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll.
A float chamber is a device for automatically regulating the supply of a liquid to a system. It is most typically found in the carburettor of an internal combustion engine, where it automatically meters the fuel supply to the engine. However, this arrangement is found in many automatic liquid systems, for example the cistern of most toilets could be said to be a type of float chamber.
A check valve, non-return valve, reflux valve, retention valve, foot valve, or one-way valve is a valve that normally allows fluid to flow through it in only one direction.
A diving regulator is a pressure regulator that controls the pressure of breathing gas for diving. The most commonly recognised application is to reduce pressurized breathing gas to ambient pressure and deliver it to the diver, but there are also other types of gas pressure regulator used for diving applications. The gas may be air or one of a variety of specially blended breathing gases. The gas may be supplied from a scuba cylinder carried by the diver or via a hose from a compressor or high-pressure storage cylinders at the surface in surface-supplied diving. A gas pressure regulator has one or more valves in series which reduce pressure from the source, and use the downstream pressure as feedback to control the delivered pressure, or the upstream pressure as feedback to prevent excessive flow rates, lowering the pressure at each stage.
A tap is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.
The Zenith Carburetter Company Limited was a British company making carburettors in Stanmore Middlesex, founded in 1912 as a subsidiary of the French Société du carburateur Zénith. In 1965, the company joined with its major pre-war rival Solex Carburettors, and over time, the Zenith brand name fell into disuse. The rights to the Zenith designs were owned by Solex UK.
A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a barrier (gate) out of the path of the fluid. Gate valves require very little space along the pipe axis and hardly restrict the flow of fluid when the gate is fully opened. The gate faces can be parallel but are most commonly wedge-shaped.
A globe valve, different from ball valve, is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable plug or disc element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body.
A solenoid valve is an electromechanically operated valve.
In internal combustion engines with carburetors, a choke valve or choke modifies the air pressure in the intake manifold, thereby altering the air–fuel ratio entering the engine. Choke valves are generally used in naturally aspirated engines to supply a richer fuel mixture when starting the engine. Most choke valves in engines are butterfly valves mounted upstream of the carburetor jet to produce a higher partial vacuum, which increases the fuel draw.
A metering pump moves a precise volume of liquid in a specified time period providing an accurate volumetric flow rate. Delivery of fluids in precise adjustable flow rates is sometimes called metering. The term "metering pump" is based on the application or use rather than the exact kind of pump used, although a couple types of pumps are far more suitable than most other types of pumps.
A thermal expansion valve or thermostatic expansion valve is a component in vapor-compression refrigeration and air conditioning systems that controls the amount of refrigerant released into the evaporator and is intended to regulate the superheat of the refrigerant that flows out of the evaporator to a steady value. Although often described as a "thermostatic" valve, an expansion valve is not able to regulate the evaporator's temperature to a precise value. The evaporator's temperature will vary only with the evaporating pressure, which will have to be regulated through other means.
A shutdown valve is an actuated valve designed to stop the flow of a hazardous fluid upon the detection of a dangerous event. This provides protection against possible harm to people, equipment or the environment. Shutdown valves form part of a safety instrumented system. The process of providing automated safety protection upon the detection of a hazardous event is called functional safety.
A flow limiter or flow restrictor is a device to restrict the flow of a fluid, in general a gas or a liquid. Some designs use single stage or multi stage orifice plates to handle high and low flow rates. Flow limiters are often used in manufacturing plants as well as households. Safety is usually the main purpose of using a flow limiter. An example is manufacturing facilities and laboratories using flow limiters to prevent injury or death from noxious gases that are in use. The flow limiter prevents gases from causing injury or death by reducing its cross-sectional area where gas flows.
A plunger lift is an artificial lift method of deliquifying a natural gas well. A plunger is used to remove contaminants from productive natural gas wells, such as water, sand, oil and wax.
Shut-off nozzles are used in the manufacturing process of plastic injection molding. Machine shut-off nozzles serve as the connection between the plasticizing barrel and the mold. They are mounted on the machineside of the plastic injection molding process, unlike hot runner nozzles which are mounted on the moldside of the process. Machine shut-off nozzles differ from open nozzles because of their closable melt channel.
A scuba cylinder valve or pillar valve is a high pressure manually operated screw-down shut off valve fitted to the neck of a scuba cylinder to control breathing gas flow to and from the pressure vessel and to provide a connection with the scuba regulator or filling whip. Cylinder valves are usually machined from brass and finished with a protective and decorative layer of chrome plating. A metal or plastic dip tube or valve snorkel screwed into the bottom of the valve extends into the cylinder to reduce the risk of liquid or particulate contaminants in the cylinder getting into the gas passages when the cylinder is inverted, and blocking or jamming the regulator.
The mechanism of diving regulators is the arrangement of components and function of gas pressure regulators used in the systems which supply breathing gases for underwater diving. Both free-flow and demand regulators use mechanical feedback of the downstream pressure to control the opening of a valve which controls gas flow from the upstream, high-pressure side, to the downstream, low-pressure side of each stage. Flow capacity must be sufficient to allow the downstream pressure to be maintained at maximum demand, and sensitivity must be appropriate to deliver maximum required flow rate with a small variation in downstream pressure, and for a large variation in supply pressure, without instability of flow. Open circuit scuba regulators must also deliver against a variable ambient pressure. They must be robust and reliable, as they are life-support equipment which must function in the relatively hostile seawater environment, and the human interface must be comfortable over periods of several hours.