In the United States, Queen Anne style architecture was popular from roughly 1880 to 1910.The Queen Anne style was one of a number of popular architectural styles to emerge during this era. The Queen Anne style followed the Eastlake style and preceded the Richardsonian Romanesque and Shingle styles.
The style bears almost no relationship to the original Queen Anne style architecture in Britain (a toned-down version of English Baroque that was used mostly for gentry houses) which appeared during the time of Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702 to 1714. The American style covers a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free Renaissance" (non-Gothic Revival) details, rather than being a specific formulaic style in its own right.
The term "Queen Anne", as an alternative both to the French-derived Second Empire style and the less "domestic" Beaux-Arts style, is broadly applied to architecture, furniture and decorative arts of the period from 1880 to 1910. Some Queen Anne architectural elements, such as the wrap-around front porch, continued to be found into the 1920s.
Queen Anne style buildings in the United States came into vogue during the 1880s, replacing the French-derived Second Empire as the 'style of the moment'. The popularity of high Queen Anne style waned in the early 1900s, but some elements continued to be found on buildings into the 1920s, such as the wrap-around front porch (often L-shaped).
Distinctive features of the American Queen Anne style may include:
The British 19th-century Queen Anne style that had been formulated in Britain by Norman Shaw and other architects arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industryat 120 West 16th Street (designed by Sidney V. Stratton, 1878). The Astral Apartments that were built in Brooklyn in 1885–86 (to house workers) are an example of red-brick and terracotta Queen Anne architecture in New York. E. Francis Baldwin's stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad are also familiar examples of the style, built variously of brick and wood.
Gabled and domestically scaled, these early American Queen Anne homes were built of warm, soft brick enclosing square terracotta panels, with an arched side passage leading to an inner court and back house. Their detailing is largely confined to the treatment of picturesquely disposed windows, with small-paned upper sashes and plate glass lower ones. Triple windows of a Serlian motif and a two-story oriel window that projects asymmetrically were frequently featured.
The most famous American Queen Anne residence is the Carson Mansion in Eureka, California.Newsom and Newsom were notable builder-architects of 19th-century California homes and public buildings, and they designed and constructed (1884–86) this 18-room home for William Carson, one of California's first lumber barons.
After 1885, usage of Eastlake-style trim shifted over to "free classic" or Colonial Revival trim, including pedimented entryways and Palladian windows.
Smaller and somewhat plainer houses can also be Queen Anne. The William G. Harrison House is an example, built in 1904 in rural Nashville, Georgia.
Characteristics of the Queen Anne cottage style are:
The Shingle style in America was made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the highly ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style. In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. Architects emulated colonial houses' plain, shingled surfaces as well as their massing, whether in the simple gable of McKim Mead and White's Low House or in the complex massing of Kragsyde, which looked almost as if a colonial house had been fancifully expanded over many years. This impression of the passage of time was enhanced by the use of shingles. Some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building, even had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk, dried and then installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade.
The Shingle style also conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume. This effect—of the building as an envelope of space, rather than a great mass, was enhanced by the visual tautness of the flat shingled surfaces, the horizontal shape of many shingle-style houses, and the emphasis on horizontal continuity, both in exterior details and in the flow of spaces within the houses.
McKim, Mead and White and Peabody and Stearns were two of the notable firms of the era that helped to popularize the shingle style, through their large-scale commissions for "seaside cottages" of the rich and the well-to-do in such places as Newport, Rhode Island. However, the most famous Shingle-style house built in America was "Kragsyde" (1882), the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky coastal shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea, Massachusetts, and embodied every possible tenet of the shingle style.
Many of the concepts of the Shingle style were adopted by Gustav Stickley, and adapted to the American version of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
The Eastlake Movement was a nineteenth-century architectural and household design reform movement started by British architect and writer Charles Eastlake (1836–1906). The movement is generally considered part of the late Victorian period in terms of broad antique furniture designations. In architecture the Eastlake Style or Eastlake architecture is part of the Queen Anne style of Victorian architecture.
The Queen Anne style in British architecture refers to either the English Baroque architectural style that developed around the time of Queen Anne, or a revived form that became popular during the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century. In other English-speaking parts of the world, Queen Anne style refers to entirely different styles.
The Stick style was a late-19th-century American architectural style, transitional between the Carpenter Gothic style of the mid-19th century, and the Queen Anne style that it had evolved into by the 1890s. It is named after its use of linear "stickwork" on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame.
The William H. Roberts House is a late 19th-century house located in Pecatonica, Illinois, United States. The house was built in 1883 for Dr. William H. Roberts, who died three years later at the age of 33. The building features a combination of elements from three distinct architectural styles, Italianate, Queen Anne and Gothic revival. The building functioned as both Roberts's house and office. The house is the only building in Pecatonica listed on the United States National Register of Historic Places, a status it attained in 1979.
The Walter Field House is a historic residence located along Reading Road in northern Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Built in the 1880s to be the home of a prosperous local businessman, it features elements of popular late-nineteenth-century architectural styles, and it was produced by one of the city's leading architects. It has been named a historic site.
The Shingle style is an American architectural style made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the highly ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style in Queen Anne architecture. In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. The plain, shingled surfaces of colonial buildings were adopted, and their massing emulated.
The Skillings Estate House is a historic house at 37 Rangeley Road in Winchester, Massachusetts. Built about 1880 by a Maine lumber magnate David Skillings, it is one of four houses he built as part of his exclusive Rangeley Estate. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.
The Arthur Alden House is a historic house at 24 Whitney Road in Quincy, Massachusetts. Built in 1909, it is a good example of a Queen Anne architecture with Shingle style details. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.
The Jesse Moore House is a historic house at 25 Catherine Street in Worcester, Massachusetts. Completed in 1891, it is one of the city's well-preserved examples of high-style Queen Anne architecture with Shingle style features. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.
The Otis Putnam House is a historic house at 25 Harvard Street in Worcester, Massachusetts. Built in 1887 to a design by Fuller & Delano for a prominent local department store owner, it is a fine local example of Queen Anne architecture executed in brick. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. It now houses offices.
The Adams Claflin House is a historic house at 156 Grant Avenue in the village of Newton Centre in Newton, Massachusetts. It is a large 2-1/2 story cross-gable wood frame structure, built in the Shingle style to a design by Samuel Brown for Adams Davenport Claflin. Claflin was the son of Massachusetts Governor and Newtonville resident William Claflin, and was a major landowner in Newtonville as well as president of the Boston and Suburban Electric Company. Claflin was a major developer of the streetcar system that served Newton. Architecturally, the house shows vestiges of the Queen Anne style, with its asymmetrical massing and wealth of projections and gables, as well as elements of the Colonial Revival, exemplified by a Palladian window, and by the pedimented front porch. The house is one of several designed by Brown for the Claflin family.
The Delavan Terrace Historic District is located along the street of that name in Northwest Yonkers, New York, United States. It consists of 10 buildings, all houses. In 1983 it was recognized as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The Church Street Historic District is a one-block neighborhood of historic homes built from about 1857 to 1920. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.
The East Second Street Historic District is a historic district in the city of Xenia, Ohio, United States. Created in the 1970s, it comprises a part of what was once one of Xenia's most prestigious neighborhoods.
The Bratt-Smiley House is a historic house at University Street and Broadway in Siloam Springs, Arkansas.
Nappanee Eastside Historic District is a national historic district located at Nappanee, Elkhart County, Indiana. The district encompasses 138 contributing buildings in a predominantly residential section of Nappanee. It was developed between about 1880 and 1940, and includes notable examples of Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, and Prairie School style architecture. Located in the district are the separately listed Frank and Katharine Coppes House and Arthur Miller House.
The Frederick Squire House is a historic house at 185 North Street in Bennington, Vermont. Built about 1887, it is one of the town's finest examples of Queen Anne Victorian architecture. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.
The Queen Anne Revival was a historicist architectural style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries. In Australia, it is also called Federation architecture.
The North Ann Arbor Street Historic District is a residential historic district, consisting of the houses at 301, 303, and 305-327 North Ann Arbor Street in Saline, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.
The Pleasant Hill Residential Historic District is a largely intact old neighborhood a few blocks east of Marshfield's downtown. Most of the contributing properties in the district were built between 1880 and 1949, including large, stylish homes built by businessmen and professionals, and smaller vernacular homes built by laborers. The district was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000 for its concentration of intact historical architecture.