Queen Anne style architecture in the United States

Last updated
The Carson Mansion in Eureka, California, is considered one of the finest examples of American Queen Anne style architecture EurekaHistoricDistrict-CarsonMansion2.jpg
The Carson Mansion in Eureka, California, is considered one of the finest examples of American Queen Anne style architecture

Queen Anne style architecture was one of a number of popular Victorian architectural styles that emerged in the United States during the period from roughly 1880 to 1910. [2] Popular there during this time, it followed the Second Empire and Stick styles and preceded the Richardsonian Romanesque and Shingle styles. Sub-movements of Queen Anne include the Eastlake movement.

Contents

The style bears almost no relationship to the original Queen Anne style architecture in Britain (a toned-down version of English Baroque that was used mostly for gentry houses) which appeared during the time of Queen Anne, who reigned from 1702 to 1714, nor of Queen Anne Revival (which appeared in the latter 19th century there).

The American style covers a wide range of picturesque buildings with "free Renaissance" (non-Gothic Revival) details, rather than being a specific formulaic style in its own right.

The term "Queen Anne", as an alternative both to the French-derived Second Empire style and the less "domestic" Beaux-Arts style, is broadly applied to architecture, furniture and decorative arts of the period from 1880 to 1910. Some Queen Anne architectural elements, such as the wrap-around front porch, continued to be found into the 1920s.

Overview

James Alldis House, built in 1895 TorringtonGEDC0242 JamesAlldisHouse sm.JPG
James Alldis House, built in 1895
Queen Anne style rowhouses in the Adams Morgan neighborhood of Washington, D.C. 1800 block of California Street, NW.JPG
Queen Anne style rowhouses in the Adams Morgan neighborhood of Washington, D.C.

Queen Anne style buildings in the United States came into vogue during the 1880s, replacing the French-derived Second Empire as the 'style of the moment'. The popularity of high Queen Anne style waned in the early 1900s, but some elements continued to be found on buildings into the 1920s, such as the wrap-around front porch (often L-shaped).

Bembridge House (1906), Long Beach, California Bembridge House.jpg
Bembridge House (1906), Long Beach, California

Distinctive features of the American Queen Anne style may include: [3]

Examples

The former House and School of Industry at 120 West 16th Street in New York City 120 West 16th Street from west.jpg
The former House and School of Industry at 120 West 16th Street in New York City

The British 19th-century Queen Anne style that had been formulated there by Norman Shaw and other architects arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry [4] at 120 West 16th Street (designed by Sidney V. Stratton, 1878). The Astral Apartments that were built in Brooklyn in 1885–86 (to house workers) are an example of red-brick and terracotta Queen Anne architecture in New York. E. Francis Baldwin's stations for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad are also familiar examples of the style, built variously of brick and wood.

Gabled and domestically scaled, these early American Queen Anne homes were built of warm, soft brick enclosing square terracotta panels, with an arched side passage leading to an inner court and back house. Their detailing is largely confined to the treatment of picturesquely disposed windows, with small-paned upper sashes and plate glass lower ones. Triple windows of a Serlian motif and a two-story oriel window that projects asymmetrically were frequently featured. [5]

The most famous American Queen Anne residence is the Carson Mansion in Eureka, California. [1] Newsom and Newsom were notable builder-architects of 19th-century California homes and public buildings, and they designed and constructed (1884–86) this 18-room home for William Carson, one of California's first lumber barons.

Free Classic

After 1885, usage of Eastlake-style trim shifted over to "free classic" or Colonial Revival trim, including pedimented entryways and Palladian windows. [6]

Queen Anne cottage

William G. Harrison House, a Queen Anne cottage William G. Harrison House, Nashville, GA, USA (02).jpg
William G. Harrison House, a Queen Anne cottage

Smaller and somewhat plainer houses can also be Queen Anne. The William G. Harrison House is an example, built in 1904 in rural Nashville, Georgia.

Characteristics of the Queen Anne cottage style are:

Shingle style

Kragsyde, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts (1883, demolished 1929), by Peabody and Stearns Kragsyde.jpg
Kragsyde, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts (1883, demolished 1929), by Peabody and Stearns
The William Berryman Scott House (1888), designed by A. Page Brown, at 56 Bayard Lane, Princeton, New Jersey, in the Princeton Historic District William Berryman Scott House.jpg
The William Berryman Scott House (1888), designed by A. Page Brown, at 56 Bayard Lane, Princeton, New Jersey, in the Princeton Historic District

The Shingle style in America was made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the highly ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style. In the Shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. Architects emulated colonial houses' plain, shingled surfaces as well as their massing, whether in the simple gable of McKim Mead and White's Low House or in the complex massing of Kragsyde, which looked almost as if a colonial house had been fancifully expanded over many years. This impression of the passage of time was enhanced by the use of shingles. Some architects, in order to attain a weathered look on a new building, even had the cedar shakes dipped in buttermilk, dried and then installed, to leave a grayish tinge to the façade.

The Shingle style also conveyed a sense of the house as continuous volume. This effect—of the building as an envelope of space, rather than a great mass, was enhanced by the visual tautness of the flat shingled surfaces, the horizontal shape of many shingle-style houses, and the emphasis on horizontal continuity, both in exterior details and in the flow of spaces within the houses.

McKim, Mead and White and Peabody and Stearns were two of the notable firms of the era that helped to popularize the shingle style, through their large-scale commissions for "seaside cottages" of the rich and the well-to-do in such places as Newport, Rhode Island. However, the most famous Shingle-style house built in America was "Kragsyde" (1882), the summer home commissioned by Bostonian G. Nixon Black, from Peabody and Stearns. Kragsyde was built atop the rocky coastal shore near Manchester-By-the-Sea, Massachusetts, and embodied every possible tenet of the shingle style.

Many of the concepts of the Shingle style were adopted by Gustav Stickley, and adapted to the American version of the Arts and Crafts Movement.

See also

Related Research Articles

Eastlake movement Architectural movement

The Eastlake movement was a nineteenth-century architectural and household design reform movement started by British architect and writer Charles Eastlake (1836–1906). The movement is generally considered part of the late Victorian period in terms of broad antique furniture designations. In architecture the Eastlake style or Eastlake architecture is part of the Queen Anne style of Victorian architecture.

Victorian architecture Series of architectural revival styles

Victorian architecture is a series of architectural revival styles in the mid-to-late 19th century. Victorian refers to the reign of Queen Victoria (1837–1901), called the Victorian era, during which period the styles known as Victorian were used in construction. However, many elements of what is typically termed "Victorian" architecture did not become popular until later in Victoria's reign, roughly from 1850 and later. The styles often included interpretations and eclectic revivals of historic styles (see Historicism). The name represents the British and French custom of naming architectural styles for a reigning monarch. Within this naming and classification scheme, it followed Georgian architecture and later Regency architecture, and was succeeded by Edwardian architecture.

Queen Anne style architecture Architectural style

The Queen Anne style of British architecture refers to either the English Baroque architecture of the time of Queen Anne or the British Queen Anne Revival form that became popular during the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century. In other English-speaking parts of the world, New World Queen Anne Revival architecture embodies entirely different styles.

Stick style Late-19th-century American architectural style

The Stick style was a late-19th-century American architectural style, transitional between the Carpenter Gothic style of the mid-19th century, and the Queen Anne style that it had evolved into by the 1890s. It is named after its use of linear "stickwork" on the outside walls to mimic an exposed half-timbered frame.

Walter Field House United States historic place

The Walter Field House is a historic residence located along Reading Road in northern Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. Built in the 1880s to be the home of a prosperous local businessman, it features elements of popular late-nineteenth-century architectural styles, and it was produced by one of the city's leading architects. It has been named a historic site.

Shingle style architecture American architectural style

The shingle style is an American architectural style made popular by the rise of the New England school of architecture, which eschewed the highly ornamented patterns of the Eastlake style in Queen Anne architecture. In the shingle style, English influence was combined with the renewed interest in Colonial American architecture which followed the 1876 celebration of the Centennial. The plain, shingled surfaces of colonial buildings were adopted, and their massing emulated.

Dunmere (Narragansett, Rhode Island) United States historic place

Dunmere is a historic estate at 560 Ocean Road in Narragansett, Rhode Island.

Skillings Estate House United States historic place

The Skillings Estate House is a historic house in Winchester, Massachusetts. Built about 1880 by a Maine lumber magnate David Skillings, it is one of four houses he built as part of his exclusive Rangeley Estate. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

House at 313 Albany Avenue United States historic place

The house at 313 Albany Avenue, in Kingston, New York, United States is also known as the Hutton House. It is a frame house built near the end of the 19th century.

House at 356 Albany Avenue United States historic place

The house at 356 Albany Avenue in Kingston, New York, United States is a frame house built near the end of the 19th century. It is in the Queen Anne architectural style.

Chamberlin House (Concord, New Hampshire) United States historic place

The Chamberlin House is a historic house at 44 Pleasant Street in Concord, New Hampshire. Built in 1886, it is a prominent local example of Queen Anne architecture built from mail-order plans, and now serves as the clubhouse of the Concord Women's Club. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.

Delavan Terrace Historic District United States historic place

The Delavan Terrace Historic District is located along the street of that name in Northwest Yonkers, New York, United States. It consists of 10 buildings, all houses. In 1983 it was recognized as a historic district and listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Church Street Historic District (Wauwatosa, Wisconsin) United States historic place

The Church Street Historic District is a one-block neighborhood of historic homes built from about 1857 to 1920. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

Near East Side Historic District United States historic place

The Near East Side Historic District is a neighborhood in Beloit, Wisconsin composed of stylish homes of prominent citizens from the 1800s and the buildings of Beloit College. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983.

Frederick Squire House United States historic place

The Frederick Squire House is a historic house at 185 North Street in Bennington, Vermont. Built about 1887, it is one of the town's finest examples of Queen Anne Victorian architecture. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992.

New World Queen Anne Revival architecture Architectural style

In the New World, Queen Anne Revival was a historicist architectural style of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It was popular in the United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries. In Australia, it is also called Federation architecture.

North Ann Arbor Street Historic District United States historic place

The North Ann Arbor Street Historic District is a residential historic district, consisting of the houses at 301, 303, and 305-327 North Ann Arbor Street in Saline, Michigan. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985.

Jefferson Avenue Historic District (Janesville, Wisconsin) United States historic place

The Jefferson Avenue Historic District in Janesville, Wisconsin is a historic neighborhood east of the downtown of mostly middle-class homes built from 1891 to the 1930s. It was added to the State and the National Register of Historic Places in 2006.

Pleasant Hill Residential Historic District United States historic place

The Pleasant Hill Residential Historic District is a largely intact old neighborhood a few blocks east of Marshfield's downtown. Most of the contributing properties in the district were built between 1880 and 1949, including large, stylish homes built by businessmen and professionals, and smaller vernacular homes built by laborers. The district was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000 for its concentration of intact historical architecture.

Crawford House (Somerset, Kentucky) United States historic place

The Crawford House in Somerset, Kentucky, at 121 Maple St., was built around 1890. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.

References

  1. 1 2 "Carson House". Historic American Building Surveys, Engineering Records, Landscape Surveys, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
  2. McAlester, Virginia & Lee, A Field Guide to American Houses, Alfred H. Knopf, New York 1984 p. 262-287
  3. Queen Anne Style in Buffalo, NY
  4. The New York House and School of Industry was absorbed in 1951 by Greenwich House, a more extensive privately funded social services agency.
  5. Christopher Gray, "Streetscapes: The New York House and School of Industry; Where the Poor Learned 'Plain and Fine Sewing'", The New York Times, September 6, 1987 Accessed 19 August 2008.
  6. "The Queen Anne: Victorian Architecture and Décor". Old House Online. December 29, 2010. Retrieved April 7, 2018.
  7. Leslie N. Sharp (December 21, 1994). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: William G. Harrison House / Eulalie Taylor House". National Park Service . Retrieved August 23, 2016. with 10 photos (see photo captions in text document)
  8. Richard Cloues (2006). "House types". New Georgia Encyclopedia. (summarizes from 1991 Georgia's Living Places: Historic Houses in Their Landscaped Settings