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Chemical and physical data
Formula C5H4N4S
Molar mass 152.18 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Tisopurine (or thiopurinol) is a drug used in the treatment of gout in some countries. [1] It reduces uric acid production through inhibiting an early stage in its production. [2]

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Uric acid the end product of nucleic acid degradation

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3. It forms ions and salts known as urates and acid urates, such as ammonium acid urate. Uric acid is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides, and it is a normal component of urine. High blood concentrations of uric acid can lead to gout and are associated with other medical conditions, including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones.

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Gout Medical condition that results in recurrent pain and swelling of joints

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than 12 hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or kidney damage.

Xanthine oxidase class of enzymes

Xanthine oxidase is a form of xanthine oxidoreductase, a type of enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and can further catalyze the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. These enzymes play an important role in the catabolism of purines in some species, including humans.

Allopurinol chemical compound

Allopurinol, sold under the brand name Zyloprim among others, is a medication used to decrease high blood uric acid levels. It is specifically used to prevent gout, prevent specific types of kidney stones and for the high uric acid levels that can occur with chemotherapy. It is taken by mouth or injected into a vein.

Azathioprine chemical compound

Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication. It is used in rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and in kidney transplants to prevent rejection. It is taken by mouth or injected into a vein.

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Mercaptopurine chemical compound

Mercaptopurine (6-MP), sold under the brand name Purinethol among others, is a medication used for cancer and autoimmune diseases. Specifically it is used to treat acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. For acute lymphocytic leukemia it is generally used with methotrexate. It is taken by mouth.

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Benzbromarone chemical compound

Benzbromarone is a uricosuric agent and non-competitive inhibitor of xanthine oxidase used in the treatment of gout, especially when allopurinol, a first-line treatment, fails or produces intolerable adverse effects. It is structurally related to the antiarrhythmic amiodarone.

Oxipurinol chemical compound

Oxipurinol is an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. It is an active metabolite of allopurinol and it is cleared renally. In cases of renal disease, this metabolite will accumulate to toxic levels. By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, it reduces uric acid production. High serum uric acid levels may result in gout, kidney stones, and other medical conditions.

A xanthine oxidase inhibitor is any substance that inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme involved in purine metabolism. In humans, inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces the production of uric acid, and several medications that inhibit xanthine oxidase are indicated for treatment of hyperuricemia and related medical conditions including gout. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are being investigated for management of reperfusion injury.

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  1. Dean BM, Perrett D, Simmonds HA, Grahame R (April 1974). "Thiopurinol: comparative enzyme inhibition and protein binding studies with allopurinol, oxipurinol and 6-mercaptopurine". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1 (2): 119–27. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.1974.tb00220.x. PMC   1402452 . PMID   22454898.
  2. Jawad AS (June 1987). "Alternatives to allopurinol". Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 46 (6): 493. doi:10.1136/ard.46.6.493-a. PMC   1002174 . PMID   3632073.