Watford (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated
Watford
Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
Watford2007Constituency.svg
Boundary of Watford in Hertfordshire
EnglandHertfordshire.svg
Location of Hertfordshire within England
County Hertfordshire
Electorate 80,939 (December 2010) [1]
Current constituency
Created 1885
Member of Parliament Richard Harrington (Conservative)
Number of membersOne
Created from Hertfordshire
Overlaps
European Parliament constituency East of England

Watford is a constituency [n 1] represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2010 by Richard Harrington, a former member of the Conservative Party who since 3 September 2019 has sat as an independent MP. [n 2]

House of Commons of the United Kingdom Lower house in the Parliament of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons, officially the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House.

Parliament of the United Kingdom Supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known internationally as the UK Parliament, British Parliament, or Westminster Parliament, and domestically simply as Parliament or Westminster, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British Overseas Territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other political bodies in the UK and the overseas territories. Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign (Queen-in-Parliament), the House of Lords, and the House of Commons. The two houses meet in the Palace of Westminster in the City of Westminster, one of the inner boroughs of the capital city, London.

Richard Harrington (politician) British Independent politician

Richard Irwin Harrington is a British politician, businessman, and former property developer and hotelier. Since the 2010 general election he has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Watford. He was the Minister for Business & Industry from June 2017 to March 2019. First elected as a Conservative, Harrington had the Conservative whip removed on 3 September 2019 and currently sits as an independent politician.

Contents

History

Before the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 the area was part of the three-seat constituency of Hertfordshire. Upon this act, it took up the western division of the county; however, later seats such as South West Hertfordshire, established in 1950, have reduced its reach, as settlements in those areas, and Watford itself, have grown.

Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 United Kingdom legislation

The Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was a piece of electoral reform legislation that redistributed the seats in the House of Commons, introducing the concept of equally populated constituencies, a concept in the broader global context termed equal apportionment, in an attempt to equalise representation across the UK. It was associated with, but not part of, the Representation of the People Act 1884.

Hertfordshire was a county constituency covering the county of Hertfordshire in England. It returned two Knights of the Shire to the House of Commons of England until 1707, then to the House of Commons of Great Britain until 1800, and to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1800 until 1832. The Reform Act 1832 gave the county a third seat with effect from the 1832 general election.

South West Hertfordshire (UK Parliament constituency) Parliamentary constituency in the United Kingdom, 1950 onwards

South West Hertfordshire is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by David Gauke, an independent MP, formerly a Conservative.

Political history

The seat has been a bellwether of the national result since February 1974, and since 1945 has only voted against the winning party twice: in 1951 and 1970. Watford saw considerable Liberal Democrat opposition in 2005, achieving second place, taking many Labour votes with the Conservative candidate close behind. [2]

A bellwether is an individual who either leads or indicates trends; a trendsetter.

1951 United Kingdom general election

The 1951 United Kingdom general election was held twenty months after the 1950 general election, which the Labour Party had won with a slim majority of just five seats. The Labour government called a snap election for Thursday 25 October 1951 hoping to increase their parliamentary majority. However, despite winning the popular vote and achieving both their highest-ever total vote and percentage vote share, Labour were defeated by the Conservative Party. This election marked the beginning of the Labour Party's thirteen-year spell in opposition, and the return of Winston Churchill as Prime Minister. This was the final general election to be held with George VI as monarch, as he died the following year on 6 February and was succeeded by his daughter, Elizabeth II.

1970 United Kingdom general election general election

The 1970 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 18 June 1970. It resulted in a surprise victory for the Conservative Party under leader Edward Heath, which defeated the governing Labour Party under Harold Wilson. The Liberal Party, under its new leader Jeremy Thorpe, lost half its seats. The Conservatives, including the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), secured a majority of 31 seats. This general election was the first in which people could vote from the age of 18, after passage of the Representation of the People Act the previous year.

Before the 2010 general election it was a three-way marginal seat in which local Tories, Labour supporters and Liberal Democrats aimed to garner support for their candidate. This election in Watford was won by Richard Harrington (Con) with 34.9% of the vote. The Liberal Democrats narrowly missed out on the seat with 32.4% of the vote and the defeat for Labour's candidate, Claire Ward, was a pronounced change with 26.7% of the vote. [3]

A marginal seat or swing seat is a constituency held with a small majority in a legislative election, generally one conducted under a single-winner voting system. In Canada, they may be known as target ridings. The opposite is a safe seat.

In 2015, the result saw a significantly increased majority for Harrington of more than 9,000 votes over Labour, whilst the Liberal Democrats fell back to third. The 2017 election saw Labour significantly cut the Conservative majority to 2,092.

Prominent frontbenchers

Dennis Herbert was Deputy Speaker from 1931 to 1943.

Dennis Henry Herbert, 1st Baron Hemingford, was a British Conservative politician.

Major John Freeman was only a third-tier (junior) minister in the War Office as MP. His later unusually prominent positions in diplomacy led to his being appointed a member of the Privy Council and thereby being Rt Hon as of 1966.

John Freeman (British politician) British politician (1915-2014)

Major John Horace Freeman, was a British politician, diplomat and broadcaster. He was the Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Watford from 1945 to 1955.

Privy Council of the United Kingdom Formal body of advisers to the sovereign in the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, commonly known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or simply the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership mainly comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords.

Tristan Garel-Jones was Minister for Europe for three years of the Major ministry.

Both Herbert and Garel-Jones opted as peers in later life to use Watford as the territorial designation of their peerages.

Constituency profile

Watford has a considerable service sector economy, with several notable headquarters, and engineering, trade-craft and distribution in its economy, however is also a commuter town to the City of London. British Waterways, J D Wetherspoon, Camelot Group, Iveco, manufacturers of commercial vehicles; part of Balfour Beatty; Bathstore, the largest bathroom retailer in the UK; construction firm Taylor Woodrow; and Mothercare are the largest of these. The borough is also the UK base of many multinationals including C. H. Robinson, Total Oil, TK Maxx, Costco, Vinci and Beko appliances. International golf tournaments such as the 2006 World Golf Championship have taken place at The Grove hotel.

Workless claimants who were registered jobseekers were in November 2012 lower than the national average of 3.8%, at 3.0% of the population based on a statistical compilation by The Guardian . [4]

Boundaries and boundary changes

1885–1918: Parts of the Sessional Division of Watford and Dacorum. [5]

The constituency was established by the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 (which followed on from the Third Reform Act) as one of four Divisions of the abolished three-member Parliamentary County of Hertfordshire, and was formally named as the Western or Watford Division of Hertfordshire. It included the towns of Watford, Rickmansworth, Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring.

1918–1950: The Urban Districts of Bushey, Chorleywood, Rickmansworth, and Watford, and the Rural District of Watford parishes of Aldenham, Rickmansworth Rural and Watford Rural. [6] [7]

Aldenham transferred from St Albans.  Northern half of constituency, including Hemel Hempstead, Berkhamsted and Tring transferred to the new Hemel Hempstead Division.

1950–1983: Reconstituted as a Borough Constituency comprising the Municipal Borough of Watford. [8]   Remainder of the constituency formed the bulk of the new County Constituency of South West Hertfordshire.

1983–1997: The Borough of Watford, the District of Three Rivers wards of Abbots Langley and Leavesden, and the District of St Albans wards of Park Street and St Stephens. [9]

Abbots Langley and Leavesden transferred from South West Hertfordshire and Park Street and St Stephens from the abolished County Constituency of South Hertfordshire.

1997–present: The Borough of Watford, and the District of Three Rivers wards of Abbots Langley, Carpenders Park, Langleybury, Leavesden, and Oxhey Hall. [10] [11]

Three wards further wards in the Three Rivers District transferred from South West Hertfordshire.  Park Street and St Stephens transferred to St Albans.

The constituency comprises the whole of the Borough of Watford, together with five wards from Three Rivers District. Two of the Three Rivers wards, Carpenders Park and Oxhey Hall, are to the south of Watford town and include mostly prosperous, elevated, commuter villages. The remaining three, Abbots Langley, Langleybury and Leavesden, are to the north of Watford, the first of which is a large village, and is mixed in character and levels of income. [12]

Changes proposed for 2022

The Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies (the 2018 review) in September 2018. If these proposals are approved by Parliament they will reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and come into effect at the next UK general election which is due to take place in May 2022 under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.

The Commission has recommended that Abbotts Langley and Leavesden, together with the northern-most Borough of Watford ward of Woodside, be transferred to St Albans. To partly compensate, South Oxhey, to the south of Watford, would be transferred from South West Hertfordshire. [13]

Members of Parliament

ElectionMember [14] PartyNotes
1885 Frederick Halsey Conservative
1906 Nathaniel Micklem QC Liberal
1910 Arnold Ward Conservative
1918 Dennis Herbert Conservative Deputy Speaker (1931–1943)
1943 by-election William Helmore Conservative
1945 Major John Freeman Labour High Commissioner to India (1965–1968) Ambassador to the U.S. (1969–1971)
1955 Frederick Farey-Jones Conservative
1964 Raphael Tuck Labour
1979 Tristan Garel-Jones Conservative Minister for Europe (1990–1993)
1997 Claire Ward Labour Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Justice (2009–10)
2010 Richard Harrington Conservative Under Secretary of State for Syrian Refugees (2015–16)
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Pensions (2016–17)
Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Business and Industry (2017-19)
2019 Independent

Elections

Elections in the 2010s

Next United Kingdom general election: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Chris Ostrowski [15]
Green Cigdem Onay [16]
Liberal Democrat Ian Stotesbury
Brexit Party William Berry
Majority
Turnout
General election 2017: Watford [17]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Richard Harrington 26,73145.6+2.2
Labour Chris Ostrowski24,63942.0+16.0
Liberal Democrat Ian Stotesbury5,3359.1-9.0
UKIP Ian Green1,1842.0-7.7
Green Alex Murray7211.2-1.1
Majority2,0923.6-13.8
Turnout 58,61067.8+1.2
Conservative hold Swing -6.9
General election 2015: Watford [18]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Richard Harrington 24,40043.5+8.5
Labour Matthew Turmaine14,60626.0-0.7
Liberal Democrat Dorothy Thornhill 10,15218.1-14.3
UKIP Nick Lincoln5,4819.8+7.6
Green Aidan Cottrell-Boyce1,3322.4+0.8
TUSC Mark O'Connor1780.3+0.3
Majority9,79417.4+14.8
Turnout 56,14966.6-1.7
Conservative hold Swing 4.6
General election 2010: Watford [19] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Richard Harrington 19,29134.9+5.3
Liberal Democrat Sal Brinton [n 3] 17,86632.4+1.1
Labour Claire Ward 14,75026.7-6.8
BNP Andrew Emerson1,2172.2+2.2
UKIP Graham Eardley1,1992.2-0.4
Green Ian Brandon8851.6-1.4
Majority1,4252.6
Turnout 55,20868.3+3.4
Conservative gain from Labour Swing 6.05
Background to Conservative candidates

In July 2007 former candidate Ali Miraj, a candidate for Aberavon in 2001, was dropped from the candidates list by the Conservative party after he complained about David Cameron's leadership style and allegedly demanded a peerage. [22] [23] The public selected his former campaign manager Ian Oakley, who had been a candidate for Newport East in 2001 in the first Open Primary to be organised by the Conservative Party in November 2006. In July 2008, Oakley, withdrew candidature after being arrested for conducting a campaign of harassment against the local Liberal Democrats, [24] [25] for which he was convicted and given an 18-week suspended prison sentence and 12-month supervision order on 13 October 2008. [26]

In December 2008 Watford Conservative Association selected a new candidate, Richard Harrington. [27]

Elections in the 2000s

General election 2005: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Claire Ward 16,57533.611.7
Liberal Democrat Sal Brinton 15,42731.2+13.8
Conservative Ali Miraj 14,63429.63.7
Green Steve Rackett1,4663.0+1.1
UKIP Kenneth Wight1,2922.6+1.4
Majority1,1482.3
Turnout 49,39464.8+3.7
Labour hold Swing -12.8
General election 2001: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Claire Ward 20,99245.30.0
Conservative Michael McManus15,43733.3-1.5
Liberal Democrat Duncan Hames 8,08817.4+0.7
Green Denise Kingsley9001.9N/A
UKIP Edmund Stewart-Mole5351.2N/A
Socialist Alliance Jon Berry4200.9N/A
Majority5,55512.0
Turnout 46,37261.1-13.5
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1990s

General election 1997: Watford [28]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Claire Ward 25,10945.3+11.3
Conservative Robert Gordon19,22734.8-13.3
Liberal Democrat Andrew Canning9,27216.8+0.0
Referendum Philip Roe1,4842.7N/A
Natural Law Leslie Davis2340.4N/A
Majority5,79210.5
Turnout 55,23674.6
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
General election 1992: Watford [29]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Tristan Garel-Jones 29,07248.8+0.1
Labour Michael J. Jackson19,48232.7+4.5
Liberal Democrat Mark Oaten 10,23117.25.9
Green Jeremy Hywel-Davies5661.0N/A
Natural Law Leslie Davis1760.3N/A
Majority9,59016.14.4
Turnout 59,52782.3+4.4
Conservative hold Swing 2.2

Elections in the 1980s

General election 1987: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Tristan Garel-Jones 27,91248.7
Labour Michael Jackson16,17628.2
Social Democratic Fiona Beckett13,20223.1
Majority11,73620.5
Turnout 77.9
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1983: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Tristan Garel-Jones 26,27347.95
Social Democratic P. Burton14,26726.04
Labour I. Wilson14,24726.00
Majority12,00621.91
Turnout 76.10
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1970s

General election 1979: Watford [30]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Tristan Garel-Jones 21,32047.64
Labour Tony Banks 18,03040.28
Liberal B Bodle5,01911.21
National Front Brent Cheetham3880.87
Majority3,2907.35
Turnout 44,75781.26
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election October 1974: Watford [31]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Raphael Tuck 19,17744.28
Conservative Tristan Garel-Jones 15,22035.14
Liberal Anthony Jacobs 8,24319.03
National Front Jeremy Wotherspoon6711.55
Majority3,9579.14
Turnout 77.3
Labour hold Swing
General election February 1974: Watford [32]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Raphael Tuck 18,88440.47
Conservative David W. Clarke16,08934.48
Liberal David Jacobs 11,03523.65
National Front Jeremy Wotherspoon6511.4
Majority2,7955.99
Turnout 85
Labour hold Swing
General election 1970: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Raphael Tuck 19,69845.71
Conservative David W. Clarke19,62245.53
Liberal Colin G. Watkins3,7788.77
Majority760.18
Turnout 75.44
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1960s

General election 1966: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Raphael Tuck 23,83254.38
Conservative David W. Clarke19,99645.62
Majority3,8368.75
Turnout 82.87
Labour hold Swing
General election 1964: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Raphael Tuck 20,22445.18
Conservative Frederick Farey-Jones 18,74441.87
Liberal Margaret Neilson5,79712.95
Majority1,4803.31
Turnout 83.61
Labour gain from Conservative Swing

Elections in the 1950s

General election 1959: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Farey-Jones 21,21646.85
Labour Renee Short 18,31540.44
Liberal Ian S. Steers5,75312.70
Majority2,9016.41
Turnout 84.82
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1955: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Farey-Jones 22,54651.98
Labour Ashley Bramall 20,82948.02
Majority1,7173.96
Turnout 82.36
Conservative gain from Labour Swing
General election 1951: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour John Freeman 22,37047.90
Conservative Sydney William Leonard Ripley21,86246.81
Liberal Hamilton Brinsley Bush2,4695.29
Majority5081.09
Turnout 87.18
Labour hold Swing
General election 1950: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour John Freeman 21,75947.36
Conservative Max Bemrose 20,30244.19
Liberal Hamilton Brinsley Bush3,8798.44
Majority1,4573.17
Turnout 87.14
Labour hold Swing

Elections in the 1940s

General election 1945: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour John Freeman 32,13846.03
Conservative William Helmore 29,94442.88
Liberal Henry Harben 7,74311.09
Majority2,1943.14
Turnout 73.40
Labour gain from Conservative Swing
1943 Watford by-election [33]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative William Helmore 13,83953.9-11.5
Common Wealth Raymond Blackburn11,83846.1n/a
Majority2,0017.8-23.0
Turnout 38.0+25.6
Conservative hold Swing n/a

Elections in the 1930s

General election 1935: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Dennis Herbert 28,19665.42
Labour Stanley Walter Morgan14,90634.58
Majority13,29030.83
Turnout 63.55
Conservative hold Swing
General election 1931: Watford
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Dennis Herbert 34,07678.34
Labour Frank Jacques 9,42321.66
Majority24,65356.67
Turnout 71.01
Conservative hold Swing

Elections in the 1920s

General election 1929: Watford [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Dennis Herbert 18,58345.9-8.8
Liberal Edward Terrell 12,28830.3+11.6
Labour Herman Macdonald9,66523.8-2.8
Majority6,29515.6-12.5
Turnout 72.4-0.7
Unionist hold Swing -10.2
Corbett Ashby 1923 Margery Corbett Ashby.jpg
Corbett Ashby
General election 1924: Watford [35]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Dennis Herbert 15,27154.7+11.7
Labour Herbert Elvin 7,41726.6-4.2
Liberal Margery Corbett Ashby 5,20518.7-7.5
Majority7,85428.1+15.9
Turnout 73.1+4.6
Unionist hold Swing +8.0
General election 1923: Watford [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Dennis Herbert 10,53343.0-6.2
Labour Jimmy Mallon 7,53230.8-4.1
Liberal Robert Allen Bateman6,42326.2+10.3
Majority3,00112.2-2.1
Turnout 68.5-0.5
Unionist hold Swing -1.0
General election 1922  : Watford [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Unionist Dennis Herbert 12,04049.2
Labour Jimmy Mallon 8,56134.9
Liberal Robert Allen Bateman3,89615.9
Majority3,47914.3
Turnout 69.0
Unionist hold Swing

Elections in the 1910s

Frank Gray 1924 Frank Gray.jpg
Frank Gray
General election 1918 Watford [34]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
C Unionist Dennis Herbert 11,15557.2n/a
Labour George Lathan 4,95225.4n/a
Liberal Frank Gray 3,39517.4n/a
Majority6,20331.8n/a
Turnout 59.5n/a
Unionist hold Swing n/a
Cindicates candidate endorsed by the coalition government.

Election results 1885–1918

Elections in the 1880s

General election 1885: Watford [36] [37] [38]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Halsey 4,03252.1N/A
Liberal George Faudel Phillips 3,71247.9N/A
Majority3204.2N/A
Turnout 7,74477.2N/A
Registered electors 10,029
Conservative win (new seat)
General election 1886: Watford [36] [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Halsey Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1890s

Halsey T F Halsey 1906 postcard.jpg
Halsey
General election 1892: Watford [36] [37]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Halsey 4,80257.0N/A
Liberal John Marnham3,62743.0N/A
Majority1,17514.0N/A
Turnout 8,42976.4N/A
Registered electors 11,037
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General election 1895: Watford [36] [37] [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Halsey Unopposed
Conservative hold

Elections in the 1900s

General election 1900: Watford [36] [37] [39]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Frederick Halsey Unopposed
Conservative hold
Micklem Nathaniel Micklem 1906 postcard.jpg
Micklem
General election 1906: Watford [36] [37] [40]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Liberal Nathaniel Micklem 7,61255.4N/A
Conservative Frederick Halsey 6,13644.6N/A
Majority1,47610.8N/A
Turnout 13,74882.1N/A
Registered electors 16,741
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910s

Ward Arnold Ward 1906 postcard.jpg
Ward
General election January 1910: Watford [36] [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Arnold Ward 8,78254.8+10.2
Liberal Nathaniel Micklem 7,23145.2-10.2
Majority1,5519.620.4
Turnout 90.4+8.3
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing +10.2
General election December 1910: Watford [36] [41]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Conservative Arnold Ward 8,04352.9-1.9
Liberal Nathaniel Micklem 7,16047.1+1.9
Majority8835.8-3.8
Turnout 85.8-4.6
Conservative hold Swing -1.9

General Election 1914/15:

Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915. The political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by July 1914, the following candidates had been selected;

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. A borough constituency (for the purposes of election expenses and type of returning officer)
  2. As with all constituencies, the constituency elects one Member of Parliament (MP) by the first past the post system of election at least every five years.
  3. Candidate in the 2005 and 2010 elections, appointed to the House of Lords as Baroness Brinton, November 2010. [21]
References
  1. "Electorate Figures - Boundary Commission for England". 2011 Electorate Figures. Boundary Commission for England. 4 March 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
  2. Deborah McGurran (15 May 2009). "First electoral test for councils". BBC News . Retrieved 21 December 2009.
  3. "BBC News - Election 2010 - Constituency - Watford". news.bbc.co.uk.
  4. Unemployment claimants by constituency The Guardian
  5. Great Britain, Incorporated Council of Law Reporting for England and Wales. The public general acts. unknown library. Proprietors of the Law Journal Reports, 1884.
  6. Fraser, Hugh (1918). The Representation of the people act, 1918 : with explanatory notes. University of California Libraries. London : Sweet and Maxwell.
  7. "H.M.S.O. Boundary Commission Report 1917, Hertford". www.visionofbritain.org.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  8. S., Craig, Fred W. (1972). Boundaries of parliamentary constituencies 1885-1972;. Chichester: Political Reference Publications. ISBN   0900178094. OCLC   539011.
  9. "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1983". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  10. "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 1995". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  11. "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007". www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 2019-02-24.
  12. "Local statistics - Office for National Statistics". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk.
  13. Boundary Commission for England, 2018 Review, Associated consultation documents (September 2018). "Final recommendations report".CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 2)
  15. "Who have Labour members picked to fight the general election target seats?". LabourList. 29 January 2018.
  16. "Prospective General Election Candidates". Green Party. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  17. "Election 2017 - Watford". BBC . Retrieved 12 June 2017.
  18. "Election Data 2015". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  19. Watford, UKPollingReport
  20. Statement of Persons Nominated and Notice of Poll - Parliamentary Election 6 May 2010  : Watford Council
  21. Bowcott, Owen (19 November 2010). "Party donors and political apparatchiks appointed working peers". The Guardian . Retrieved 19 November 2010.
  22. "Cameron critic axed as MP hopeful". 31 July 2007 via news.bbc.co.uk.
  23. "Channel 4 News interview transcript".
  24. Editor, Andrew Porter, Political (20 July 2008). "Arrested Conservative candidate for Watford stands down" via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  25. "Police charge Oakley". Watford Observer.
  26. "'Vile' Oakley escapes jail". Watford Observer.
  27. Harrison, John (2008-12-17). "Tory candidate: 'I'm confident of victory'". Watford Observer. Retrieved 2009-04-08.
  28. http://www.watford.gov.uk/ccm/content/legal-and-democratic/elections/election-results---parliamentary-1-may-1997.en;jsessionid=771DB6CCAFC9B7F2327986A3325099EB
  29. "UK General Election results April 1992". Richard Kimber's Political Science Resources. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
  30. "UK General Election results: May 1979 [Archive]". www.politicsresources.net.
  31. "Political Science Resources: links to UK and US politics". www.psr.keele.ac.uk.
  32. "Political Science Resources: links to UK and US politics". www.psr.keele.ac.uk.
  33. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, FWS Craig
  34. 1 2 3 4 Craig, F. W. S. (1983). British parliamentary election results 1918-1949 (3 ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN   0-900178-06-X.
  35. British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, F W S Craig
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1974). British Parliamentary Election Results: 1885-1918. London: Macmillan Press. p. 298. ISBN   9781349022984.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The Liberal Year Book, 1907
  38. Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1886
  39. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1901
  40. The Times, 25 January 1906
  41. 1 2 Debrett's House of Commons & Judicial Bench, 1916
  42. Manchester Evening News 31 Jan 1914

Coordinates: 51°39′N0°24′W / 51.650°N 0.400°W / 51.650; -0.400

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