Brompton, London

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Brompton
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Brompton
Location within Greater London
Population8,839 (2011 Census.Ward) [1]
OS grid reference TQ274790
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SW3, SW5, SW7, SW10
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
London
51°29′42″N0°09′50″W / 51.495°N 0.164°W / 51.495; -0.164 Coordinates: 51°29′42″N0°09′50″W / 51.495°N 0.164°W / 51.495; -0.164

Brompton, sometimes called Old Brompton, survives in name as a ward in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London. Until the latter half of the 19th century it was a scattered village made up mostly of market gardens in the county of Middlesex. It lay south-east of the village of Kensington, abutting the parish of St Margaret's, Westminster at the hamlet of Knightsbridge to the north-east, with Little Chelsea to the south. It was bisected by the Fulham Turnpike, the main road westward out of London to the ancient parish of Fulham and on to Putney and Surrey. It saw its first parish church, Holy Trinity Brompton, only in 1829. Today the village has been comprehensively eclipsed by segmentation due principally to railway development culminating in London Underground lines, [3] and its imposition of station names, including Knightsbridge, South Kensington and Gloucester Road as the names of stops during accelerated urbanisation, but lacking any cogent reference to local history and usage or distinctions from neighbouring settlements. [4]

Contents

Brompton has been home to many writers, actors and intellectuals. [5] The Survey of London gives a long list. [6] Its name survives formally to this day, only just, in the shared reference to two of the council's electoral wards called, "Brompton" and "Hans Town". [7]

Definition

Brompton on William Faden's 1790 map Westbourne-route-1790.jpg
Brompton on William Faden's 1790 map

Where the old turnpike highway (Fulham Road) meets today's Thurloe Place and becomes Brompton Road is sometimes called Brompton Cross. The old village of Brompton carried on straddling the secondary Brompton Lane, later Old Brompton Road, for the whole of its length. In modern terms Old Brompton centred on today's South Kensington tube station, Gloucester Road tube station and their contiguous streets, and continued all the way to West Brompton station, between Earl's Court and Thames-side Chelsea. [8] The historian F.H.W. Sheppard has summarised it thus:

"there was always much traffic on the old turnpike road, which linked London not only with Little Chelsea and Fulham but also (via Putney Bridge) with parts of Surrey as well, and which from 1726 to 1826 was maintained by the Kensington Turnpike Trustees. Anciently, the eastern end of this highway was known indiscriminately as the road to Fulham or the road to Brompton. The name ‘Brompton’, now used loosely, then applied most precisely to the settlement which lay westwards of what is now South Kensington Station, just off the turnpike road along the lane to Earl's Court. This lane, generally called Brompton Lane or Bell and Horns Lane, diverged from the main road at the Bell and Horns, an inn sited opposite the [Brompton Oratory], where Empire House now stands. After the frontages of Brompton Road nearer London had been built up, the original nucleus of Brompton became known as Old Brompton and Brompton Lane as Old Brompton Road—which name survives today except in the short stretch east of South Kensington Station, where its line is represented by Thurloe Place. Before 1863 therefore, ‘Brompton Road’ was in general an unofficial term, usually to be construed as meaning the part of the Fulham turnpike road connecting Knightsbridge with Brompton Lane and thus with Old Brompton." [9]

Extent

Onslow Square, London SW7, with stucco terraces typical of today's "Brompton" Onslow Square, London SW7 - geograph.org.uk - 1060156.jpg
Onslow Square, London SW7, with stucco terraces typical of today's "Brompton"

Brompton's northern neighbours were the hamlets of Kensington Gore, dated but not dead in use, and Knight's bridge a crossing over the lost river Westbourne. As to its old eastern half its administration remains in the City of Westminster, again due to the tube network it is commonly marked on maps as part of "Knightsbridge" district. Brompton (or very rarely New Brompton) had a jagged north-eastern limit owing to the medieval permanent assignation of Kensington Gore to Westminster. According to the Church of England this has been simplified so that a three-church parish Holy Trinity Brompton – St Paul's, Onslow Square and St Augustine's, Queen's Gate takes up a ⅛ SW to WSW radial sector focused on what was for many centuries a geographical point, a bridge, "Knights Bridge (Knightsbridge)", from which Brompton was always narrowly omitted. [10] That point later became a Crossroads for arterial roads, known as "Scotch Corner".

Boundaries can be traced in the street network with a few small gaps, clockwise from the north:

West Brompton became overshadowed by Earls Court which overtook its land, but it extended more broadly than is suggested by the above sectors, to have a long border along the hidden Counter's Creek, (today's West London line), with the Hammersmith and Fulham borough boundary, then back along the Cromwell Road/Queen's Gate through Gloucester Road . [11]

The rest of "South Kensington" and Kensington proper, including the first manor, centred on what became a royal palace (Kensington Palace), instead of simply a manor house, and lay to the north. Chelsea was to the south.

Its fragmented existence is commemorated chiefly through four of the places listed below.

History

Pigot & Co. (1842) Brompton in the County of Middlesex Pigot and Co (1842) p1.360 - Map of Middlesex.jpg
Pigot & Co. (1842) Brompton in the County of Middlesex
206 Brompton Road, the former station building 206 Brompton Road.JPG
206 Brompton Road, the former station building
Royal Society of British Sculptors 108 Old Brompton Road RBS 4.jpg
Royal Society of British Sculptors 108 Old Brompton Road
SE corner of map shows Brompton ward of Kensington Metropolitan Borough in 1916, SW as 'Redcliffe' was Old Brompton; a road, Old Brompton Road, bisected both linking to the north-west. Kensington Met. B Ward Map 1916.svg
SE corner of map shows Brompton ward of Kensington Metropolitan Borough in 1916, SW as 'Redcliffe' was Old Brompton; a road, Old Brompton Road, bisected both linking to the north-west.
The first Brompton Hospital on the Fulham Road, c.1850 Brompton Hospital; foundation stone laid 11th June, 1844. Wellcome M0009899.jpg
The first Brompton Hospital on the Fulham Road, c.1850
Brompton Cancer Hospital 1859, Kensington, London Brompton Cancer Hospital, Kensington, London; view from the Wellcome V0013585.jpg
Brompton Cancer Hospital 1859, Kensington, London
Brompton Square, London Brompton Square, London SW3 - geograph.org.uk - 1108023.jpg
Brompton Square, London
St Yeghiche Armenian cathedral, London SW7 St Yeghiche's, South Kensington, London 04.JPG
St Yeghiche Armenian cathedral, London SW7
Michelin House, Brompton Bibendum.jpg
Michelin House, Brompton

The first recorded mention of Brompton dates back to 1292. [12] It was a rural area which subsequently attracted attention as the story of developments centred along a turnpike road that ran south westward from London through Knightsbridge Green and horticultural Brompton to Little Chelsea and the ancient parish of Fulham on the banks of the Thames and thence over Putney Bridge onto the County of Surrey. [13] Brompton Park Nurseries were founded in 1681 by four leading gardeners, led by George London. In the late 18th century, Carey's map of 1787 shows Brompton as a collection of market gardens. [14] A hundred years later, Charles Dickens Jr. (eldest child of Charles Dickens) wrote in his 1879 book Dickens's Dictionary of London that "Brompton was at one time almost exclusively the artists' quarter and is still largely frequented by the votaries of the brush and chisel, though of late years Belgravia has been encroaching upon its boundaries, and Belgravian rents are stealing westward." [15]

The village gained its first church in 1829, Holy Trinity Brompton, rapidly incepted a parish. [16]

The gradual fragmentation and overshadowing of Brompton was probably due to two factors: the Great Exhibition of 1851 and the rapid institutional developments in the area, such as museums and colleges; and the arrival of railway transport. [17] The station built in 1868 on the Metropolitan and District Railways to serve the attendant crowds was named South Kensington, not "Brompton". A "Brompton Road station" opened in 1906 for the new Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway; lack of passengers forced it to close in 1934. Gloucester Road tube station on the other hand, which had opened 1868, was originally called "Gloucester Road, Brompton", but for simplicity dropped the Brompton from its name. Thus, Brompton ceased to be a place or destination. A nod to Brompton resurfaced in 1866 with Sir John Fowler's "station in the middle of fields", West Brompton station. [18]

In 1965 when the historic boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea merged to form one authority, the College of Arms created for it a new coat of arms which included its Brompton roots. The crest contains a broom bush which represents the link between the two former boroughs' connection with the 'Brompton' ward. The area is now part of the Chelsea constituency. In medieval times Brompton was famous for its gorse fields. The name was a corruption of ‘broom tun’, meaning a gorse farm. [19] The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea has confined its "Brompton Conservation Area" to but the small northern part of the historical village of Brompton. [20] the rest of it is partitioned among several other neighbouring conservation areas.

Landmarks "in Brompton"

Notable streets of Brompton

Nearest places

Brompton and Old Brompton are deemed de facto obsolete names by the Tube and postal systems:

Brompton Cemetery North Gate on Old Brompton Road Gate of Brompton Cemetery on the Old Brompton Road.JPG
Brompton Cemetery North Gate on Old Brompton Road

Developers of the Earls Court Exhibition Centre, Lillie Bridge Depot and extant Victorian residential streets at West Brompton have given birth to an entity called, "West Brompton Crossing" to refer to the pop-up retail currently occupying the John Young condemned buildings, in the vicinity of Lillie Bridge (Fulham) and West Brompton station. [23]

Notable people

Jewish Cemetery, Fulham Road, Brompton Jewish Cemetery, Fulham Road - geograph.org.uk - 1305738.jpg
Jewish Cemetery, Fulham Road, Brompton

Related Research Articles

Kensington District within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in central London

Kensington is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in the West of Central London.

Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea Royal borough in United Kingdom

The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea is an Inner London borough with royal status. It is the smallest borough in London and the second smallest district in England; it is one of the most densely populated administrative regions in the United Kingdom. It includes affluent areas such as Notting Hill, Kensington, South Kensington, Chelsea, and Knightsbridge.

Knightsbridge Human settlement in England

Knightsbridge is a residential and retail district in central London, south of Hyde Park. It is identified in the London Plan as one of two international retail centres in London, alongside the West End.

London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham Borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham is a London borough in West London and which also forms part of Inner London. The borough was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former Metropolitan Boroughs of Hammersmith and Fulham. The borough borders Brent to the north, the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea to the east, Wandsworth to the south, Richmond upon Thames to the south west, and Hounslow and Ealing to the west.

Fulham Area of west London, England

Fulham is an area of the London Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham in West London, England, 3.6 miles (5.8 km) southwest of Charing Cross. It lies on the north bank of the River Thames, bordering Hammersmith, Kensington and Chelsea. The area faces Wandsworth, Putney, Barn Elms and the London Wetland Centre in Barnes. on the far side of the river.

Chelsea, London Human settlement in England

Chelsea is an affluent area in west London, England, due south-west of Charing Cross by approximately 2.5 miles. It lies on the north bank of the River Thames and for postal purposes is part of the south-western postal area.

Earl's Court is a district of Kensington in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in West London, bordering the rail tracks of the West London line and District line that separate it from the ancient borough of Fulham to the west, the sub-districts of South Kensington to the east, Chelsea to the south and Kensington to the northeast. It lent its name to the now defunct eponymous pleasure grounds opened in 1887 followed by the pre–World War II Earls Court Exhibition Centre, as one of the country's largest indoor arenas and a popular concert venue, until its closure in 2014. The area has long been known as "Bedsitter Land" with many of its stuccoed terraces converted into studio flats, hotels and hostels.

South Kensington Human settlement in England

South Kensington is a district just west of Central London in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Historically it settled on part of the scattered Middlesex village of Brompton. Its name was supplanted with the advent of the railways in the late 19th century and the opening and naming of local tube stations. The area is known as a popular tourist destination owing to the density of museums and cultural landmarks. Adjacent affluent centres such as Knightsbridge, Chelsea and Kensington, have been considered as some of the most exclusive real estate in the world. Since the First World War it has become a cosmopolitan area attracting Belgian and French refugees, but also Poles during the Second World War and after, and latterly Spanish, Italian, American, and Middle-Eastern expatriates. The French presence is emphasised by the Lycée Français Charles de Gaulle, the French Institute, hosting the Ciné Lumière a window on French cinema and the Alliance française and the French consulate, among other diplomatic residences. With a French bookshop and many international cafés in the area, it has been called Paris’s 21st arrondissement.

West Brompton station London Underground and railway station

West Brompton is a London Underground, London Overground and National Rail station on Old Brompton Road (A3218) in West Brompton, located in west London, and is on the District line and West London Line (WLL). It is immediately south of the demolished Earls Court Exhibition Centre and west of Brompton Cemetery in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.

Counters Creek

Counter's Creek, ending in Chelsea Creek, the lowest part of which still exists, was a stream that flowed from Kensal Green, by North Kensington and flowed south into the River Thames on the Tideway at Sands End, Fulham. Its remaining open watercourse is the quay of Chelsea Creek.

Brompton Road Street in Knightsbridge district in West London

Brompton Road is a street located in the southern part from Knightsbridge and in the eastern part from Brompton in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and partly the City of Westminster in London.

West Kensington, formerly North End, is an area in the ancient parish of Fulham, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, England, 3.4 miles (5.5 km) west of Charing Cross. It covers most of the London postal area of W14, including the area around Barons Court tube station, and is defined as the area between Lillie Road and Hammersmith Road to the west, Fulham Palace Road to the south, Hammersmith to the north and West Brompton and Earl's Court to the east. The area is bisected by the major London artery the A4, locally known as the Talgarth Road. Its main local thoroughfare is the North End Road.

Fulham Road Street in London, England

Fulham Road is a street in London, England, which comprises the A304 and part of the A308.

West Brompton Human settlement in England

West Brompton is an area of south-west London, that straddles the boundary between the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham and Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The centuries-old boundary was traced by Counter's Creek, now lost beneath the West London Line railway.

London Buses route 14

London Buses route 14 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Putney Heath and Russell Square, it is operated by London General.

Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway Underground railway company in London

The Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR), also known as the Piccadilly tube, was a railway company established in 1902 that constructed a deep-level underground "tube" railway in London. The GNP&BR was formed through a merger of two older companies, the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR) and the Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR). It also incorporated part of a tube route planned by a third company, the District Railway (DR). The combined company was a subsidiary of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).

Onslow Square

Onslow Square is a garden square in South Kensington, London, England.

Lillie Bridge (Fulham)

Lillie Bridge is a road bridge that links Old Brompton Road in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea with Lillie Road in the London Borough of Hammersmith & Fulham. It crosses two railways: the West London Line on the London Overground and the Wimbledon branch of the London Underground at West Brompton station.

1–5 and 6 Sydney Place

1–5 and 6 Sydney Place, South Kensington, are a group of large terrace houses situated on the corner of Sydney Place and Fulham Road in London, United Kingdom. Sydney Place leads into Onslow Square. The buildings have been listed Grade II as a group on the National Heritage List for England since 1969.

Our Lady of Dolours, also known as the Servite Church, is a Roman Catholic parish church run by the Servite Order in Chelsea, central London. The building was designed in Gothic Revival style by J. A. Hansom in 1873. It is Grade II listed with Historic England. It stands next to St Mary's Priory, at 264 Fulham Road close to the South Lodge entrance to Brompton Cemetery in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. There is a mixed Roman Catholic primary school adjacent to the church and priory.

References

  1. "Kensington and Chelsea Ward population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  2. Fifth Periodic Review of Westminster constituencies (2007). "The Parliamentary Constituencies (England) Order 2007" (PDF). The Stationery Office.
  3. Edward Walford, 'Underground London: Its railways, subways and sewers', in Old and New London: Volume 5 (London, 1878), pp. 224–242. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/old-new-london/vol5/pp224-242 [accessed 18 May 2020].
  4. Edward Walford, 'The western suburbs: Knightsbridge', in Old and New London: Volume 5 (London, 1878), pp. 15–28. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/old-new-london/vol5/pp15-28 [accessed 24 January 2020].
  5. Tames, Richard. (2000) Earl's Court and Brompton Past. London: Historical Publications. ISBN   0 948667 63 X
  6. Survey of London Artists, musicians and writers resident in Brompton, 1790–1870
  7. Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea list of wards
  8. Walker, Dave (13 March 2014). "The Red Portfolio: More Tales of Old Brompton". The Library Time Machine, RBKC. rbkclocalstudies.wordpress.com. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  9. 'Brompton Road: Introduction', in Survey of London: Volume 41, Brompton, ed. F H W Sheppard (London, 1983), pp. 1–8. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol41/pp1-8 [accessed 16 May 2020].
  10. Parish Map Holy Trinity Brompton, Onslow Square and St Augustine South Kensington – A Church Near You (Church of England website)
  11. 1 2 Limits of South Kensington Civil and of Ancient Parish Vision of Britain. The University of Portsmouth and others (most correctly resolved in default 20th century view, see, movement away from road network in both other views but which gives the names of settled places of the 18th century and before)
  12. Brompton – half-forgotten, on "Hidden London"
  13. F H W Sheppard, ed. (1983). "British History Online: Brompton Road: Introduction, in Survey of London". London. pp. 1–8. Retrieved 26 April 2019..
  14. 1 2 Tames, Richard (2000). Earl's Court and Brompton Past. London: Historical Publications. ISBN   0-948667-63-X.
  15. Dickens Charles Jr. (1879). "Brompton". Dickens's Dictionary of London . Retrieved 22 August 2007.
  16. "Brompton New Church". Morning Post. London. 8 June 1829. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  17. F H W Sheppard, ed. (1983). "Survey of London Volume 41, Brompton". London: British History Online. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  18. 'The Kensington Canal, railways and related developments', in Survey of London: Volume 42, Kensington Square To Earl's Court, ed. Hermione Hobhouse (London, 1986), pp. 322–338. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol42/pp322-338, fn.55 [accessed 15 October 2016].
  19. "RBKC Coat of Arms". www.rbkc.gov.uk. 1965. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  20. "Brompton Conservation Area" (PDF). www.rbkc.gov.uk. 1987. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  21. Patricia E C Croot, ed. (2004). "'Local government: Public services', in A History of the County of Middlesex". London: British History Online. pp. 217–233. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  22. "St Stephen's Hospital". Lost hospitals of London. Retrieved 29 July 2013.
  23. "West Brompton Crossing". public.london. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
  24. Cave, Edward (June 1842). "Obituary". The Gentleman's Magazine . 17: 677.

Further reading