Chevrolet C/K

Last updated
Chevrolet and GMC C/K
1986 GMC Sierra Classic 3+3 Pick-Up (17473647306).jpg
1986 GMC C/K Sierra Classic 3+3
Overview
Manufacturer Chevrolet
Also calledGMC C/K
GMC Sierra
Production1959–2002 (United States)
1959–2000 (Canada)
1965-2002 (Mexico)
1964–2001 (Brazil)
1975–1982 (Chile)
1960–1978 (Argentina)
1986–1991 (Argentina by Sevel)
Body and chassis
Class Full-size pickup truck
Chronology
Predecessor Task Force
Successor Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra (pickup trucks)
Chevrolet Kodiak/GMC TopKick (medium-duty trucks)

C/K is a series of trucks that were manufactured by General Motors from the 1960 to 2002 model years. Marketed by both the Chevrolet and GMC divisions, the C/K series encompassed a wide range of vehicles. While most commonly associated with pickup trucks, the model line also included chassis-cab trucks and medium-duty trucks and served as the basis for GM full-size SUVs. Through its entire production, the model line competed directly against the Ford F-Series and the Dodge D series (later the Dodge Ram pickup).

Contents

Used for both the model branding and the internal model code, "C" denoted two-wheel drive; "K" denoted four-wheel drive. Four generations of the model line were produced, including the second-generation "Action Line" and third-generation "Rounded Line" vehicles. GMC marketed its version of the fourth-generation C/K pickup truck under a singular GMC Sierra nameplate. The C/K was manufactured for South America by General Motors Brazil, who produced variants of the model line for Brazil, Argentina, and Chile.

For 1990, GM ended production of medium-duty C/K trucks, replacing them with the Chevrolet Kodiak/GMC TopKick. For 1999, the C/K was replaced with the Chevrolet Silverado; in line with the GMC Sierra, Chevrolet consolidated its full-size pickup trucks under a singular nameplate. Initially marketed with its successor, the final C/K pickup trucks were produced after the 2000 model year. From 2001 to 2002, the final vehicles of the C/K model line were heavy-duty chassis cab trucks.

First generation (1960–1966)

First generation
K Series Truck (1963) - 10275993623.jpg
Overview
Also calledChevrolet:
– C10/K10
– C20/K20
– C30
– C40 to C80 (medium- & heavy-duty models)
GMC:
– 1000/K1000
– 1500/K1500
– 2500
– 3000 to 6500 (medium- & heavy-duty models)
Chevrolet Apache
Chevrolet Viking
Chevrolet Spartan
ProductionSeptember 1959–1966
Assembly Pontiac West Assembly, Pontiac, Michigan
Dover, England
Oshawa, Ontario
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Designer Harley Earl (1957, 1958) [1]
Body and chassis
Related Chevrolet Suburban
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 3-speed synchromesh manual
4-speed synchromesh manual
2-speed Powerglide automatic [2]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 115 in (2,921 mm) (short box: ½-ton models) [2]
127 in (3,226 mm) (long box: ½-ton & ¾-ton models)
133 in (3,378 mm) (1-ton models)
Length186.875 in (4,747 mm) SWB [3]
206 in (5,232 mm) Standard [3]
216.25 in (5,493 mm) LWB [3]
Width78.75 in (2,000 mm) [3]
Height71.25 in (1,810 mm) [3]
1963 Chevrolet stepside Chevrolet pickup.jpg
1963 Chevrolet stepside

Launched in the fall of 1959, the 1960 model year introduced a new body style of light pick-up truck that featured many firsts. Most important of these were a drop-center ladder frame, allowing the cab to sit lower, and independent front suspension, giving an almost car-like ride in a truck. Also new for 1960 was a new designation system for trucks made by GM. Gone were the 3100, 3200, and 3600 designations for short 1/2, long 1/2 and 3/4-ton models. Instead, a new scheme assigned a 10, 20, or 30 for 1/2, 3/4, and 1-ton models. Since 1957, trucks were available from the factory as four-wheel drive, and the new class scheme would make this known. A C (conventional) in front of the series number designates two-wheel rear drive while a K designates four-wheel drive.

Actual badging on Chevrolet trucks carried the series name system from the previous generation for 1960 and 1961: the 10, 20, 30, and 40 series (C and K) were badged as "Apaches", 50 and 60 series trucks were badged as "Vikings", and the largest 70 and 80 series models were marked "Spartans". For 1960, C/K trucks were available in smooth "Fleetside" or fendered "Stepside" versions. GMC called these "Wide-Side" and "Fenderside". Half-ton models were the C10 and K10 long-bed and short-bed trucks, and The 3/4-ton C20 and K20, as well as the one-ton C30, were also available. GMC did not use the "C" nomenclature, though their 4x4 versions used the "K" nomenclature. GMC model numbers for 1/2, 3/4, 1, and 1.5 ton were 1000, 1500, 2500, and 3000. The 1.5 ton Chevrolet C40 and GMC 3000, which were using the light-duty cab [4] [5] (but only as chassis-cab and stake models), were discontinued for the 1963 model year. [5] [6]

The 1960, 1961, and 1962 models featured ball bearing front hubs,with torsion bar front suspensions, with trailing arm suspension rears. Trim lines were base and "Custom". Engines included the base 305 cu in (5.0 L) GMC V6 for the GMC version, 135 hp (101 kW)236 cu in (3.9 L) and 150 hp (112 kW)261 cu in (4.3 L) straight-six engines, and a 283 cu in (4.6 L) V8 with 185 hp (138 kW).

A coil-spring front suspension came in 1963, with roller bearing front hubs, along with a new base engine, a 140 hp (104 kW)230 cu in (3.8 L) I6, and an optional 165 hp (123 kW)292 cu in (4.8 L) I6. The cab was modified for 1964, with elimination of the "wraparound" windshield and a new front grille design, along with various interior changes, while retaining the original design on the body. Air conditioning and a 220 hp (164 kW)327 cu in (5.4 L) V8 came in 1965. A new base engine arrived in 1966, being a 155 hp (116 kW)250 cu in (4.1 L) Chevrolet straight-six.

Medium- & heavy-duty models

Medium-duty trucks were:

Heavy-duty trucks were:

Second generation (1967–1972)

Second generation (Action Line)
1970 Chevrolet Pick Up (14404287178).jpg
1970 Chevrolet C10 CST
Overview
Model years 1967–1972
Body and chassis
Platform GM C/K (Action Line)
Related Chevrolet K5 Blazer/GMC Jimmy
Chevrolet Suburban/GMC Carryall

The second-generation C/K was introduced for the 1967 model year. Designated the "Action Line" generation by General Motors, the C/K largely carried over its drop-center ladder frame and its coil-sprung rear axle, but the body was redesigned from the ground up to improve its capability as a multi-purpose vehicle. Alongside a utilitarian vehicle intended for work or farm use, the C/K was also offered with optional features carried over from Chevrolet sedans, including automatic transmissions, AM/FM radio, carpet, and two-tone paint.

While the Action Line would not undergo a definitive model revision through its production, the series underwent gradual changes on a biannual basis. [8] The drivetrain line underwent multiple revisions, as a large-block V8 was offered for the first time in 1968. After 1969, GM switched entirely to Chevrolet-produced engines for C/K pickup trucks.

This generation marks the debut of the Chevrolet Cheyenne and GMC Sierra nameplates; introduced in 1971 and 1972, respectively, General Motors still uses both nameplates for full-size pickups in current production. The Action-Line pickup also served as the basis of ancestors of modern full-size SUVs, including the Chevrolet K5 Blazer, an open-body off-road vehicle, and the Chevrolet Suburban truck-based station wagon.

For 1973, GM replaced the Action Line trucks with the long-running Rounded Line series; the Action Line trucks are the final C/K trucks offered solely with a two-door cab.

Third generation (1973–1991)

Third generation (Rounded Line)
Nicer than New (7397957022).jpg
Overview
Also calledChevrolet/GMC R/V series
Model years 1973-1991
Body and chassis
Platform GM C/K (Rounded Line)
Related Chevrolet K5 Blazer/GMC Jimmy
Chevrolet/GMC Suburban

The third-generation C/K was introduced for the 1973 model year. Designated the "Rounded Line" generation by General Motors, the C/K grew in size inside and out. As pickup trucks increased in use as personal vehicles, cab features and options moved closer in line with GM sedans (with power windows and power door locks becoming options). To further expand its practicality, a four-door crew cab body was introduced (offering 6-passenger seating).

While relatively straight-lined and boxy in appearance (leading to their "Square-body" nickname from the public [9] ) the Rounded Line trucks were the first generation of the C/K to be designed with the use of computers and wind tunnels, optimizing the exterior shape for lower drag and improved fuel economy. The chassis was an all-new design (with all trucks receiving a leaf-spring rear suspension); K-Series trucks moved to all-wheel drive (shift-on-the-fly 4x4 was introduced for 1981).

Alongside the introduction of the four-door crew cab, the third generation C/K marked the introduction of a dual rear-wheel pickup truck ("Big Dooley"). For 1978, the C/K became the first American full-size pickup truck sold with a diesel engine (a 5.7L Oldsmobile diesel V8); a 6.2L V8 diesel was introduced for 1982. This generation also marks the first use of the Chevrolet Silverado nameplate (in use for Chevrolet full-size trucks today).

The Rounded Line generation is the longest-produced version of the C/K model line, produced for 18 model years. For 1987, it was renamed the R/V series (to accommodate the fourth-generation C/K marketed alongside it) and was gradually phased out through the 1991 model year.

Fourth generation (1988–2000)

Fourth generation (GMT400)
Chevrolet-CK.jpg
Overview
Model years 1988-2000
Body and chassis
Platform GM GMT400 platform
Related Chevrolet/GMC Suburban
Chevrolet K5 Blazer/Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon/Cadillac Escalade

The fourth-generation C/K was introduced in April 1987 for the 1988 model year. The first line not assigned a generational moniker by General Motors, it is known by its GMT400 internal codename. Slightly smaller in cab dimensions than the Rounded Line generation, the fourth-generation C/K increased interior space over its predecessor. After trailing Ford and Dodge by over a decade, GM introduced the C/K in an extended-cab configuration. For nearly five years, the fourth-generation C/K was sold alongside its R/V series predecessor, as the crew cab pickup (which served as the basis of the Suburban SUV) was not released until the 1992 model year.

In a branding change, the C/K nomenclature became exclusive to Chevrolet, as all GMC pickups became Sierras (GMC retained the C/K nomenclature for its internal model codes). Chevrolet introduced several specialized variants of the C/K series, including the work-oriented W/T 1500, off-road Z71, and the high-performance 454SS. Between one-ton trucks and medium-duty trucks, Chevrolet and GMC offered the C3500HD chassis cab for commercial use.

For 1995, the fourth-generation C/K underwent a mid-cycle revision, adding a driver-side airbag (dual airbags became standard for 1998). For 1996, the extended cab was redesigned, adding a rear-hinged passenger-side third door.

For the 1999 model year, to accommodate the introduction of the GMT800-chassis Chevrolet Silverado/GMC Sierra, the fourth-generation C/K was renamed as the Chevrolet Silverado Classic and GMC Sierra Classic. After the 2000 model year, C/K pickup trucks were discontinued. GM produced the heavy-duty C3500HD chassis cab as the final version of the C/K model family through the 2002 model year.

South American production (1964-2001)

General Motors Brazil produced three generations of light-duty Chevrolet pickup trucks from 1964 to 2001. Developed specifically for South American production, each version was also derived (to various extents) from the contemporary version of its American C/K counterpart. The model line also included truck-based station wagon/SUVs (similar to the Chevrolet Suburban).

In January 2002, GM Brazil ended production of full-size pickup trucks, concentrating its production towards the Chevrolet S-10 and car-based pickup trucks. [10]

1964–1984

1967 Chevrolet C-14 Chevrolet-C14-1967.jpg
1967 Chevrolet C-14
1970s-1980s Chevrolet Veraneio Chevrolet Veraneio front left.jpg
1970s-1980s Chevrolet Veraneio

In 1964, GM Brazil launched its first line of light trucks designed in Brazil, the Chevrolet C-series pickup truck; in line with the Chevrolet Suburban, the model line was sold in a wagon configuration, renamed from C-1416 to Chevrolet Veraneio in 1969. [10] Styled with an exterior exclusive to Brazil, the model line shared its instrument panel with the first-generation Chevrolet C/K of 1960-1966. Nearly a decade before its American counterpart, a four-door "double cab" was offered alongside the standard two-door configuration, sharing its doors with the Veraneio wagon/SUV.

The model line was launched with a 261 cubic-inch inline-six (derived from the Chevrolet "Stovebolt" engine); this engine was replaced in 1971 by a 250 cubic-inch inline-6 from the Chevrolet Opala. [10] In 1976, the standard gasoline engine for the C-10 became a 2.5L inline-four. [10] The first diesel-powered Chevrolet in Brazil, the D-series pickup introduced a Perkins 5.6L inline-6 diesel in 1965; a four-cylinder diesel (Perkins Q20B) was introduced for 1978. [10] From 1977 to 1980, the Detroit Diesel 4-53 two-cycle inline-four diesel was also offered as an option. [10] For 1981, the engine line was reduced to two, with a 4.8 L inline-six becoming offered in gasoline and ethanol-fuel versions (C-10 and A-10); the sole diesel was now a 5.8 L Perkins inline-six. [10]

1985–1996

1989 Chevrolet C-20 double cab Chevrolet C-20 Crew Cab 1989 (9381666520).jpg
1989 Chevrolet C-20 double cab
1990s Chevrolet Veraneio C-20 in use by law enforcement Doegp3.jpg
1990s Chevrolet Veraneio C-20 in use by law enforcement

For 1985 production, GM Brazil introduced the 20-series model line as its second generation of light trucks. Sharing its cab structure with the "Rounded Line" generation, the 20-series received its own front fascia (sharing headlights with the Opala) and larger taillamps than its American counterpart. Far more advanced in design than its utilitarian predecessor, the 20-series carried over little more than its powertrains from the previous generation. [11] [12] In addition to 20-series pickup trucks, GM Brazil offered a full line of Chevrolet medium and heavy-duty trucks derived from the "Rounded Line" cab. [10]

Again offered in single and double cabs (introduced in 1986), the C-20 and A-20 (ethanol) received a 4.1L inline-six, with the D-20 receiving the Perkins Q20B inline-4 diesel (replaced by the Maxion S4 for 1990 [13] ). In contrast to its American counterpart, the 20-series was offered nearly exclusively with 2-wheel drive; a 4x4 version was offered for 1989 and was withdrawn before the end of the model year, following poor reliability of its drivetrain. [14]

For 1988, the Veraneio wagon/SUV was redesigned for the first time since its introduction, adopting the 20-series body structure; the four-door was joined by the two-door Chevrolet Bonanza. With the exception of its taillamps and front fascia, the Veraneio adopted an appearance close to the Chevrolet/GMC Suburban; the Bonanza was proportioned similar to the Chevrolet K5 Blazer (though fitted with two-wheel drive and a permanent roof). [15]

For 1992, the 20-series underwent a minor exterior revision, again sharing its headlights with the Opala (higher-trim vehicles shared wheels with GMT400 pickup trucks); the interior underwent a redesign, adopting a redesigned instrument panel. [16]

For 1996, the model line adopted the fuel-injected 4.1L six from the Chevrolet Omega, ending its use of carbureted engines. [17]

1997–2001

1998 Chevrolet Silverado (Brazil) Chevrolet Silverado Turbo Diesel 1998 (16657236672).jpg
1998 Chevrolet Silverado (Brazil)

For 1997, the 20-series (based on the 1973 "Rounded Line" pickups) was retired, with GM Brazil introducing the Argentine-produced Chevrolet Silverado. In contrast to the previous two generations of Brazilian Chevrolet trucks, the Chevrolet Silverado was no longer a market-exclusive design; the Silverado was identical to the American-market GMT400 pickup. Offered only as a two-door C2500 with a standard-length bed, the Silverado was fitted with locally-sourced powertrains, including a 138 hp 4.1L inline-6 (from the previous C-20/A-20 and the Chevrolet Omega) and a MWM-produced 168 hp 4.2L turbodiesel inline-6. [10]

The locally-designed Veraneio and Bonanza were discontinued; in 1998, GM Brazil began production of the Chevrolet Grand Blazer, a renamed Chevrolet Tahoe.

For 2000 production, production of the Silverado shifted from Argentina to Brazil. [10] [17] Alongside the withdrawal of the Grand Blazer (in favor of the smaller S-10 Blazer), the Silverado adopted a D-20 suffix (from the popularity of its predecessor [17] ). During 2001, Chevrolet withdrew the 4.1L gasoline six from the Silverado D-20 (the final vehicle to use the engine).

After many years of declining market share in the truck segment, GM Brazil produced the final Silverado D-20 in January 2002. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Chevrolet Silverado Motor vehicle

The Chevrolet Silverado is a range of trucks manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand. Introduced for the 1999 model year, the Silverado is the successor to the long-running Chevrolet C/K model line. Taking its name from the top trim level from the Chevrolet C/K series, the Silverado is offered as a series of full-size pickup trucks, chassis cab trucks, and medium-duty trucks. The fourth generation of the model line was introduced for the 2019 model year.

The Chevrolet straight-six engine was an inline-6 engine made in three versions between 1929 and 1988 by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors. It replaced the Chevrolet Straight-4 engine171-cubic-inch (2.8 L) inline-four as the maker's sole engine from 1929 through 1954, and was the company's base engine starting in 1955 when it added the small block V8 to the lineup. It was completely phased out in North America by 1990; in Brazil, GM held on to its fuel-injected version through the 1998 model year. It was replaced by more recently developed V6 and four-cylinder engines. Chevrolet did not offer another inline-six until the 2002 General Motors Atlas engine's debut in the Chevrolet TrailBlazer.

Duramax V8 engine Motor vehicle engine

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Chevrolet Suburban Motor vehicle

The Chevrolet Suburban is a full-size SUV from Chevrolet. The name started in 1934 for the 1935 U.S. model year, making it the longest continuously used automobile nameplate in production. It has traditionally been one of General Motors' most profitable vehicles. The 1935 first generation Carryall Suburban was one of the first production all-metal bodied station wagons. It now comes with three engine options: a 5.3 liter V8, 6.2 liter V8 or a 3.0 liter Inline-6 turbo diesel.

Chevrolet Express Motor vehicle

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Chevrolet Kodiak Motor vehicle

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GMT800 Motor vehicle platform

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Ford F-Series (medium duty truck) Motor vehicle

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Isuzu Elf Medium duty truck

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GMC Brigadier Motor vehicle

The GMC Brigadier is a series of heavy-duty trucks that were assembled by the GMC Truck and Coach Division of General Motors. The second generation of the H/J-series heavy-duty conventionals, the Brigadier was produced from 1978 to 1989. Slotted between the largest medium-duty C/K trucks and the GMC General, the Brigadier was a Class 7-8 short-hood conventional similar to the Ford L-Series and Mack Model R. Configured in both straight truck and semi-tractor layouts, the Brigadier saw use in short-haul, vocational, and severe-service applications.

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Chevrolet van Motor vehicle

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GMT K2XX Motor vehicle platform

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Chevrolet C/K (second generation) Motor vehicle

The second generation of the C/K series is a range of trucks that was manufactured by General Motors. Marketed by both the Chevrolet and GMC divisions from the 1967 to 1972 model years, this generation was given the "Action Line" moniker by General Motors. As with its predecessor, the second generation C/K included full-size pickup trucks, chassis cab trucks, and medium-duty commercial trucks.

Chevrolet C/K (third generation) American truck series

The third generation of the C/K series is a range of trucks that was manufactured by General Motors. Marketed under the Chevrolet and GMC brands from the 1973 to the 1991 model years, this generation is the longest-produced version of the C/K model line. Adopting the "Rounded Line" moniker by General Motors, the third-generation C/K is the second longest-produced generation of American pickup trucks.

Chevrolet C/K (fourth generation) American truck series

The fourth generation of the C/K series is a range of trucks that was manufactured by General Motors. Marketed by the Chevrolet and GMC brands from the 1988 to the 2000 model years, this generation is the final version of the C/K model line. The C/K nomenclature itself became exclusive to Chevrolet, with the GMC division applying the GMC Sierra nameplate across its entire full-size pickup truck line. Internally codenamed the GMT400 platform, the fourth generation C/K was not given a word moniker. After its production, the model line would informally become known by the public as the "OBS", in reference to its GMT800 successor.

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