Computer keyboard

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Typing on a computer keyboard
Backlit keyboard Backlit keyboard.jpg
Backlit keyboard
A Lenovo's ThinkPad compact USB keyboard ThinkPad USB keyboard (3829537325).jpg
A Lenovo's ThinkPad compact USB keyboard
A white standard wired chiclet keyboard (flat keyboard) Cherry flachtastatur IMGP3072 wp.jpg
A white standard wired chiclet keyboard (flat keyboard)
A traditional keyboard with bicolor keys 2018 Bay Area Mechanical Keyboard Meetup (44130528080).jpg
A traditional keyboard with bicolor keys

A computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device [1] which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches. Following the decline of punch cards and paper tape, interaction via teleprinter-style keyboards became the main input method for computers.

Push-button simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process

A push-button or simply button is a simple switch mechanism for controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Buttons are typically made out of hard material, usually plastic or metal. The surface is usually flat or shaped to accommodate the human finger or hand, so as to be easily depressed or pushed. Buttons are most often biased switches, although many un-biased buttons still require a spring to return to their un-pushed state. Terms for the "pushing" of a button include pressing, depressing, mashing, slapping, hitting, and punching.

In telecommunications, an electronic switching system (ESS) is a telephone switch that uses digital electronics and computerized control to interconnect telephone circuits for the purpose of establishing telephone calls.

Teleprinter device for transmitting messages in written form by electrical signals

A teleprinter is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. Initially they were used in telegraphy, which developed in the late 1830s and 1840s as the first use of electrical engineering. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission.

Contents

Keyboard keys (buttons) typically have characters engraved or printed on them, [2] and each press of a key typically corresponds to a single written symbol. However, producing some symbols may require pressing and holding several keys simultaneously or in sequence. [3] While most keyboard keys produce letters, numbers or signs (characters), other keys or simultaneous key presses can produce actions or execute computer commands.

Engraving practice of incising a design on to a hard, usually flat surface, by cutting grooves into it

Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, gold, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations; these images are also called "engravings". Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is a form of relief printing and is not covered in this article.

Printing process for reproducing text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template. The earliest non-paper products involving printing include cylinder seals and objects such as the Cyrus Cylinder and the Cylinders of Nabonidus. The earliest known form of printing as applied to paper was woodblock printing, which appeared in China before 220 AD. Later developments in printing technology include the movable type invented by Bi Sheng around 1040 AD and the printing press invented by Johannes Gutenberg in the 15th century. The technology of printing played a key role in the development of the Renaissance and the scientific revolution, and laid the material basis for the modern knowledge-based economy and the spread of learning to the masses.

Symbol something that represents an idea, a process, or a physical entity

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion. The variable 'x', in a mathematical equation, may symbolize the position of a particle in space.

In normal usage, the keyboard is used as a text entry interface for typing text and numbers into a word processor, text editor or any other program. In a modern computer, the interpretation of key presses is generally left to the software. A computer keyboard distinguishes each physical key from every other key and reports all key presses to the controlling software. Keyboards are also used for computer gaming — either regular keyboards or keyboards with special gaming features, which can expedite frequently used keystroke combinations.

A text entry interface or text entry device is an interface that is used to enter text information an electronic device. A commonly used device is a mechanical computer keyboard. Most laptop computers have an integrated mechanical keyboard, and desktop computers are usually operated primarily using a keyboard and mouse. Devices such as smartphones and tablets mean that interfaces such as virtual keyboards and voice recognition are becoming more popular as text entry systems.

Word processor computer program used for writing and editing documents

A word processor (WP) is a computer program or device that provides for input, editing, formatting and output of text, often with additional features.

Text editor software to modify text documents

A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text. Such programs are sometimes known as "notepad" software, following the naming of Microsoft Notepad. Text editors are provided with operating systems and software development packages, and can be used to change files such as configuration files, documentation files and programming language source code.

A keyboard is also used to give commands to the operating system of a computer, such as Windows' Control-Alt-Delete combination. Although on Pre-Windows 95 Microsoft operating systems this forced a re-boot, now it brings up a system security options screen. [4] [5]

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Microsoft Windows families include Windows NT and Windows IoT; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Server or Windows Embedded Compact. Defunct Microsoft Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.

Control-Alt-Delete is a computer keyboard command on IBM PC compatible computers, invoked by pressing the Delete key while holding the Control and Alt keys: Ctrl+Alt+Delete. The function of the key combination differs depending on the context but it generally interrupts or facilitates interrupting a function. For instance, in pre-boot environment or in DOS, Windows 3.0 and earlier versions of Windows or OS/2, the key combination reboots the computer. Starting with Windows 95, the command invokes a task manager or security related component that facilitates ending a Windows session.

Windows 95 operating system from Microsoft

Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems. The first operating system in the 9x family, it is the successor to Windows 3.1x, and was released to manufacturing on August 15, 1995, and generally to retail on August 24, 1995. Windows 95 merged Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows products, and featured significant improvements over its predecessor, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its simplified "plug-and-play" features. There were also major changes made to the core components of the operating system, such as moving from a mainly co-operatively multitasked 16-bit architecture to a 32-bit preemptive multitasking architecture, at least when running only 32-bit protected mode applications.

A command-line interface is a type of user interface navigated entirely using a keyboard, or some other similar device that does the job of one.

Command-line interface Type of computer interface based on entering text commands and viewing text output

A command-line interface (CLI) is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. The program which handles the interface is called a command-line interpreter or command-line processor, or shell.

User interface means by which a user interacts with and controls a machine

The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur. The goal of this interaction is to allow effective operation and control of the machine from the human end, whilst the machine simultaneously feeds back information that aids the operators' decision-making process. Examples of this broad concept of user interfaces include the interactive aspects of computer operating systems, hand tools, heavy machinery operator controls, and process controls. The design considerations applicable when creating user interfaces are related to or involve such disciplines as ergonomics and psychology.

History

While typewriters are the definitive ancestor of all key-based text entry devices, the computer keyboard as a device for electromechanical data entry and communication derives largely from the utility of two devices: teleprinters (or teletypes) and keypunches. It was through such devices that modern computer keyboards inherited their layouts.

Typewriter machine for writing in characters

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type. Typically, a typewriter has an array of keys, and each one causes a different single character to be produced on the paper, by means of a ribbon with dried ink struck against the paper by a type element similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing. With older typewriters, a separate type element corresponds to each key; more recent ones use a single type element with a different portion of it used for each character. At the end of the nineteenth century, the term typewriter was also applied to a person who used a typing machine.

Keypunch

A keypunch is a device for precisely punching holes into stiff paper cards at specific locations as determined by keys struck by a human operator. Other devices included here for that same function include the gang punch, the pantograph punch, and the stamp.

As early as the 1870s, teleprinter-like devices were used to simultaneously type and transmit stock market text data from the keyboard across telegraph lines to stock ticker machines to be immediately copied and displayed onto ticker tape. [6] The teleprinter, in its more contemporary form, was developed from 1907 to 1910 by American mechanical engineer Charles Krum and his son Howard, with early contributions by electrical engineer Frank Pearne. Earlier models were developed separately by individuals such as Royal Earl House and Frederick G. Creed.

Earlier, Herman Hollerith developed the first keypunch devices, which soon evolved to include keys for text and number entry akin to normal typewriters by the 1930s. [7]

The keyboard on the teleprinter played a strong role in point-to-point and point-to-multipoint communication for most of the 20th century, while the keyboard on the keypunch device played a strong role in data entry and storage for just as long. The development of the earliest computers incorporated electric typewriter keyboards: the development of the ENIAC computer incorporated a keypunch device as both the input and paper-based output device, while the BINAC computer also made use of an electromechanically controlled typewriter for both data entry onto magnetic tape (instead of paper) and data output. [8]

The keyboard remained the primary, most integrated computer peripheral well into the era of personal computing until the introduction of the mouse as a consumer device in 1984. By this time, text-only user interfaces with sparse graphics gave way to comparatively graphics-rich icons on screen. [9] However, keyboards remain central to human-computer interaction to the present, even as mobile personal computing devices such as smartphones and tablets adapt the keyboard as an optional virtual, touchscreen-based means of data entry.

Keyboard types

There are different types of keyboards available right now and each of them is designed with a focus on specific features that suit special needs. The first thing you need to consider before getting one is the kind of work you will be doing with it and the size of the keyboard. [10]

One factor determining the size of a keyboard is the presence of duplicate keys, such as a separate numeric keyboard or two each of Shift, ALT and CTL for convenience. [11]

Further, the keyboard size depends on the extent to which a system is used where a single action is produced by a combination of subsequent or simultaneous keystrokes (with modifier keys), or multiple pressing of a single key. A keyboard with few keys is called a keypad.

Another factor determining the size of a keyboard is the size and spacing of the keys. The reduction is limited by the practical consideration that the keys must be large enough to be easily pressed by fingers. Alternatively, a tool is used for pressing small keys.

Standard

A standard wired computer keyboard by Lenovo LenovoKeyboard.jpg
A standard wired computer keyboard by Lenovo

Standard alphanumeric keyboards have keys that are on three-quarter inch centers (0.750 inches, 19.05 mm), and have a key travel of at least 0.150 inches (3.81 mm). Desktop computer keyboards, such as the 101-key US traditional keyboards or the 104-key Windows keyboards, include alphabetic characters, punctuation symbols, numbers and a variety of function keys. The internationally common 102/104 key keyboards have a smaller left shift key and an additional key with some more symbols between that and the letter to its right (usually Z or Y). Also the enter key is usually shaped differently. Computer keyboards are similar to electric-typewriter keyboards but contain additional keys, such as the command or Windows keys. There is no standard computer keyboard, although many manufacturers imitate the keyboard of PCs. There are actually three different PC keyboards: the original PC keyboard with 84 keys, the AT keyboard also with 84 keys and the enhanced keyboard with 101 keys. The three differ somewhat in the placement of function keys, the control keys, the return key, and the shift key.

Laptop-size

Keyboards on laptops usually have a shorter travel distance and a reduced set of keys. QWERTY keyboard.jpg
Keyboards on laptops usually have a shorter travel distance and a reduced set of keys.

Keyboards on laptops and notebook computers usually have a shorter travel distance for the keystroke, shorter over travel distance, and a reduced set of keys. They may not have a numeric keypad, and the function keys may be placed in locations that differ from their placement on a standard, full-sized keyboard. The switch mechanism for a laptop keyboard is more likely to be a scissor switch than a rubber dome; this is opposite the trend for full-size keyboards.

Flexible keyboards

Flexible keyboards are a junction between normal type and laptop type keyboards: normal from the full arrangement of keys, and laptop from the short key distance. Additionally, the flexibility allows the user to fold/roll the keyboard for better storage and transfer. However, for typing the keyboard must be resting on a hard surface. The vast majority [12] of flexible keyboards in the market are made from silicone; this material makes them water- and dust-proof. This is useful in hospitals, [13] where keyboards are subjected to frequent washing, and other dirty or must-be-clean environments.

Handheld

An AlphaGrip handheld keyboard AlphaGrip Handheld Keyboard placed on top of a table, Oct 2013.png
An AlphaGrip handheld keyboard

Handheld ergonomic keyboards [14] [15] are designed to be held like a game controller, and can be used as such, instead of laid out flat on top of a table surface.

Typically handheld keyboards hold all the alphanumeric keys and symbols that a standard keyboard would have, yet only be accessed by pressing two sets of keys at once; one acting as a function key similar to a 'Shift' key that would allow for capital letters on a standard keyboard. [16] Handheld keyboards allow the user the ability to move around a room or to lean back on a chair while also being able to type in front or away from the computer. [17] Some variations of handheld ergonomic keyboards also include a trackball mouse that allow mouse movement and typing included in one handheld device. [18]

Thumb-sized

Smaller external keyboards have been introduced for devices without a built-in keyboard, such as PDAs, and smartphones. Small keyboards are also useful where there is a limited workspace. [19]

A thumb keyboard (thumb board) is used in some personal digital assistants such as the Palm Treo and BlackBerry and some Ultra-Mobile PCs such as the OQO.

Numeric keyboards contain only numbers, mathematical symbols for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, a decimal point, and several function keys. They are often used to facilitate data entry with smaller keyboards that do not have a numeric keypad, commonly those of laptop computers. [20] These keys are collectively known as a numeric pad, numeric keys, or a numeric keypad, and it can consist of the following types of keys: Arithmetic operators, numbers, arrow keys, Navigation keys, Num Lock and Enter key.

Multifunctional

Multifunction keyboard with LCD function keys Ascom BEG 100.jpg
Multifunction keyboard with LCD function keys

Multifunctional keyboards provide additional function beyond the standard keyboard. Many are programmable, configurable computer keyboards and some control multiple PCs, workstations (incl. SUN) and other information sources (incl. Thomson Reuters FXT/Eikon, Bloomberg, EBS, etc.) usually in multi-screen work environments. Users have additional key functions as well as the standard functions and can typically use a single keyboard and mouse to access multiple sources.

Multifunction keyboard with touch WEY Smart Touch.png
Multifunction keyboard with touch

Multifunctional keyboards may feature customised keypads, fully programmable function or soft keys for macros/pre-sets, biometric or smart card readers, trackballs, etc. New generation multifunctional keyboards feature a touchscreen display to stream video, control audio visual media and alarms, execute application inputs, configure individual desktop environments, etc. Multifunctional keyboards may also permit users to share access to PCs and other information sources. Multiple interfaces (serial, USB, audio, Ethernet, etc.) are used to integrate external devices. Some multifunctional keyboards are also used to directly and intuitively control video walls.

Common environments for multifunctional keyboards are complex, high-performance workplaces for financial traders and control room operators (emergency services, security, air traffic management; industry, utilities management, etc.).

Non-standard layout and special-use types

Chorded

While other keyboards generally associate one action with each key, chorded keyboards associate actions with combinations of key presses. Since there are many combinations available, chorded keyboards can effectively produce more actions on a board with fewer keys. Court reporters' stenotype machines use chorded keyboards to enable them to enter text much faster by typing a syllable with each stroke instead of one letter at a time. The fastest typists (as of 2007) use a stenograph, a kind of chorded keyboard used by most court reporters and closed-caption reporters. Some chorded keyboards are also made for use in situations where fewer keys are preferable, such as on devices that can be used with only one hand, and on small mobile devices that don't have room for larger keyboards. Chorded keyboards are less desirable in many cases because it usually takes practice and memorization of the combinations to become proficient.

Software

Software keyboards or on-screen keyboards often take the form of computer programs that display an image of a keyboard on the screen. Another input device such as a mouse or a touchscreen can be used to operate each virtual key to enter text. Software keyboards have become very popular in touchscreen enabled cell phones, due to the additional cost and space requirements of other types of hardware keyboards. Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and some varieties of Linux include on-screen keyboards that can be controlled with the mouse. In software keyboards, the mouse has to be maneuvered onto the on-screen letters given by the software. On the click of a letter, the software writes the respective letter on the respective spot.

Projection

Projection keyboards project an image of keys, usually with a laser, onto a flat surface. The device then uses a camera or infrared sensor to "watch" where the user's fingers move, and will count a key as being pressed when it "sees" the user's finger touch the projected image. Projection keyboards can simulate a full size keyboard from a very small projector. Because the "keys" are simply projected images, they cannot be felt when pressed. Users of projected keyboards often experience increased discomfort in their fingertips because of the lack of "give" when typing. A flat, non-reflective surface is also required for the keys to be projected. Most projection keyboards are made for use with PDAs and smartphones due to their small form factor.

Optical keyboard technology

Also known as photo-optical keyboard, light responsive keyboard, photo-electric keyboard and optical key actuation detection technology.

An optical keyboard technology [21] utilizes LEDs and photo sensors to optically detect actuated keys. Most commonly the emitters and sensors are located in the perimeter, mounted on a small PCB. The light is directed from side to side of the keyboard interior and it can only be blocked by the actuated keys. Most optical keyboards [22] require at least 2 beams (most commonly vertical beam and horizontal beam) to determine the actuated key. Some optical keyboards use a special key structure that blocks the light in a certain pattern, allowing only one beam per row of keys (most commonly horizontal beam).

Layout

Alphabetic

The 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout evolved from the standard typewriter keyboard, with extra keys for computing. Qwerty.svg
The 104-key PC US English QWERTY keyboard layout evolved from the standard typewriter keyboard, with extra keys for computing.
The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout arranges keys so that frequently used keys are easiest to press, which reduces muscle fatigue when typing common English. KB United States Dvorak.svg
The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout arranges keys so that frequently used keys are easiest to press, which reduces muscle fatigue when typing common English.

There are a number of different arrangements of alphabetic, numeric, and punctuation symbols on keys. These different keyboard layouts arise mainly because different people need easy access to different symbols, either because they are inputting text in different languages, or because they need a specialized layout for mathematics, accounting, computer programming, or other purposes. The United States keyboard layout is used as default in the currently most popular operating systems: Windows, [23] Mac OS X [24] and Linux. [25] [26] The common QWERTY-based layout was designed early in the era of mechanical typewriters, so its ergonomics were compromised to allow for the mechanical limitations of the typewriter.

As the letter-keys were attached to levers that needed to move freely, inventor Christopher Sholes developed the QWERTY layout to reduce the likelihood of jamming. With the advent of computers, lever jams are no longer an issue, but nevertheless, QWERTY layouts were adopted for electronic keyboards because they were widely used. Alternative layouts such as the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard are not in widespread use.

The QWERTZ layout is widely used in Germany and much of Central Europe. The main difference between it and QWERTY is that Y and Z are swapped, and most special characters such as brackets are replaced by diacritical characters.

Another situation takes place with "national" layouts. Keyboards designed for typing in Spanish have some characters shifted, to release the space for Ñ ñ; similarly, those for Portuguese, French and other European languages may have a special key for the character Ç ç. The AZERTY layout is used in France, Belgium and some neighbouring countries. It differs from the QWERTY layout in that the A and Q are swapped, the Z and W are swapped, and the M is moved from the right of N to the right of L (where colon/semicolon is on a US keyboard). The digits 0 to 9 are on the same keys, but to be typed the shift key must be pressed. The unshifted positions are used for accented characters.

In bilingual regions of Canada and in the French-speaking province of Québec, keyboards can often be switched between an English and a French-language keyboard; while both keyboards share the same QWERTY alphabetic layout, the French-language keyboard enables the user to type accented vowels such as "é" or "à" with a single keystroke. Using keyboards for other languages leads to a conflict: the image on the key does not correspond to the character. In such cases, each new language may require an additional label on the keys, because the standard keyboard layouts do not share even similar characters of different languages (see the example in the figure above).

Keyboards in many parts of Asia may have special keys to switch between the Latin character set and a completely different typing system. Japanese layout keyboards can be switched between various Japanese input methods and the Latin alphabet by signaling the operating system's input interpreter of the change, and some operating systems (namely the Windows family) interpret the character "\" as "¥" for display purposes without changing the bytecode which has led some keyboard makers to mark "\" as "¥" or both.

Keyboards for other alphabets supported include:

Arabic keyboard KB Arabic.svg
Arabic keyboard
Russian keyboard KB Russian.svg
Russian keyboard
A Hebrew keyboard lets the user type in both Hebrew and the Latin alphabet. Hebkeyboard.JPG
A Hebrew keyboard lets the user type in both Hebrew and the Latin alphabet.

In Microsoft word, ALT+Shift allows shifting between languages. [27]

Key types

Alphanumeric

A Greek keyboard lets the user type in both Greek and the Latin alphabet (MacBook Pro). Greek Keyboard (Macbook Pro).jpg
A Greek keyboard lets the user type in both Greek and the Latin alphabet (MacBook Pro).
The Control, Windows, and Alt keys are important modifier keys. CtrlWindowsAlt.jpg
The Control, Windows, and Alt keys are important modifier keys.
A Space-cadet keyboard has many modifier keys. Space-cadet.jpg
A Space-cadet keyboard has many modifier keys.

Alphabetical, numeric, and punctuation keys are used in the same fashion as a typewriter keyboard to enter their respective symbol into a word processing program, text editor, data spreadsheet, or other program. Many of these keys will produce different symbols when modifier keys or shift keys are pressed. The alphabetic characters become uppercase when the shift key or Caps Lock key is depressed. The numeric characters become symbols or punctuation marks when the shift key is depressed. The alphabetical, numeric, and punctuation keys can also have other functions when they are pressed at the same time as some modifier keys. The Space bar is a horizontal bar in the lowermost row, which is significantly wider than other keys. Like the alphanumeric characters, it is also descended from the mechanical typewriter. Its main purpose is to enter the space between words during typing. It is large enough so that a thumb from either hand can use it easily. Depending on the operating system, when the space bar is used with a modifier key such as the control key, it may have functions such as resizing or closing the current window, half-spacing, or backspacing. In computer games and other applications the key has myriad uses in addition to its normal purpose in typing, such as jumping and adding marks to check boxes. In certain programs for playback of digital video, the space bar is used for pausing and resuming the playback.

Modifier keys

Modifier keys are special keys that modify the normal action of another key, when the two are pressed in combination. For example, Alt+F4 in Microsoft Windows will close the program in an active window. In contrast, pressing just F4 will probably do nothing, unless assigned a specific function in a particular program. By themselves, modifier keys usually do nothing. The most widely used modifier keys include the Control key, Shift key and the Alt key. The AltGr key is used to access additional symbols for keys that have three symbols printed on them. On the Macintosh and Apple keyboards, the modifier keys are the Option key and Command key, respectively. On Sun Microsystems and Lisp machine keyboards, the Meta key is used as a modifier and for Windows keyboards, there is a Windows key. Compact keyboard layouts often use a Fn key. "Dead keys" allow placement of a diacritic mark, such as an accent, on the following letter (e.g., the Compose key). The Enter/Return key typically causes a command line, window form or dialog box to operate its default function, which is typically to finish an "entry" and begin the desired process. In word processing applications, pressing the enter key ends a paragraph and starts a new one.

Cursor keys

Navigation keys or cursor keys include a variety of keys which move the cursor to different positions on the screen. [28] Arrow keys are programmed to move the cursor in a specified direction; page scroll keys, such as the Page Up and Page Down keys, scroll the page up and down. The Home key is used to return the cursor to the beginning of the line where the cursor is located; the End key puts the cursor at the end of the line. The Tab key advances the cursor to the next tab stop. The Insert key is mainly used to switch between overtype mode, in which the cursor overwrites any text that is present on and after its current location, and insert mode, where the cursor inserts a character at its current position, forcing all characters past it one position further. The Delete key discards the character ahead of the cursor's position, moving all following characters one position "back" towards the freed place. On many notebook computer keyboards the key labeled Delete (sometimes Delete and Backspace are printed on the same key) serves the same purpose as a Backspace key. The Backspace key deletes the preceding character. Lock keys lock part of a keyboard, depending on the settings selected. The lock keys are scattered around the keyboard. Most styles of keyboards have three LEDs indicating which locks are enabled, in the upper right corner above the numeric pad. The lock keys include Scroll lock, Num lock (which allows the use of the numeric keypad), and Caps lock. [29]

System commands

4800-52 mainframe / dumb terminal keyboard, circa mid 1980s. Note the obscure configuration of modifier and arrow keys, line feed key, break key, blank keys, and repeat key. 4800-52-mainframe-dumb-terminal-keyboard.jpg
4800-52 mainframe / dumb terminal keyboard, circa mid 1980s. Note the obscure configuration of modifier and arrow keys, line feed key, break key, blank keys, and repeat key.

The SysRq and Print screen commands often share the same key. SysRq was used in earlier computers as a "panic" button to recover from crashes (and it is still used in this sense to some extent by the Linux kernel; see Magic SysRq key). The Print screen command used to capture the entire screen and send it to the printer, but in the present it usually puts a screenshot in the clipboard.

Break key

The Break key/Pause key no longer has a well-defined purpose. Its origins go back to teleprinter users, who wanted a key that would temporarily interrupt the communications line. The Break key can be used by software in several different ways, such as to switch between multiple login sessions, to terminate a program, or to interrupt a modem connection. In programming, especially old DOS-style BASIC, Pascal and C, Break is used (in conjunction with Ctrl) to stop program execution. In addition to this, Linux and variants, as well as many DOS programs, treat this combination the same as Ctrl+C. On modern keyboards, the break key is usually labeled Pause/Break. In most Windows environments, the key combination Windows key+Pause brings up the system properties.

Escape key

The Escape key (often abbreviated Esc) "nearly all of the time" [30] signals Stop - [31] QUIT - [32] let me "get out of a dialog" [30] (or pop-up window): [33] LET ME ESCAPE.

Another common application today of the Esc key is to trigger the Stop button in many web browsers.[ citation needed ]

ESC origins

ESC was part of the standard keyboard on the DEC VT50, introduced July 1974; it was not part of the 1970-introduced VT05. [34] The TECO and Emacs text editors use the Esc key extensively.

Historically it also served as a type of shift key, such that one or more following characters were interpreted differently, hence the term Escape sequence, which refers to a series of characters, usually preceded by the Escape character. [35] [36]

On machines running Microsoft Windows, prior to the implementation of the Windows key on keyboards, the typical practice for invoking the "start" button was to hold down the control key and press escape. This process still works in Windows 95, 98, Me, NT 4, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8, and 10. [37]

Enter key

The Enter key is located: One in the alphanumeric keys and the other one is in the numeric keys. When one worked something on their computer and wanted to do something with their work, pressing the enter key would do the command they ordered. Another function is to create a space for next paragraph. When one typed and finished typing a paragraph and they wanted to have a second paragraph, they could press enter and it would do spacing.

Shift key

Shift key: when one presses shift and a letter, it will capitalize the letter pressed with the shift key. Another use is to type more symbols than appear to be available, for instance the apostrophe key is accompanied with a quotation mark on the top. If one wants to type the quotation mark but pressed that key alone, the symbol that would appear would be the apostrophe. The quotation mark will only appear if both the required key and the Shift key are pressed.

The Menu key or Application key is a key found on Windows-oriented computer keyboards. It is used to launch a context menu with the keyboard rather than with the usual right mouse button. The key's symbol is usually a small icon depicting a cursor hovering above a menu. On some Samsung keyboards the cursor in the icon is not present, showing the menu only. This key was created at the same time as the Windows key. This key is normally used when the right mouse button is not present on the mouse. Some Windows public terminals do not have a Menu key on their keyboard to prevent users from right-clicking (however, in many Windows applications, a similar functionality can be invoked with the Shift+F10 keyboard shortcut).

Miscellaneous

Multimedia buttons on some keyboards give quick access to the Internet or control the volume of the speakers. Multimediakb.jpg
Multimedia buttons on some keyboards give quick access to the Internet or control the volume of the speakers.

Many, but not all, computer keyboards have a numeric keypad to the right of the alphabetic keyboard, often separated from the other groups of keys such as the function keys and system command keys, which contains numbers, basic mathematical symbols (e.g., addition, subtraction, etc.), and a few function keys. On Japanese/Korean keyboards, there may be Language input keys for changing the language to use. Some keyboards have power management keys (e.g., power key, sleep key and wake key); Internet keys to access a web browser or E-mail; and/or multimedia keys, such as volume controls; or keys that can be programmed by the user to launch a specified application or a command like minimizing all windows.

Numeric keys

When we calculate, we use these numeric keys to type numbers. Symbols concerned with calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division symbols are located in this group of keys. The enter key in this keys indicate the equal sign.

Multiple layouts

It is possible to install multiple keyboard layouts within an operating system and switch between them, either through features implemented within the OS, or through an external application. Microsoft Windows, [38] Linux, [39] and Mac [40] provide support to add keyboard layouts and choose from them.

Layout changing software

The character code produced by any key press is determined by the keyboard driver software. A key press generates a scancode which is interpreted as an alphanumeric character or control function. Depending on operating systems, various application programs are available to create, add and switch among keyboard layouts. Many programs are available, some of which are language specific.

The arrangement of symbols of specific language can be customized. An existing keyboard layout can be edited, and a new layout can be created using this type of software.

For example, Ukelele[sic] for Mac, [41] The Microsoft Keyboard Layout Creator [42] and open-source Avro Keyboard for Windows provide the ability to customize the keyboard layout as desired.

Illumination

Keyboards and keypads may be illuminated from inside, especially on equipment for mobile use. Both keyboards built into computers and external ones may support backlighting; external backlit keyboards may have a wired USB connection, or be connected wirelessly and powered by batteries. Illumination facilitates the use of the keyboard or keypad in dark environments.

For general productivity, only the keys may be uniformly backlit, without distracting light around the keys.

Many gaming keyboards are designed to have an aesthetic as well as functional appeal, with multiple colours, and colour-coded keys to make it easier for gamers to find command keys while playing in a dark room. [43] Many keyboards not otherwise illuminated may have small LED lights in a few important function keys, or elsewhere on the housing, if their function is activated (see photo).

Keys with integrated LED indicator lights Keyboard keys with light.jpg
Keys with integrated LED indicator lights

Technology

Key switches

In the first electronic keyboards in the early 1970s, the key switches were individual switches inserted into holes in metal frames. These keyboards cost from 80 to 120  USD and were used in mainframe data terminals. The most popular switch types were reed switches (contacts enclosed in a vacuum in a glass capsule, affected by a magnet mounted on the switch plunger).[ citation needed ]

In the mid-1970s, lower-cost direct-contact key switches were introduced, but their life in switch cycles was much shorter (rated ten million cycles) because they were open to the environment. This became more acceptable, however, for use in computer terminals at the time, which began to see increasingly shorter model lifespans as they advanced. [44]

In 1978, Key Tronic Corporation introduced keyboards with capacitive-based switches, one of the first keyboard technologies not to use self-contained switches. [45] There was simply a sponge pad with a conductive-coated Mylar plastic sheet on the switch plunger, and two half-moon trace patterns on the printed circuit board below. As the key was depressed, the capacitance between the plunger pad and the patterns on the PCB below changed, which was detected by integrated circuits (IC). These keyboards were claimed to have the same reliability as the other "solid-state switch" keyboards such as inductive and Hall-effect, but competitive with direct-contact keyboards. Prices of $60 for keyboards were achieved, and Key Tronic rapidly became the largest independent keyboard manufacturer.

Meanwhile, IBM made their own keyboards, using their own patented technology: Keys on older IBM keyboards [46] were made with a "buckling spring" mechanism, in which a coil spring under the key buckles under pressure from the user's finger, triggering a hammer that presses two plastic sheets (membranes) with conductive traces together, completing a circuit. This produces a clicking sound and gives physical feedback for the typist, indicating that the key has been depressed. [47]

The first electronic keyboards had a typewriter key travel distance of 0.187 inches (4.75 mm), keytops were a half-inch (12.7 mm) high, and keyboards were about two inches (5 cm) thick. Over time, less key travel was accepted in the market, finally landing on 0.110 inches (2.79 mm). Coincident with this, Key Tronic was the first company to introduce a keyboard that was only about one inch thick. And now keyboards measure only about a half-inch thick.

Keytops are an important element of keyboards. In the beginning, keyboard keytops had a "dish shape" on top, like typewriters before them. Keyboard key legends must be extremely durable over tens of millions of depressions, since they are subjected to extreme mechanical wear from fingers and fingernails, and subject to hand oils and creams, so engraving and filling key legends with paint, as was done previously for individual switches, was never acceptable. So, for the first electronic keyboards, the key legends were produced by two-shot (or double-shot, or two-color) molding, where either the key shell or the inside of the key with the key legend was molded first, and then the other color molded second. But, to save cost, other methods were explored, such as sublimation printing and laser engraving, both methods which could be used to print a whole keyboard at the same time.

Initially, sublimation printing, where a special ink is printed onto the keycap surface and the application of heat causes the ink molecules to penetrate and commingle with the plastic modules, had a problem because finger oils caused the molecules to disperse, but then a necessarily very hard clear coating was applied to prevent this. Coincident with sublimation printing, which was first used in high volume by IBM on their keyboards, was the introduction by IBM of single-curved-dish keycaps to facilitate quality printing of key legends by having a consistently curved surface instead of a dish. But one problem with sublimation or laser printing was that the processes took too long and only dark legends could be printed on light-colored keys. On another note, IBM was unique in using separate shells, or "keycaps", on keytop bases. This might have made their manufacturing of different keyboard layouts more flexible, but the reason for doing this was that the plastic material that needed to be used for sublimation printing was different from standard ABS keytop plastic material.

Three final mechanical technologies brought keyboards to where they are today, driving the cost well under $10:

  1. "Monoblock" keyboard designs were developed where individual switch housings were eliminated and a one-piece "monoblock" housing used instead. This was possible because of molding techniques that could provide very tight tolerances for the switch-plunger holes and guides across the width of the keyboard so that the key plunger-to-housing clearances were not too tight or too loose, either of which could cause the keys to bind.
  2. The use of contact-switch membrane sheets under the monoblock. This technology came from flat-panel switch membranes, where the switch contacts are printed inside of a top and bottom layer, with a spacer layer in between, so that when pressure is applied to the area above, a direct electrical contact is made. The membrane layers can be printed by very-high volume, low-cost "reel-to-reel" printing machines, with each keyboard membrane cut and punched out afterwards.

Plastic materials played a very important part in the development and progress of electronic keyboards. Until "monoblocks" came along, GE's "self-lubricating" Delrin was the only plastic material for keyboard switch plungers that could withstand the beating over tens of millions of cycles of lifetime use. Greasing or oiling switch plungers was undesirable because it would attract dirt over time which would eventually affect the feel and even bind the key switches (although keyboard manufacturers would sometimes sneak this into their keyboards, especially if they could not control the tolerances of the key plungers and housings well enough to have a smooth key depression feel or prevent binding). But Delrin was only available in black and white, and was not suitable for keytops (too soft), so keytops use ABS plastic. However, as plastic molding advanced in maintaining tight tolerances, and as key travel length reduced from 0.187-inch to 0.110-inch (4.75 mm to 2.79 mm), single-part keytop/plungers could be made of ABS, with the keyboard monolocks also made of ABS.

Control processor

Scanning procedure FunctionalCircuitDiagramOfKeyboardNumPadScanningProcedure-small.gif
Scanning procedure

Computer keyboards include control circuitry to convert key presses into key codes [48] (usually scancodes) that the computer's electronics can understand. The key switches are connected via the printed circuit board in an electrical X-Y matrix where a voltage is provided sequentially to the Y lines and, when a key is depressed, detected sequentially by scanning the X lines.

The first computer keyboards were for mainframe computer data terminals and used discrete electronic parts. The first keyboard microprocessor was introduced in 1972 by General Instruments, but keyboards have been using the single-chip 8048 microcontroller variant since it became available in 1978. [49] The keyboard switch matrix is wired to its inputs, it converts the keystrokes to key codes, and, for a detached keyboard, sends the codes down a serial cable (the keyboard cord) to the main processor on the computer motherboard. This serial keyboard cable communication is only bi-directional to the extent that the computer's electronics controls the illumination of the caps lock, num lock and scroll lock lights.

One test for whether the computer has crashed is pressing the caps lock key. The keyboard sends the key code to the keyboard driver running in the main computer; if the main computer is operating, it commands the light to turn on. All the other indicator lights work in a similar way. The keyboard driver also tracks the Shift, alt and control state of the keyboard.

Some lower-quality keyboards have multiple or false key entries due to inadequate electrical designs. These are caused by inadequate keyswitch "debouncing" or inadequate keyswitch matrix layout that don't allow multiple keys to be depressed at the same time, both circumstances which are explained below:

When pressing a keyboard key, the key contacts may "bounce" against each other for several milliseconds before they settle into firm contact. When released, they bounce some more until they revert to the uncontacted state. If the computer were watching for each pulse, it would see many keystrokes for what the user thought was just one. To resolve this problem, the processor in a keyboard (or computer) "debounces" the keystrokes, by aggregating them across time to produce one "confirmed" keystroke.

Some low-quality keyboards also suffer problems with rollover (that is, when multiple keys pressed at the same time, or when keys are pressed so fast that multiple keys are down within the same milliseconds). Early "solid-state" keyswitch keyboards did not have this problem because the keyswitches are electrically isolated from each other, and early "direct-contact" keyswitch keyboards avoided this problem by having isolation diodes for every keyswitch. These early keyboards had "n-key" rollover, which means any number of keys can be depressed and the keyboard will still recognize the next key depressed. But when three keys are pressed (electrically closed) at the same time in a "direct contact" keyswitch matrix that doesn't have isolation diodes, the keyboard electronics can see a fourth "phantom" key which is the intersection of the X and Y lines of the three keys. Some types of keyboard circuitry will register a maximum number of keys at one time. "Three-key" rollover, also called "phantom key blocking" or "phantom key lockout", will only register three keys and ignore all others until one of the three keys is lifted. This is undesirable, especially for fast typing (hitting new keys before the fingers can release previous keys), and games (designed for multiple key presses).

As direct-contact membrane keyboards became popular, the available rollover of keys was optimized by analyzing the most common key sequences and placing these keys so that they do not potentially produce phantom keys in the electrical key matrix (for example, simply placing three or four keys that might be depressed simultaneously on the same X or same Y line, so that a phantom key intersection/short cannot happen), so that blocking a third key usually isn't a problem. But lower-quality keyboard designs and unknowledgeable engineers may not know these tricks, and it can still be a problem in games due to wildly different or configurable layouts in different games.

Connection types

There are several ways of connecting a keyboard to a system unit (more precisely, to its keyboard controller) using cables, including the standard AT connector commonly found on motherboards, which was eventually replaced by the PS/2 and the USB connection. Prior to the iMac line of systems, Apple used the proprietary Apple Desktop Bus for its keyboard connector.

Wireless keyboards have become popular. A wireless keyboard must have a transmitter built in, and a receiver connected to the computer's keyboard port; it communicates either by radio frequency (RF) or infrared (IR) signals. A wireless keyboard may use industry standard Bluetooth radio communication, in which case the receiver may be built into the computer. Wireless keyboards need batteries for power, and may be at risk of data eavesdropping. Wireless solar keyboards charge their batteries from small solar panels using natural or artificial light. The 1984 Apricot Portable is an early example of an IR keyboard.

Alternative text-entering methods

On-screen keyboard controlled with the mouse can be used by users with limited mobility OnBoardKeyboard.png
On-screen keyboard controlled with the mouse can be used by users with limited mobility

Optical character recognition (OCR) is preferable to rekeying for converting existing text that is already written down but not in machine-readable format (for example, a Linotype-composed book from the 1940s). In other words, to convert the text from an image to editable text (that is, a string of character codes), a person could re-type it, or a computer could look at the image and deduce what each character is. OCR technology has already reached an impressive state (for example, Google Book Search) and promises more for the future.

Speech recognition converts speech into machine-readable text (that is, a string of character codes). This technology has also reached an advanced state and is implemented in various software products. For certain uses (e.g., transcription of medical or legal dictation; journalism; writing essays or novels) speech recognition is starting to replace the keyboard. However, the lack of privacy when issuing voice commands and dictation makes this kind of input unsuitable for many environments.

Pointing devices can be used to enter text or characters in contexts where using a physical keyboard would be inappropriate or impossible. These accessories typically present characters on a display, in a layout that provides fast access to the more frequently used characters or character combinations. Popular examples of this kind of input are Graffiti, Dasher and on-screen virtual keyboards.

Other issues

Keystroke logging

Unencrypted wireless Bluetooth keyboards are known to be vulnerable to signal theft by placing a covert listening device in the same room as the keyboard to sniff and record Bluetooth packets for the purpose of logging keys typed by the user. Microsoft wireless keyboards 2011 and earlier are documented to have this vulnerability. [50]

Keystroke logging (often called keylogging) is a method of capturing and recording user keystrokes. While it is used legally to measure employee productivity on certain clerical tasks, or by law enforcement agencies to find out about illegal activities, it is also used by hackers for various illegal or malicious acts. Hackers use keyloggers as a means to obtain passwords or encryption keys and thus bypass other security measures.

Keystroke logging can be achieved by both hardware and software means. Hardware key loggers are attached to the keyboard cable or installed inside standard keyboards. Software keyloggers work on the target computer's operating system and gain unauthorized access to the hardware, hook into the keyboard with functions provided by the OS, or use remote access software to transmit recorded data out of the target computer to a remote location. Some hackers also use wireless keylogger sniffers to collect packets of data being transferred from a wireless keyboard and its receiver, and then they crack the encryption key being used to secure wireless communications between the two devices.

Anti-spyware applications are able to detect many keyloggers and cleanse them. Responsible vendors of monitoring software support detection by anti-spyware programs, thus preventing abuse of the software. Enabling a firewall does not stop keyloggers per se, but can possibly prevent transmission of the logged material over the net if properly configured. Network monitors (also known as reverse-firewalls) can be used to alert the user whenever an application attempts to make a network connection. This gives the user the chance to prevent the keylogger from "phoning home" with his or her typed information. Automatic form-filling programs can prevent keylogging entirely by not using the keyboard at all. Most keyloggers can be fooled by alternating between typing the login credentials and typing characters somewhere else in the focus window. [51]

Keyboards are also known to emit electromagnetic signatures that can be detected using special spying equipment to reconstruct the keys pressed on the keyboard. Neal O'Farrell, executive director of the Identity Theft Council, revealed to InformationWeek that "More than 25 years ago, a couple of former spooks showed me how they could capture a user's ATM PIN, from a van parked across the street, simply by capturing and decoding the electromagnetic signals generated by every keystroke," O'Farrell said. "They could even capture keystrokes from computers in nearby offices, but the technology wasn't sophisticated enough to focus in on any specific computer." [52]

Physical injury

Proper ergonomic design of computer keyboard desks is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Research suggests that the upright position formerly advocated can lead to degenerative disc disease, and that a 45 degree reclined position is healthier. Computer Workstation Variables.jpg
Proper ergonomic design of computer keyboard desks is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Research suggests that the upright position formerly advocated can lead to degenerative disc disease, and that a 45 degree reclined position is healthier.

The use of any keyboard may cause serious injury (that is, carpal tunnel syndrome or other repetitive strain injury) to hands, wrists, arms, neck or back. [55] The risks of injuries can be reduced by taking frequent short breaks to get up and walk around a couple of times every hour. As well, users should vary tasks throughout the day, to avoid overuse of the hands and wrists. When inputting at the keyboard, a person should keep the shoulders relaxed with the elbows at the side, with the keyboard and mouse positioned so that reaching is not necessary. The chair height and keyboard tray should be adjusted so that the wrists are straight, and the wrists should not be rested on sharp table edges. [56] Wrist or palm rests should not be used while typing. [57]

Some adaptive technology ranging from special keyboards, mouse replacements and pen tablet interfaces to speech recognition software can reduce the risk of injury. Pause software reminds the user to pause frequently. Switching to a much more ergonomic mouse, such as a vertical mouse or joystick mouse may provide relief.

By using a touchpad or a stylus pen with a graphic tablet, in place of a mouse, one can lessen the repetitive strain on the arms and hands. [58]

Pathogen transmission

Some keyboards were found to contain five times more potentially harmful germs than a toilet seat. [59] This can be a concern when using shared keyboards; the keyboards can serve as vectors for pathogens that cause the cold, flu, and other communicable diseases easily spread by indirect contact.

See also

Related Research Articles

Chorded keyboard computer input device where the user enters characters or commands by pressing several keys together (like a piano chord); requires only one hand

A keyset or chorded keyboard is a computer input device that allows the user to enter characters or commands formed by pressing several keys together, like playing a "chord" on a piano. The large number of combinations available from a small number of keys allows text or commands to be entered with one hand, leaving the other hand free. A secondary advantage is that it can be built into a device that is too small to contain a normal-sized keyboard.

The keyboard for IBM PC-compatible computers is standardized. However, during the more than 30 years of PC architecture being frequently updated, many keyboard layout variations have been developed.

Keyboard technology Technology of keyboards.

Computer keyboards can be classified by the switch technology that they use. Computer alphanumeric keyboards typically have 80 to 110 durable switches, generally one for each key. The choice of switch technology affects key response and pre travel. Newer keyboard models use hybrids of various technologies to achieve greater cost savings.

QWERTY keyboard layout where the first line is "QWERTYUIOP"

QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard. The QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873. It became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, and remains in widespread use.

Scroll Lock computer key

Scroll lock is a lock key on most IBM-compatible computer keyboards.

Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored. Data can then be retrieved by the person operating the logging program. A keylogger can be either software or hardware.

In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that temporarily modifies the normal action of another key when pressed together. By themselves, modifier keys usually do nothing; that is, pressing any of the ⇧ Shift, Alt, or Ctrl keys alone does not (generally) trigger any action from the computer.

Control key key on most keyboards

In computing, a Control key is a modifier key which, when pressed in conjunction with another key, performs a special operation ; similar to the Shift key, the Control key rarely performs any function when pressed by itself. The Control key is located on or near the bottom left side of most keyboards, with many featuring an additional one at the bottom right.

A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter. The dead key does not generate a (complete) character by itself, but modifies the character generated by the key struck immediately after. Thus, a dedicated key is not needed for each possible combination of a diacritic and a letter, but rather only one dead key for each diacritic is needed, in addition to the normal base letter keys.

Shift key computer key

The shift key is a modifier key on a keyboard, used to type capital letters and other alternate "upper" characters. There are typically two shift keys, on the left and right sides of the row below the home row. The shift key's name originated from the typewriter, where one had to press and hold the button to shift up the case stamp to change to capital letters; the shift key was first used in the Remington No. 2 Type-Writer of 1878; the No. 1 model was capital-only.

Caps Lock Computer key

Caps Lock is a button on a computer keyboard that causes all letters of Latin-based scripts to be generated in capital letters. It is a toggle key: each press reverses its action. Some keyboards also implement a light, so as to give visual feedback about whether it is on or off. Exactly what Caps Lock does depends on the keyboard hardware, the operating system, the device driver, and the keyboard layout. Usually, the effect is limited to letter keys; letters of Latin-based scripts are capitalised, while letters of other scripts and non-letter characters are generated normally.

Alt key computer key

The Alt key on a computer keyboard is used to change (alternate) the function of other pressed keys. Thus, the Alt key is a modifier key, used in a similar fashion to the Shift key. For example, simply pressing "A" will type the letter a, but if you hold down either Alt key while pressing A, the computer will perform an Alt+A function, which varies from program to program. The international standard ISO/IEC 9995-2 calls it Alternate key. The key is located on either side of the Space bar, but in non-US PC keyboard layouts, rather than a second Alt key, there is an 'Alt Gr' key to the right of the space bar. Both placements are in accordance with ISO/IEC 9995-2.

Option key modifier key present on Apple keyboards

The Option key is a modifier key (ALT) present on Apple keyboards. It is located between the Control key and Command key on a typical Mac keyboard. There are two option keys on modern Mac desktop and notebook keyboards, one on each side of the space bar.

PLUM keyboard

The PLUM keyboard is a computer keyboard which varies from the traditional QWERTY keyboard in both physical key layout and letter arrangement. Unlike most keyboards, the PLUM keyboard organizes keys in a square grid, as opposed to the staggered rows of a typewriter. Though the Plum Keyboard is currently off-line, it is still being promoted.

Japanese input method Methods used to input Japanese characters on a computer

Japanese input methods are used to input Japanese characters on a computer.

Gold key (DEC) computer key

The Gold key is a computer keyboard key used as a prefix to invoke a variety of single-key editing and formatting functions. Usually located in the top-left position of the numeric keypad on platforms such as the VT100, it is the signature element of a consistent user interface implemented by Digital Equipment Corporation across multiple product lines.

Hardware keylogger AirDrive Forensic Keylogger Cable / Module

Hardware keyloggers are used for keystroke logging, a method of capturing and recording computer users' keystrokes, including sensitive passwords. They can be implemented via BIOS-level firmware, or alternatively, via a device plugged inline between a computer keyboard and a computer. They log all keyboard activity to their internal memory.

ISO/IEC 9995Information technology — Keyboard layouts for text and office systems is an ISO standard series defining layout principles for computer keyboards. It does not define specific layouts but provides the base for national and industry standards which define such layouts.

A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard.

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