De Brazza's monkey

Last updated

De Brazza's monkey [1]
Jielbeaumadier cercopitheque de brazza 2 mjp paris 2014.jpeg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Cercopithecus
Species:
C. neglectus
Binomial name
Cercopithecus neglectus
Schlegel, 1876
Cercopithecus neglectus distribution.svg
Geographic range

De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus) is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Contents

Etymology

Locally known as swamp monkeys, these primates are named after the Italian-French explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. [3] Their scientific species name, neglectus, which means to pay no attention to, was given to them because of their ability to hide from both humans and predators. [4]

Description

A female De Brazza's monkey grooms a male. Cercopithecus-neg LP02b.jpg
A female De Brazza's monkey grooms a male.

The De Brazza's monkey is the most sexually dimorphic species of guenon; males weigh around 7 kilograms, while females weigh around 4 kilograms. Adults have grey agouti fur with a reddish-brown back, black limbs and tail, and a white rump. Both sexes have cheek pouches they use to carry food while they forage. [5] [6] Males have a distinct blue scrotum, while females have a red perianal region and visible nipples. Juveniles lack the darker colors on the extremities that is characteristic of adults, but retain the whites stripes and red rump while infants are a uniform brown agouti with only a small beard. The white muzzle and beard, along with an orange crescent on its forehead and white stripes on its thighs distinguish it from other guenons. [5] [7]

Ecology

Distribution and habitat

De Brazza's monkeys range across the swamps, bamboo and dry mountain forests of Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, South Sudan, Nigeria and Uganda and possibly Tanzania though reports have not been confirmed. [8] [2] [9] Troops are found almost exclusively near water, rarely venturing farther than 1 km away from a river or tributary. As a result they can sometimes be seen swimming. [5] [6] The monkeys prefer dense forest and vegetation, only venturing into more open forest to feed. They are mainly arboreal, but descends to the ground to feed on herbaceous plants. [5] [2] Due to its cryptic nature there is no accurate population estimate for the species over its entire range. [7]

Diet

The diet of De Brazza's monkeys consists mostly of herbaceous plants found on the forest floor, and fruits when available. These are supplemented with insects, seeds, and other food sources when primary foods are scarce. [6]

Predators

Predators of the De Brazza's monkey include the crowned eagle, leopard, humans, and common chimpanzees. Though rare, dogs and pythons may also predate on juvenile De Brazza's. The typical predator response is to curl up in a tight ball against the side of a tree with the orange crown and white stripes on the thighs hidden and wait silently for the predator to leave. Individuals will only move if the predator approaches their position, and even then they move quietly and slowly to try and escape notice. [6]

Behavior

Mother with young Brazzameerkatze 1790-2-2.jpg
Mother with young

The lifespan of the De Brazza's monkey is thought to correspond similarly to other members of Cercopithecus which live up to 22 years in the wild and 30 years in captivity. [7] Its cryptic nature makes the De Brazza's monkey hard to observe in the wild. Troop sizes are small for a guenon, ranging from 2-10 individuals on average. [10] In some areas of Western Africa, such as Gabon and Cameroon, small pair-bonded groups of a male, female, and infants and juveniles have been observed. In Eastern Africa, the DeBrazza's monkeys live in single male, multi-female groups. Solitary males do not create bachelor groups and will occasionally depose an alpha male to take over access to the females. [6]

Male De Brazza's monkey communicates with booming sounds. These are usually heard early in the morning when the male calls out to establish his territory, though he will also use this call to bring the group back together if they get separated. [5] [6] When attacked by predators, males will give an alarm call. In the case of crowned eagles, males will emit a short bark before attacking the eagle to scare it off. Females have also been observed to give alarms calls and growl at humans. Otherwise, female vocalizations are limited to quiet croaks given when feeding or resting. Infants and juveniles will give shrill squeals of distress when separated from their mothers or the group. [6] Given the cryptic nature of this species, hearing their calls is sometimes the only way to know they are present. [11] Unlike other guenons, which often form polyspecific associations to decrease predation and increase foraging, DeBrazza's monkeys will be aggressive towards other species and have only been known to tolerate some colobine species which do not compete with them for resources. [6]

Reproduction

Female De Brazza's monkeys reach sexual maturity around 5 years of age, while males do not reach maturity until closer to 6 years of age. [12] Most juveniles males will leave their natal group before they reach maturity. [6] The breeding season lasts from February to March, but females can also go into estrous during times of high food availability. [5] Gestation lasts between 5 to 6 months, and an infant stays close to its mother for the first year of its life at which point it is weaned. [5] [12] Females usually have one infant at a time, though twins have been born on rare occasions, with a year long inter-birth interval. [12]

Conservation

The De Brazza's monkey is listed as least concern by the IUCN Red List. [7] The main threats to DeBrazza's monkeys are deforestation due to logging and agriculture, and bushmeat hunting. [13] [14] There are several captive population housed in zoos across Europe and North America. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) manages captive population under a species survival plan. This is unique because the species is not listed as vulnerable or endangered, but has been sponsored by the AZA to proactively prevent need for reactive conservation in the future. [15] More data is needed to fully assess the conservation needs of this species. [7]

Related Research Articles

Patas monkey Species of Old World monkey

The patas monkey, also known as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa. It was formerly considered the only member of the genus Erythrocebus, but the Blue Nile patas monkey, previously synonymized with this species, was resurrected in 2018.

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons, macaques, and mabahlls. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.

Guenon Genus of Old World monkeys

The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys. Not all members of this genus have the word "guenon" in their common names; also, because of changes in scientific classification, some monkeys in other genera may have common names that include the word "guenon". Nonetheless, the use of the term guenon for monkeys of this genus is widely accepted.

Blue monkey Species of Old World monkey

The blue monkey or diademed monkey is a species of Old World monkey native to Central and East Africa, ranging from the upper Congo River basin east to the East African Rift and south to northern Angola and Zambia. It sometimes includes Sykes', silver, and golden monkeys as subspecies.

Dryas monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Dryas monkey, also known as Salonga monkey, ekele, or inoko, is a little-known species of guenon found only in the Congo Basin, restricted to the left bank of the Congo River. It is now established that the animals that had been classified as Cercopithecus salongo were in fact Dryas monkeys. Some older sources treat the Dryas monkey as a subspecies of the Diana monkey and classify it as C. diana dryas, but it is geographically isolated from any known Diana monkey population.

Vervet monkey Species of Old World monkey

The vervet monkey, or simply vervet, is an Old World monkey of the family Cercopithecidae native to Africa. The term "vervet" is also used to refer to all the members of the genus Chlorocebus. The five distinct subspecies can be found mostly throughout Southern Africa, as well as some of the eastern countries. Vervets were introduced to Florida, St. Kitts and Nevis, and Cape Verde. These mostly herbivorous monkeys have black faces and grey body hair color, ranging in body length from about 40 cm (16 in) for females, to about 50 cm (20 in) for males.

Sun-tailed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The sun-tailed monkey from Gabon is one of the least studied primates in its habitat. It was discovered as a new species in 1988, and is classified as a guenon, which is a member of the genus Cercopithecus, but was subsequently moved to the genus Allochrocebus. It is closely related to A. preussi and A. Ihoesti, which has been determined by chromosomal analysis. Sun-tailed monkeys prefer shady areas with dense vegetation. However, even after small amounts of logging activity, populations can be unaffected. Much of their diet remains unknown and is still being studied, but they are known to prefer fruit. Their social groups are made up of one male and multiple females. Generally, the sun-tailed monkey is less aggressive towards related individuals, which is noteworthy because it has been found that, in other primate species, aggression rates towards related individuals are generally as high or higher than aggression rates towards non-related individuals. Within their social groups, individual monkeys show preference for their mothers over their fathers, and are overall less aggressive to other monkeys that they are associated with spatially.

Mantled guereza Species of mammal

The mantled guereza, also known simply as the guereza, the eastern black-and-white colobus, or the Abyssinian black-and-white colobus, is a black-and-white colobus, a type of Old World monkey. It is native to much of west central and east Africa, including Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Chad. The species consists of several subspecies that differ in appearance. It has a distinctive appearance, which is alluded to in its name; the long white fringes of hair that run along each side of its black trunk are known as a mantle. Its face is framed with white hair and it has a large white tail tuft.

Hamlyns monkey Species of Old World monkey

The Hamlyn's monkey, also known as the owl-faced monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that inhabits the bamboo and primary rainforests of the Congo. This species is exceedingly rare and known only from a few specimens; little is known about it. However these specimens tend to be widely dispersed throughout the eastern part of Congo, from the Epulu River to the Lukuga River and from the Congo River to the Kabale Forest, with one example in northwestern Rwanda. Geographically it corresponds quite closely to another species of monkey, L'Hoest's monkey C. lhoesti. It travels on the ground, and researchers think that it may be awake primarily by night.

LHoests monkey Species of mammal

L'Hoest's monkey or mountain monkey, is a guenon found in the upper eastern Congo basin. They mostly live in mountainous forest areas in small, female-dominated groups. They have a dark coat and can be distinguished by a characteristic white beard.

Wolfs mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

Wolf's mona monkey, also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in central Africa, primarily between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It lives in primary and secondary lowland rainforest and swamp forest.

Red-eared guenon Species of Old World monkey

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Lesser spot-nosed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Senegal.

Crested mona monkey Species of Old World monkey

The crested mona monkey, also known as the crowned guenon, crowned monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or golden-bellied monkey,, is a species of African primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in west central Africa.

The Tana River red colobus, also called the eastern red colobus, is a highly endangered species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is endemic to a narrow zone of gallery forest near the Tana River in southeastern Kenya.

Cherangany Hills

The Cherang'any Hills are a range of hills in the western highlands of Kenya. The hills are one of Kenya's five main forests and catchment areas. The highlands, the large central plateau, is divided by the Mau Escarpment which rises from the border with Tanzania up to the Cherang'any Hills. The escarpment bounds the plateau that rises to the slopes of Mount Elgon. The Cherangany Hills span three counties namely Trans Nzoia, Elgeyo Marakwet and West Pokot. The highest point of the range is the summit of Nakugen at 3530 m, which can be ascended from the south from parking space at a Kenyan Wildlife Service station, located at 1.16284°N 35.49325°E. Other notable peaks include; Chemnirot (3520 m), Kameleogon (3500 m), Chebon (3375 m), Chepkotet (3370 m), Karelachgelat (3350 m) and Sodang (3211 m). They are home to a marginalized hunter-gatherer community called the Sengwer.

Tantalus monkey Species of Old World monkey

The tantalus monkey is an Old World monkey from Africa that ranges from Ghana to Sudan. It was originally described as a subspecies of the grivet. All species in Chlorocebus were formerly in the genus Cercopithecus. It is a common species with a wide range, and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".

Sexual dimorphism in non-human primates

Sexual dimorphism describes the morphological, physiological, and behavioral differences between males and females of the same species. Most primates are sexually dimorphic for different biological characteristics, such as body size, canine tooth size, craniofacial structure, skeletal dimensions, pelage color and markings, and vocalization. However, such sex differences are primarily limited to the anthropoid primates; most of the strepsirrhine primates and tarsiers are monomorphic.

Ugandan red colobus Species of Old World monkey

The Ugandan red colobus or ashy red colobus is an endangered species of red colobus monkey, recognised as a distinct species since 2001. There is disagreement however over taxonomy with many considering the Ugandan red colobus to be a subspecies. The Ugandan red colobus is an Old World monkey which is found in 5 different locations across Uganda and Tanzania.

Red-tailed monkey Species of Old World monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.

References

  1. Groves, C. P. (2005). Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 157. ISBN   0-801-88221-4. OCLC   62265494.
  2. 1 2 3 Struhsaker, S.; Oates, J. F.; Hart, J. & Butynski, T. M. (2008). "Cercopithecus neglectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2008: e.T4223A10680717. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T4223A10680717.en .
  3. Mammal species of the world : a taxonomic and geographic reference. Wilson, Don E., Reeder, DeeAnn M. (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2005. ISBN   0-8018-8221-4. OCLC   57557352.CS1 maint: others (link)
  4. "DeBrazza's Monkey". Capron Park Zoo.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stein, J. (2002). "Cercopithecus neglectus". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Wahome, J. M.; Rowell, T. E.; Tsingalia, H. M. (June 1993). "The natural history of de Brazza's monkey in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 14 (3): 445–466. doi:10.1007/bf02192776.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 "DeBrazza's monkey: Cercopithecus neglectus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2019-02-03. 2019-02-03. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  8. Karere G. Mugambi, Mbaruk A. Suleman & Wilbur Ottichilo; Thomas M. Butynski (1997). "The vanishing De Brazza's monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel) in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (6): 995–1004. doi:10.1023/A:1026352331577.
  9. Butynski, Thomas M.; Jong, Yvonne A. de (2019). "Primates of Africa's Coastal Deltas and Their Conservation". Primates in Flooded Habitats. pp. 244–258. doi:10.1017/9781316466780.031. ISBN   9781316466780.
  10. Mugambi, Karere G.; Butynski, Thomas M.; Suleman, Mbaruk A.; Ottichilo, Wilbur (1997). "The Vanishing De Brazza's Monkey (Cercopithecus neglectus Schlegel) in Kenya". International Journal of Primatology. 18 (6): 995–1004. doi:10.1023/A:1026352331577.
  11. Maisels, Fiona; Bout, Nicolas; Inkamba-Inkulu, Clement; Pearson, Liz; Aczel, Paul; Ambahe, Rufin; Ambassa, Edgar; Fotso, Roger (January 2007). "New Northwestern and Southwestern Range Limits of De Brazza's Monkey, Mbam et Djerem National Park, Cameroon, and Bateke Plateau, Gabon and Congo". Primate Conservation. 22 (1): 107–110. doi:10.1896/052.022.0109. hdl: 1893/19763 .
  12. 1 2 3 "Cercopithecus neglectus de brazza's Monkey : Fr. Cercopithèque de Brazza; Ger. Brazza-Meerkatze". Mammals of Africa : Primates. 2013. doi:10.5040/9781472926920.0059. ISBN   978-1-4729-2692-0.
  13. King, Tony (November 2008). "Detectability and Conservation of De Brazza's Monkey ( Cercopithecus neglectus ) in the Lesio-Louna and South-West Lefini Reserves, Bateke Plateau, Republic of Congo". Primate Conservation. 23 (1): 39–44. doi: 10.1896/052.023.0104 .
  14. Aghokeng, Avelin F.; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Loul, Severin; Liegeois, Florian; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine (April 2010). "Extensive survey on the prevalence and genetic diversity of SIVs in primate bushmeat provides insights into risks for potential new cross-species transmissions". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 10 (3): 386–396. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2009.04.014. PMC   2844463 . PMID   19393772.
  15. "AZA Species Survival Plan© Profile: De Brazza's Monkey". www.umich.edu. Retrieved 2019-12-04.