|East Coast hip hop|
|Cultural origins||Early to mid-1970s, The Bronx, New York City, New York, U.S. |
East Coast hip hop is a regional subgenre of hip hop music that originated in New York City during the 1970s.   Hip hop is recognized to have originated and evolved first in The Bronx, New York City. 
In contrast to other styles, East Coast hip hop music has prioritized complex lyrics for attentive listening rather than beats for dancing.  The term "East Coast hip hop" more specifically denotes hip hop originating from the Northeastern United States. Southeastern states such as Georgia instead fall under the umbrella of Southern hip hop rather than East Coast hip hop, while Maryland, the District of Columbia, and Virginia produce East Coast hip hop.   
In contrast to the more simplistic rhyme pattern and scheme utilized in older hip hop, hip hop in the late ‘80s developed a stronger emphasis on lyrical dexterity.  It also became characterized by multi-syllabic rhymes, complex wordplay, a continuous free-flowing delivery and intricate metaphors.  Although East Coast hip hop can vary in sound and style, "aggressive" beats and the combining of samples were common to the subgenre in the mid- to late 1980s.  The aggressive and hard-hitting beats of the form were emphasized by such acts as EPMD, Beastie Boys and Public Enemy, while artists such as Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions, LL Cool J, Big Daddy Kane, Nas, The Notorious B.I.G. and Slick Rick were noted for their lyrical skill. Lyrical themes throughout the history of East Coast hip hop have ranged from lyrical consciousness by such artists as Public Enemy and A Tribe Called Quest to Mafioso rap themes by rappers such as Raekwon, MF Grimm and Kool G Rap. 
East Coast hip hop is occasionally referred to as New York rap due to its origins and development at block parties thrown in New York City during the 1970s.  According to AllMusic, "At the dawn of the hip-hop era, all rap was East Coast rap."  Leading up to hip hop, there were spoken-word artists such as the Last Poets who released their debut album in 1970, and Gil Scott-Heron, who gained a wide audience with his 1971 track "The Revolution Will Not Be Televised". These artists combined spoken word and music to create a kind of "proto-rap" vibe.  Following this, early artists of hip hop such as DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash, Afrika Bambaataa, the Sugarhill Gang, Kurtis Blow, Jam Master Jay and Run-DMC, pioneered East Coast hip hop during hip hop's earlier years in the 1970s and 1980s. 
As the genre developed, lyrical themes evolved through the work of East Coast artists such as the Native Tongues, a collective of hip hop artists associated with generally positive, Afrocentric themes, and assembled by Afrika Bambaataa. New York-based groups such as De La Soul, Public Enemy, A Tribe Called Quest and the Jungle Brothers also earned recognition for their musical eclecticism.  This period from the mid-1980s to mid-1990s has been called the "golden age" of hip hop. Although East Coast hip hop was more popular throughout the late 1980s, N.W.A's Straight Outta Compton (released in the summer of 1988) presented the toughened sound of West Coast hip hop, which was accompanied by gritty, street-level subject matter.  Later in 1992, Dr. Dre's G-funk record The Chronic would introduce West Coast hip hop to the mainstream. Along with a combined ability to keep its primary function as party music, the West Coast form of hip hop became a dominant force during the early 1990s.  Although G-Funk was the most popular variety of hip hop during the early 1990s, the East Coast hip hop scene remained an integral part of the music industry. During this period, several New York City rappers rising from the local underground scene, began releasing noteworthy albums in the early and mid-'90's, such as Nas, The Notorious B.I.G. and others.  The Stretch Armstrong and Bobbito Show was the launch pad for many East Coast rappers during this era.
Nas's 1994 debut album Illmatic has also been noted as one of the creative high points of the East Coast hip hop scene, and featured production from such renowned New York-based producers as Large Professor, Pete Rock and DJ Premier.  Meanwhile, The Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx, Black Moon, Smif-N-Wessun, Big L, Lost Boyz and Mobb Deep became pillars in New York's hardcore hip hop scene, achieving widespread critical acclaim for their landmark albums, Enter the Wu-Tang (36 Chambers) (1993), Lifestylez ov da Poor & Dangerous (1995), Enta da Stage (1993), Bacdafucup (1993), Dah Shinin' (1995), Legal Drug Money (1996) and The Infamous (1995).
The Notorious B.I.G. became the central figure in East Coast hip hop during most of the 1990s. Bad Boy Records comprised a team of producers known as the Hitmen Stevie J, Derrick "D Dot" Angelletie and Amen Ra directed by Sean Combs to move the focus on hip hop to New York with the Notorious B.I.G.'s Billboard topping hits.  His success on the music charts and rise to the mainstream drew more attention to New York at the time of West Coast hip hop's dominance.  According to AllMusic editor Steve Huey, the success of his 1994 debut album Ready to Die "reinvented East Coast rap for the gangsta age" and "turned the Notorious B.I.G. into a hip-hop sensation — the first major star the East Coast had produced since the rise of Dr. Dre's West Coast G-funk".  Many saw his dominating presence as a catalyzing factor in the East Coast/West Coast hip hop rivalry that polarized much of the hip hop community, stirring the issue enough to result in the Brooklyn rapper's 1997 death, as well as his West Coast counterpart, Tupac Shakur, months prior.  By the late 90s, East coast rap had returned to mainstream dominance. 
Biggie's commercial success helped pave the way for the success of other up-and-coming East Coast rappers such as Jay-Z, DMX, Busta Rhymes, 50 Cent, Ja Rule, the Lox, Fat Joe and Big Pun.  
A mainstream revitalization of East Coast rap occurred in the late 2000s and early 2010s, albeit without the same level of ubiquity as in the 1990s. Younger artists at this time used Internet resources such as social media, blogging, and music streaming to build a following among fans,   blurring the lines between the underground and the mainstream. Rappers who emerged during this "blog era" include J. Cole (himself a transplant from North Carolina), Joey Bada$$, Nicki Minaj, Wiz Khalifa, Meek Mill, Vast Aire, Wale, Logic, and Azealia Banks.
Various factors have led to a decline in unique regional scenes across many musical genres, including East Coast rap. In addition, rivalries between different cities and regions have declined significantly and artists across different regions and genres are much more willing to collaborate than in the past. Despite this, the distinctive East Coast sound is still notable in today's music, often mixed with modern trap sounds. Lil Uzi Vert from Pennsylvania began his career representing the East Coast style, but moved to Atlanta to join others such as Lil Yachty and Playboi Carti, all of whom gained popularity by using online social media. 
In addition, New York City's drill movement, heavily influenced by UK drill (and often using the same London producers), has injected new energy into the New York hip hop scene, attracting critical acclaim, media controversy and a significant following, despite departing from standard hip hop song structures.  The movement started in Brooklyn, led by artists such as the late Pop Smoke, Fivio Foreign, Sheff G, and 22Gz. 
East Coast hip hop was the dominant form of rap music during the Golden Era of hip hop.  Many knowledgeable hip hop fans and critics are particularly favorable towards East Coast hip hop of the early-mid 1990s, viewing it as a time of creative growth and influential recordings, and describing it as "The East Coast Renaissance". Music writer May Blaize of MVRemix Urban comments on the nostalgia felt among hip hop fans for records released during this time:
It was claimed as the East Coast Renaissance. Wu-Tang brought the ruckus with 36 Chambers . The world was ours when Nas released Illmatic . Big L, (The MVP) came out with Lifestylez ov da Poor and Dangerous . Temperatures rose in clubs when Mobb Deep came out with The Infamous and Brooklyn's finest Jay-Z released Reasonable Doubt . . . And who can forget the powerful uplifting anthem that would brand New York's concrete "Bucktown" (Smif-n-Wessun's hit single)? . . .Ahh, it was a beautiful time in hip-hop history that many of us wish we could return to. 
David Drake of Stylus Magazine writes of hip hop during 1994 and its contributions, stating: "The beats were hot, the rhymes were hot – it really was an amazing time for hip-hop and music in general. This was the critical point for the East Coast, a time when rappers from the New York area were releasing bucketloads of thrilling work – Digable Planets, Gang Starr, Pete Rock, Jeru, O.C., Organized Konfusion – I mean, this was a year of serious music." 
East Coast hip hop has also produced a multitude of highly acclaimed female rappers, including Salt and Pepa who have won one Grammy award, three MTV Video Music Awards, one Soul Train award, and two VH1 hip hop honors,[ citation needed ] Queen Latifah who has won one Grammy award, one Soul Train Music award, and numerous acting awards,[ citation needed ] Lil Kim who has won four ASCAP Rhythm & Soul Awards, six BDB Spin Awards, one Billboard Music Award, one New York Music award, four VH1 awards, and has been awarded the key to West Hollywood,[ citation needed ] and Lauryn Hill who has won over one hundred musical awards and numerous international recognitions, having broken the record for most awards won by a female artist in a single Grammy ceremony and still holds the record for most nominations by a female artist in a single ceremony.[ citation needed ] Other notable East Coast female rappers include Ladybug Mecca, Lisa "Left Eye" Lopes, Foxy Brown, Charli Baltimore, Eve, Missy Elliott, Angie Martinez, Remy Ma, Lil Mama, Nicki Minaj, and Cardi B, who have all left their impact on the legacy of hip hop.
Gangsta rap or gangster rap, initially called reality rap, emerged in 1986 in Los Angeles as a controversial hip-hop subgenre whose lyrics assert the culture and values typical of urban American gangs and street hustlers. Many gangsta rappers flaunt associations with real street gangs, especially the Crips and Bloods. Gangsta rap's pioneers include Schoolly D of Philadelphia and Ice-T of Los Angeles, later expanding with artists such as N.W.A, Tupac Shakur, and the Notorious B.I.G. In 1992, via record producer Dr. Dre, rapper Snoop Dogg, and their G-funk sound, gangsta rap broadened to mainstream popularity.
Rapping is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular". It is performed or chanted, usually over a backing beat or musical accompaniment. The components of rap include "content", "flow", and "delivery". Rap differs from spoken-word poetry in that it is usually performed off-time to musical accompaniment. Rap is a primary ingredient of hip hop music commonly associated with that genre; however, the origins of rap predate hip-hop culture by many years.
Christopher George Latore Wallace, better known by his stage names the Notorious B.I.G., Biggie Smalls, or simply Biggie, was an American rapper. Rooted in East Coast hip hop and particularly gangsta rap, he is cited in various media lists as one of the greatest rappers of all time. Wallace became known for his distinctive laid-back lyrical delivery, offsetting the lyrics' often grim content. His music was often semi-autobiographical, telling of hardship and criminality, but also of debauchery and celebration.
West Coast hip hop is a regional genre of hip hop music that encompasses any artists or music that originated in the west coast of the United States. West Coast hip hop began to dominate from a radio play and sales standpoint during the early to-mid 1990s with the birth of G-funk and the emergence of record labels such as Suge Knight and Dr. Dre's Death Row Records, Ice Cube's Lench Mob Records, the continued success of Eazy-E's Ruthless Records, Aftermath Records belonging to Dr. Dre, and others.
Southern hip hop, also known as Southern rap, South Coast hip hop, or dirty south, is a blanket term for a regional genre of American hip hop music that emerged in the Southern United States, especially in Atlanta, New Orleans, Houston, Memphis, and Miami—five cities which constitute the "Southern Network" in rap music.
Enter the Wu-Tang is the debut studio album by the American hip-hop group Wu-Tang Clan, released on November 9, 1993, by BMG, RCA Records and Loud Records. Recording sessions took place during late 1992 to early 1993 at Firehouse Studio in New York City, and the album was produced by the group's de facto leader RZA. Its title originates from the martial arts films Enter the Dragon (1973) and The 36th Chamber of Shaolin (1978).
Life After Death is the second and final studio album by American rapper The Notorious B.I.G., released on March 25, 1997, on Bad Boy Records and Arista Records. A double album, it was released sixteen days after his murder. It features collaborations with guest artists such as 112, Jay-Z, Lil' Kim, Mase, Bone Thugs-n-Harmony, Too $hort, Angela Winbush, D.M.C. of Run-D.M.C., R. Kelly, The Lox, and Puff Daddy. Life After Death exhibits The Notorious B.I.G. further delving into the mafioso rap subgenre. The album is a sequel to his first album, Ready to Die, and picks up where the last song, "Suicidal Thoughts", ends.
Underground hip-hop is an umbrella term for hip hop music that is outside the general commercial canon. It is typically associated with independent artists, signed to independent labels or no label at all. Underground hip hop is often characterized by socially conscious, positive, or anti-commercial lyrics. However, there is no unifying or universal theme – AllMusic suggests that it "has no sonic signifiers". "The Underground" also refers to the community of musicians, fans and others that support non-commercial, or independent music. Music scenes with strong ties to underground hip hop include alternative hip hop and conscious hip hop. Many artists who are considered "underground" today were not always so, and may have previously broken the Billboard charts.
Illmatic is the debut studio album by American rapper Nas. It was released on April 19, 1994, by Columbia Records. After signing with the label with the help of MC Serch, Nas recorded the album in 1992 and 1993 at Chung King Studios, D&D Recording, Battery Studios, and Unique Recording Studios in New York City. The album's production was handled by DJ Premier, Large Professor, Pete Rock, Q-Tip, L.E.S., and Nas himself. Styled as a hardcore hip hop album, Illmatic features multi-syllabic internal rhymes and inner-city narratives based on Nas' experiences growing up in the Queensbridge Houses in Queens, New York City.
Hip hop is one of the most popular music styles in Bulgaria, especially among young people.
Dirty rap is a subgenre of hip hop music that contains lyrical content revolving mainly around sexually explicit subjects.
Jeff Le’Mar Jones aka Jeff Jones is an American rapper and hip-hop and R&B songwriter.
"New York, New York" is a song from the American West Coast hip hop duo Tha Dogg Pound. The song is the lead single from their debut album, Dogg Food.
Hip hop music or hip-hop music, also known as rap music and formerly known as disco rap, is a genre of popular music that originated in the Bronx borough of New York City in the early 1970s by African Americans, and it had been around for years prior before mainstream discovery. This genre of music originated as anti-drug and anti-violence, while consisting of stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. According to the professor Asante of African American studies at Temple University, "hip hop is something that blacks can unequivocally claim as their own". It was developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti art. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, and rhythmic beatboxing. While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including DJing, turntablism, scratching, beatboxing, and instrumental tracks.
Alternative hip hop is a subgenre of hip hop music that encompasses a wide range of styles that are not typically identified as mainstream. AllMusic defines it as comprising "hip hop groups that refuse to conform to any of the traditional stereotypes of rap, such as gangsta, bass, hardcore, and party rap. Instead, they blur genres drawing equally from funk and pop/rock, as well as jazz, soul, reggae, and even folk."
The Brooklyn Hip-Hop Festival (BHF) is an annual celebration of Hip-Hop music and culture. It is produced The Bodega Agency a wholly owned subsidiary of Brooklyn Bodega, Inc.
Leeds hip hop or New Yorkshire hip hop is the style of hip hop found in the epicentre of the New Yorkshire hip-hop movement that originated in West Yorkshire, England during the 2000s. Leeds hip hop has been noted as a revival of the purist forms of underground hip-hop and stylised by adopting classic elements of East Coast sounds which complement the Leeds underground.
Drill is a subgenre of hip hop music that originated in Chicago in the early 2010s. It is sonically similar to the trap music subgenre and lyrically similar to the gangsta rap subgenre. Artists within drill music have been noted for their explicit style of lyricism and association with crime in Chicago. The genre progressed into the American mainstream in 2012 following the success of rappers like Chief Keef, Lil Durk, Lil Reese, Fredo Santana, G Herbo, Lil Bibby and King Louie who had many local fans and a significant internet presence alongside producer Young Chop. Other rappers, such as LA Capone and RondoNumbaNine also contributed to the early drill scene. As the audience grew, media attention and the signing of drill musicians to major labels followed.
It Was Written is the second studio album by American rapper Nas, released on July 2, 1996, by Columbia Records. After the modest commercial success of his debut album Illmatic (1994), Nas pursued a more polished, mainstream sound for It Was Written. Produced largely by Trackmasters, it departed from the debut's raw, underground aesthetic and embraced mafioso and gangsta themes. The recording also marked the first appearance of Nas's short-lived supergroup The Firm, featuring the rappers Foxy Brown, AZ, and Cormega.
Deric Michael Angelettie, otherwise known as D-Dot, Papa Dot, and Madd Rapper, is an American artist, music producer, songwriter, TV & film producer and entrepreneur. He is the winner of The Grammy's NARAS Governor's New Horizon Award for "Producer Of The Year" in 1998 and an BMI Urban Award winner in 2001. He has Executive Produced and A&R'd two Grammy nominated albums and one Grammy winning album for Best Rap Album, No Way Out by Puff Daddy & The Family.