List of butterflies of Australia

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Cairns birdwing (Ornithoptera euphorion): Australia's largest endemic butterfly Male Cairns Birdwing.JPG
Cairns birdwing (Ornithoptera euphorion): Australia's largest endemic butterfly

Australia has more than 400 species of butterfly , the majority of which are continental species, and more than a dozen endemic species from remote islands administered by various Australian territorial governments. The largest butterflies in the world are endemic to the Australasian realm. They are the birdwingsOrnithoptera and other genera—of the tribe Troidini of the swallowtail butterfly family, Papilionidae. [1]

Contents

Papilionidae: swallowtails

Family: Papilionidae (swallowtails) — 18+2 species [*2 non-continental species]

Papilioninae

subfamily: Papilioninae
tribe: Leptocircini (formerly Graphiini)
genus: Protographium
P. l. leosthenes(Doubleday, 1846) [2]
P. l. geimbia(Tindale, 1927) [3]
genus: Graphium (swordtails)
G. m. macleayanus(Leach, 1814) [5]
G. m. moggana(Couchman, 1965) [6]
G. e. lycaon(C & R Felder, 1865) [8]
G. e. nyctimus(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
G. e. lycanoides(Rothschild, 1895) [10]
tribe: Papilionini (fluted swallowtails)
genus: Papilio (Linnaeus, 1758) [7]
P. a. aegeus(Donovan, 1805) [13]
P. a. ormenus(Guérin-Méneville, 1830) [14]
P. f. canopus(Westwood, 1842) [17]
P. f. capaneus(Westwood, 1843) [18]
P. f. indicatus(Butler, 1876) [19]
tribe: Troidini ( Aristolochia -eating swallowtails)
genus: Cressida
C. c. cressida(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
genus: Ornithoptera (birdwings)
O. p. poseidon(Doubleday, 1847) [2] [23]
O. p. pronomus(Gray, 1853) [22]
O. p. macalpinei(Moulds, 1974) [24]
genus: Pachliopta

Pieridae: whites and yellows

Black-spotted white Common grass jewel Im IMG 7022.jpg
Black-spotted white
White albatross VB 078 Common Albatross Female.jpg
White albatross
Small cabbage white Kleiner Kohlweissling Pieris rapae 2.jpg
Small cabbage white
Caper white Caperwhite.jpg
Caper white
Scarlet jezebel 584px-Scarlet jezebel kobble07trim.JPG
Scarlet jezebel
Red-banded jezebel Delias mysis The Union Jack Butterfly.jpg
Red-banded jezebel

family: Pieridae (whites and yellows) — 35+2+1 species [†1 introduced species]

Pierinae: whites

subfamily: Pierinae (whites)
tribe: Elodinini
genus: Elodina (pearl-whites)
tribe: Leptosiaini
genus: Leptosia
tribe: Pierini
genus: Appias (albatrosses)
A. a. caria(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
A. a. albina(Boisduval, 1836) [32]
A. p. ega(Boisduval, 1836) [32]
genus: Pieris
  • †Small cabbage white, Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758) [7] [†introduced species] — pictured right
genus: Belenois (formerly Anaphaeis)
B. j. peristhene(Boisduval, 1859) [20]
B. j. teutonia(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
genus: Cepora
C. p. scyllara(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
genus: Delias (jezebels)
D. a. argenthona(Fabricius, 1793) [31]
D. a. inferna(Butler, 1871) [34]
D. e. nigidius(Miskin, 1884) [36]
D. e. tindalii(Joicey & Talbot, 1926) [37]
D. m. mysis(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
D. m. aestiva(Butler, 1897) [38]
D. m. onca(Fruhstorfer, 1910) [39]
D. n. nysa(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
D. n. nivira(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]

Coliadinae: yellows

subfamily: Coliadinae (yellows)
genus: Catopsilia (migrants or emigrants)
C. p. crokera(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
C. s. etesia(Hewitson, 1867) [40]
C. g. gorgophone(Boisduval, 1836) [32]
genus: Eurema (grass-yellows)
E. b. australis(Wallace, 1867) [35]
E. b. zoraide(C & R Felder, 1865) [8]
E. l. sana(Butler, 1877) [11]
E. s. smilax(Donovan, 1805) [13]
E. p. papuan(Butler, 1898) [30]
E. p. virgo(Wallace, 1867) [35]
E. h. hecabe(Linnaeus, 1758) [7]
E. h. phoebus(Butler, 1886) [42]

Riodinidae: metalmarks

Harlequin metalmark Praetaxila segecia punctaria.jpg
Harlequin metalmark

family: Riodinidae (metalmarks) — 1 species

Nemeobiinae

subfamily: Nemeobiinae
genus: Praetaxila
P. s. punctaria(Fruhstorfer, 1914) [44]

Lycaenidae: gossamer-winged blues and coppers

family: Lycaenidae (gossamer-winged blues and coppers) — 142+7 species

Miletinae: harvesters

Moth butterfly Liphyra brassolis fia.png
Moth butterfly
subfamily: Miletinae (harvesters)
tribe: Liphyrini
genus: Liphyra
L. b. major(Rothschild, 1898) [46]

Theclinae: hairstreaks

subfamily: Theclinae (hairstreaks)
tribe: Luciini
genus: Lucia
genus: Paralucia
P. p. lucida(Crosby, 1951) [49]
genus: Pseudodipsas
P. e. iole(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Acrodipsas (ant-blues)
genus: Hypochrysops (jewels)
H. a. apelles(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
H. a. apollo(Miskin, 1891) [59]
H. a. phoebus(Waterhouse, 1928) [60]
H. d. delicia(Hewitson, 1875) [62]
H. d. duaringae(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
H. e. elgneri(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1909) [64]
H. e. barnardi(Waterhouse, 1934) [65]
H. h. nebulosis(Sands, 1986) [67]
H. i. ignita(Leach, 1814) [5]
H. i. chrysonotus(Grose-Smith, 1899) [68]
H. i. erythina(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
H. i. oliffi(Miskin, 1889) [5]
H. m. miskini(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
H. n. narcissus(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
H. n. sabirus(Fruhstorfer, 1908) [69]
H. p. rovena(Druce, 1891) [71]
H. p. euclides(Miskin, 1889) [29]
H. t. medocus(Fruhstorfer, 1908) [69]
H. t. cretatus(Sands, 1986) [67]
genus: Philiris (moonbeams)
P. d. diana(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
P. d. papuanus(Wind & Clench, 1947) [72]
P. f. kurandae(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
P. n. nitens(Grose-Smith, 1898) [75]
P. n. lucina(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
tribe: Arhopalini
genus: Arhopala (oak-blues)
A. m. amphis(Waterhouse, 1942) [77]
A. w. wildei(Miskin, 1891) [59]
tribe: Ogyrini
genus: Ogyris (azures)
tribe: Zesiini (hairstreaks)
genus: Jalmenus
J. i. inous(Hewitson, 1865) [87]
J. i. notocrucifer(Johnson, Hay & Bollam, 1992) [88]
genus: Pseudalmenus
P. c. chlorinda(Blanchard, 1948) [48]
P. c. conara(Couchman, 1965) [6]
P. c. zephyrus(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
P. c. myrsilus(Westwood, 1851) [78]
P. c. chloris(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
P. c. barringtonensis(Waterhouse, 1928) [60]
tribe: Hypolycaenini
genus: Hypolycaena
H. d. turneri(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
H. p. phorbas(Fabricius, 1793) [31]
H. p. ingura(Tindale, 1923) [90]
tribe: Deudorigini
genus: Deudorix
D. e. dido(Waterhouse, 1934) [65]
D. e. diovis(Hewitson, 1863) [92]
D. e. agimar(Fruhstorfer, 1908) [69]
D. d. democles(Miskin, 1884) [36]
D. s. dalyensis(le Souëf & Tindale, 1970) [94]
genus: Rapala
R. v. simsoni(Miskin, 1874) [74]
genus: Bindahara
B. p. yurgama(Couchman, 1965) [6]

Polyommatinae: blues

subfamily: Polyommatinae (blues)
tribe: Candalidini
genus: Candalides (pencil– and dusky-blues)
C. h. helenita(Semper, 1879) [85]
C. m. margarita(Semper, 1879) [85]
C. c. consimilis(Waterhouse, 1942) [77]
C. c. goodingi(Tindale, 1965) [97]
C. c. toza(Kerr, 1967) [98]
C. c. cyprotus(Olliff, 1886) [99]
C. c. pallescens(Tite, 1963) [100]
C. h. hyacinthina(Semper, 1879) [85]
C. h. simplexa(Tepper, 1882) [101]
C. h. gilesi(Williams & Bollam, 2001) [102]
C. e. erinus(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
C. h. heathi(Cox, 1873) [104]
C. h. alpina(Waterhouse, 1928) [60]
C. h. doddi(Burns, 1948) [106]
genus: Nesolycaena (opals)
tribe: Lycaenestheni
genus: Anthene (ciliate-blues)
A. s. affinis(Waterhouse & RE Turner, 1905) [112]
A. l. godeffroyi(Semper, 1879) [85]
tribe: Polyommatini
genus: Petrelaea
genus: Nacaduba
N. b. berenice(Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) [113]
N. k. parma(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
N. k. felsina(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
N. b. biocellata(C & R Felder, 1865) [8]
N. c. calauria(C Felder, 1860) [93]
genus: Erysichton
E. l. lineata(Murray, 1874) [114]
E. p. tasmanicus(Miskin, 1890) [76]
genus: Danis
D. d. serapis(Miskin, 1891) [59]
D. d. syrius(Miskin, 1890) [76]
genus: Nothodanis
genus: Psychonotis
P. c. taygetus(C & R Felder, 1865) [8]
genus: Prosotas
P. d. dubiosa(Semper, 1879) [85]
P. n. auletes(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Catopyrops
C. a. mysia(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
C. f. halys(Waterhouse, 1934) [65]
C. f. estrella(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Ionolyce
I. h. hyllus(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Theclinesthes
T. h. hesperia(Sibatani & Grund, 1978) [116]
T. h. littoralis(Sibatani & Grund, 1978) [116]
T. m. miskini(TP Lucas, 1889) [117]
T. m. eucalypti(Sibatani & Grund, 1978) [116]
T. m. arnoldi(Fruhstorfer, 1916) [118]
T. o. onycha(Hewitson, 1865) [87]
T. o. capricornia(Sibatani & Grund, 1978) [116]
T. s. serpentata(Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) [113]
T. s. lavara(Couchman, 1954) [119]
genus: Sahulana
genus: Neolucia (heath-blues)
N. a. agricola(Westwood, 1851) [78]
N. a. insulana(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
N. a. occidens(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
N. h. hobartensis(Miskin, 1890) [76]
N. h. monticola(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Jamides (ceruleans)
J. a. coelestis(Miskin, 1891) [59]
J. c. claudia(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Catochrysops (pea-blues)
C. a. amasea(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
C. p. platissa(Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) [113]
C. p. papuana(Tite, 1959) [121]
genus: Lampides
genus: Leptotes (synonyms Tarucus and Syntarucus )
L. p. pseudocassius(Murray, 1873) [123]
genus: Zizeeria
genus: Zizina
Z. l. labradus(Godart, 1824) [125]
Z. l. labdalon(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Famegana
Black-spotted grass-blue, Famegana alsulus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) [113]
F. a. alsulus(Herrich-Schäffer, 1869) [113]
genus: Zizula
Z. h. attenuata(TP Lucas, 1890) [127]
genus: Everes
E. l. australis(Couchman, 1962) [128]
genus: Pithecops
P. d. dionisius(Boisduval, 1832) [15]
genus: Neopithecops
N. l. heria(Fruhstorfer, 1919) [129]
genus: Megisba
M. s. nigra(Miskin, 1890) [76]
genus: Udara
genus: Euchrysops
E. c. cnidus(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Freyeria
F. p. putli(Kollar, 1844) [131]

Nymphalidae: brush– or four-footed

family: Nymphalidae (brush– or four-footed) — 81+6 species

Morphinae

subfamily: Morphinae
tribe: Amathusiini
genus Taenaris
T. a. jamesi(Butler, 1876) [19]

Satyrinae

subfamily: Satyrinae
tribe: Biini
subtribe: Melanititi
genus: Melanitis
M. l. bankia(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
tribe: Elymniini
subtribe: Elymniiti
genus: Elymnias
E. a. australiana(Fruhstorfer, 1900) [133]
subtribe: Mycalesiti
O. m. moira(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
M. p. perseus(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
M. s. sirius(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
M. t. terminus(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
tribe: Satyrini
subtribe: Ypthimiti
genus: Ypthima
Y. a. arctoa(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
subtribe: Hypocystiti
genus: Hypocysta
H. a. angustata(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Nesoxenica endemic to Tasmania
N. l. leprea(Hewitson, 1864) [136]
N. l. elia(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
genus: Argynnina
genus: Oreixenica
genus: Geitoneura
genus: Heteronympha
genus: Tisiphone

Charaxinae: leafwings

Tailed emperor Tailed emperor butterfly.jpg
Tailed emperor
subfamily: Charaxinae (leafwings)
genus: Charaxes
genus: Polyura
Polyura pyrrhus sempronius(Fabricius, 1793) [31]

Apaturinae

subfamily: Apaturinae
genus: Apaturina
A. e. papuana(Ribbe, 1884) [148]

Heliconiinae: longwings

subfamily: Heliconiinae (longwings)
tribe: Acraeini
genus: Acraea
A. a. andromacha(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
tribe: Heliconiini
genus: Cethosia
C. c. chrysippe(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
C. p. paksha(Fruhstorfer, 1905) [149]
tribe: Vagrantini
genus: Vindula
V. a. ada(Butler, 1874) [150]
genus: Cupha
C. p. prosope(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
genus: Vagrans
V. e. propinqua(Miskin, 1884) [36]
genus: Phalanta
P. p. araca(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
tribe: Argynnini
genus: Argynnis
A. h. inconstansButler, 1873 [151]

Nymphalinae

subfamily: Nymphalinae
genus: Doleschallia
D. b. australis(C & R Felder, 1867) [152]
genus: Hypolimnas
H. a. lamina(Fruhstorfer, 1903) [153]
H. a. darwinensis(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
H. a. albula(Wallace, 1869) [154]
H. b. bolina(Linnaeus, 1758) [7]
H. b. nerina(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
genus: Yoma
Yoma sabina parva (Butler, 1876) [19]
genus: Junonia
Junonia hedonia zelima (Fabricius, 1775) [21]
Junonia orithya albicincta (Butler, 1875) [135]
Junonia villida calybe (Godart, 1819) [156]
genus: Vanessa
genus: Mynes
M. g. guerini(Wallace, 1869) [154]

Biblidinae

White-banded plane Aeroplane.jpg
White-banded plane
subfamily: Biblidinae (planes)
genus: Pantoporia
P. c. consimilis(Boisduval, 1832) [15]
P. v. moorei(WJ Macleay, 1866) [158]
genus: Neptis
N. p. staudingereana(de Nicéville, 1898) [159]
genus: Phaedyma
P. s. shepherdi(Moore, 1858) [91]
genus: Lexias

Libytheinae

Purple beak Libythea geoffroy.jpg
Purple beak
subfamily: Libytheinae
genus: Libythea
L. g. genia(Waterhouse, 1938) [160]
L. g. nicevillei(Olliff, 1891) [161]

Danainae: milkweed butterflies

subfamily: Danainae (milkweed butterflies)
tribe: Danaini (tigers and crows)
genus Tirumala
T. h. hamata(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
genus Danaus
D. a. affinis(Fabricius, 1775) [21]
D. a. alexis(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
D. a. gelanor(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
conspecific with: [162] D. philene(Stoll, 1782) [4]
D. g. alexis(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]
D. c. petilia(Stoll, 1790) [163]
D. c. cratippus(C Felder, 1860) [93]
genus Euploea
E. a. eichhorni(Staudinger, 1884) [164]
E. a. enastri(Fenner, 1991) [165]
E. a. monilifera(Moore, 1883) [166]
E. c. corinna(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
E. a. violetta(Butler, 1876) [19]
E. b. resarta(Butler, 1876) [19]
E. c. macleari(Butler, 1887) [167]
E. d. darchia(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
E. d. niveata(Butler, 1875) [135]
E. s. sylvester(Fabricius, 1793) [31]
E. s. pelor(Doubleday, 1847) [23]
E. t. tulliolus(Fabricius, 1793) [31]
tribe: Tellervini
genus Tellervo
Cairns hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus zoilus (Fabricius, 1775) [21]
Cape York hamadryad, Tellervo zoilus gelo (Waterhouse & Lyell, 1914) [9]

Hesperiidae: skippers

family: Hesperiidae (skippers) [170] 121+1 species

Pyrginae: spread-winged skippers

subfamily: Pyrginae (spread-winged skippers) (Burmeister, 1878) [171]
genus: dusk-flats, Chaetocneme (C Felder, 1860) [93]
C. c. sphinterifera(Fruhstorfer, 1910) [39]
genus: Euschemon (Doubleday, 1846) [2]
Euschemon rafflesia Regentskipper.jpg
Euschemon rafflesia
E. r. rafflesia(WS Macleay, 1826) [12]
E. r. alba(Mabille, 1903) [174]
genus: Exometoeca
genus: Netrocoryne
N. r. repanda(C & R Felder, 1867) [152]
N. r. expansa(Waterhouse, 1932) [176]
genus: Tagiades
T. j. janetta(Butler, 1870) [177]

Coeliadinae: awls, awlets and policemen

subfamily: Coeliadinae (awls, awlets and policemen)
genus: Allora
genus: Badamia
genus: Hasora
H. d. mastusia(Fruhstorfer, 1911) [180]
H. c. chromus(Cramer, 1780) [4]
H. k. haslia(Swinhoe, 1899) [182]

Trapezitinae: Australian skippers

subfamily: Trapezitinae (Australian skippers)
genus: Antipodia
genus: Croitana
genus: Herimosa (Atkins, 1994); [188] previously Anisynta (Lower, 1911) [189]
A. c. cynone(Hewitson, 1874) [51]
A. c. gunneda(Couchman, 1954) [119]
genus: Hesperilla
genus: Mesodina
genus: Motasingha
genus: Neohesperilla
genus: Oreisplanus
genus: Signeta
genus: Toxidia
genus: Trapezites

Hesperinae: grass skippers

subfamily: Hesperinae (grass skippers)
genus: Notocrypta
N. w. proserpina(Butler, 1883) [200]
genus: Taractrocera
T. i. ilia(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
genus: Ocybadistes
O. a. ardea(Bethune-Baker, 1906) [209]
O. a. heterobathra(Lower, 1908) [185]
genus: Suniana
genus: Arrhenes
A. d. iris(Waterhouse, 1903) [63]
A. m. affinis(Waterhouse & Lyell, 1912) [192]
genus: Telicota
T. a. krefftii(WJ Macleay, 1866) [158]
T. c. argeus(Plötz, 1883) [215]
T. m. mesoptis(Lower, 1911) [189]
genus: Cephrenes
C. a. sperthias(C Felder, 1862) [96]
genus: Sabera
genus: Pelopidas
genus: Parnara
genus: Borbo
B. i. lavinia(Waterhouse, 1932) [176]
B. i. tetragaphus(Mabille, 1891) [201]

Remote islands species

Christmas Island Map of Christmas Island 1976.jpg
Christmas Island

Australia has 8,222 islands within her maritime borders. This is small in comparison with her northern neighbour Indonesia, with about 18,300 islands (high geological activity is constantly adding and removing Indonesian islands). The British Isles include more than 6,000 islands over a much smaller area. The Greek islands include about as many islands depending on the minimum size to take into account, but in an even smaller area.

Christmas Island (105°E)

Torres Strait islands (142–144°E)

Torres Strait islands TorresStraitIslandsMap.png
Torres Strait islands
Dauan Island (Dauan, 142.5°E)
Saibai Island (Saibai, 142.7°E)
Yorke Island (Masig, 143.4°E)
Darnley Island (Erub, 143.7°E)
Murray Island (Mer, 144.0°E)

Norfolk Island (168°E)

Glossary

Major collections

Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)
in principal collections
CollectionSpecimensAmateurPercent
ANIC, Canberra115,00092,00080%
Australian Museum, Sydney65,00063,90098%
Museum of Victoria 24,00018,00075%
Queensland Museum 9,0006,30070%
South Australian Museum 36,00019,80055%
Total249,000200,00080%

Museums outside of Australia with significant Australian butterfly collections

See also

collections
butterfly lists
Australian animal lists

Notes and references

  1. Collins, N. Mark; Morris, Michael G. (1985). Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN   978-2-88032-603-6 via Biodiversity Heritage Library.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Edward Doubleday, John Obadiah Westwood and William Chapman Hewitson. The Genera of Diurnal Lepidoptera: comprising their generic characters, a notice of their habits and transformations, and a catalogue of the species of each genus. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1846–52.
  3. Norman Barnett Tindale, "A new butterfly of the genus Papilio from Arnhem Land", Records of the South Australian Museum 3 (1927): 103–134.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Pieter Cramer and Caspar Stoll, Uitlandische Kapellen: voorkomende in de drei Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America, by een verzameld en bescreeven(in Dutch), Papilions Exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amerique(in French), 34 issues in 4 volumes, (Amsterdam: Steven Jacobus Baalde, and Utrecht: Bartholomeus Wild, [1775]–1782).
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 William Elford Leach, Zoological Miscellany, (London: British Museum), 1814.
  6. 1 2 3 Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1965.
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  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1865).
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1914), The Butterflies of Australia: a monograph of the Australian Rhopalocera introducing a complete scheme of structural classification, and giving descriptions and illustrations of all the butterflies found in Australia, including a number now recorded for the first time, (Sydney, Angus & Robertson). 239 pp.
  10. Walter Rothschild, 1895.
  11. 1 2 3 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1877.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 William Sharp Macleay, "Annulosa, catalogue of insects, collected by Captain King, RN", Appendix B in Phillip Parker King, Narrative of a Survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia , (London: John Murray, 1826): pp. 438–469.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Edward Donovan, An Epitome of the Natural History of the Insects of New Holland, New Zealand, New Guinea, Otaheite, and other Islands in the Indian, Southern, and Pacific Oceans: including the figures and descriptions of one hundred and fifty-three species of the more splendid, beautiful, and interesting insects, hitherto discovered in those countries, and which for the most part have not appeared in the works of any preceding author, (London: Francis, Charles & John Rivington, 1805).
  14. 1 2 3 Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville, 1830.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1832.
  16. Goeze, 1779.
  17. John Obadiah Westwood, 1842.
  18. John Obadiah Westwood, 1843.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1876.
  20. 1 2 3 Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1859.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Johan Christian Fabricius, Systema Entomologiae: Sistens insectorum—classes, ordines, genera, species; Adiectis—synonymis, locis, descriptionibus, observationibus, Officina Libraria Kortii, (Flensburgi et Lipsiae, 1775).
  22. 1 2 3 Gray, 1853.
  23. 1 2 3 Edward Doubleday, 1847.
  24. Max S. Moulds, 1974.
  25. 1 2 Carl Linnaeus, 1763.
  26. Pierre Hippolyte Lucas (1852), "Description de nouvelles espèces de Lépidoptères appartenant aux collections entomologiques du Musée de Paris", Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2)4(7): 324–343 [326].
  27. 1 2 M. de Baar and DL Hancock (1993), "The Australian species of Elodina C. & R. Felder (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Australian Entomological Magazine 20(1): 25–43. M. de Baar and DL Hancock (1993), "Further Notes on the Australian Species of Elodina C. & R. Felder (Lepidoptera: Pieridae)", Entomological Society of Queensland News Bulletin 21(8): 131–135.
  28. 1 2 3 4 William Chapman Hewitson, 1853.
  29. 1 2 3 4 5 6 William Henry Miskin, 1889.
  30. 1 2 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1898.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Johannes Christophorus Fabricius, Entomologia Systematica: Secundum—classes, ordines, genera, species; Adjectis—synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus, emendata et aucta, tomus II et III, (Hafniae: Christian Gottlieb Proft, filius et socii, 1793). (in Latin)
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Jean Baptiste Alphonse de Chauffour de Boisduval, 1836.
  33. 1 2 Swinhoe (1890).
  34. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1871.
  35. 1 2 3 Alfred Russel Wallace, "On the Pieridae of the Indian and Australian regions", Transactions of the Entomological Society of London [3rd series] 4 (1867): 301–406. Plates 6–9, p. 328.
  36. 1 2 3 4 5 William Henry Miskin, 1884.
  37. Joicey & Talbot, 1926.
  38. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1897.
  39. 1 2 Hans Fruhstorfer (1910).
  40. 1 2 3 William Chapman Hewitson, 1867.
  41. Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1832).
  42. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1886.
  43. William Chapman Hewitson, 1861.
  44. 1 2 Fruhstorfer, Hans. "Die Indo-Australischen Tagfalter". [Family Erycinidae]. Pages 767–798 in Adalbert Seitz (ed.), Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde: eine systematische Bearbeitung der bis jetzt bekannten Gross-Schmetterlinge. Volume 9. Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen, 1914. (in German)
  45. Westwood, 1864.
  46. Walter Rothschild, 1898.
  47. W Swainson (1833).
  48. 1 2 3 4 CE Blanchard, 1848.
  49. Crosby, 1951.
  50. ED Edwards & Common, 1978.
  51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 William Chapman Hewitson, 1874.
  52. Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1860).
  53. CG Miller & ED Edwards, 1978.
  54. Don PA Sands, 1997.
  55. Don PA Sands, 1965.
  56. 1 2 3 Don PA Sands, 1980.
  57. Don PA Sands, CG Miller & JFR Kerr, 1997.
  58. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1913).
  59. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 William Henry Miskin (1891), Synonymical catalogue of the Lepidoptera rhopalocera (Butterflies) of Australia, with full bibliographical references, including descriptions of some new species (Brisbane, James C. Beal).
  60. 1 2 3 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1928.
  61. Grose-Smith, 1900.
  62. 1 2 William Chapman Hewitson, 1875.
  63. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1903.
  64. 1 2 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1909).
  65. 1 2 3 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1934.
  66. 1 2 3 William Henry Miskin, 1876.
  67. 1 2 Don PA Sands, 1986.
  68. Grose-Smith, 1899.
  69. 1 2 3 Hans Fruhstorfer (1908).
  70. JFR Kerr, Jack Macqueen & Don PA Sands, 1969.
  71. 1 2 Herbert H Druce, 1891.
  72. 1 2 RG Wind and Harry Kendon Clench, 1947.
  73. Grose-Smith & Kirby, 1897.
  74. 1 2 William Henry Miskin, 1874.
  75. 1 2 3 Grose-Smith, 1898.
  76. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 William Henry Miskin, 1890.
  77. 1 2 3 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1942.
  78. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 John Obadiah Westwood, 1851.
  79. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1902.
  80. 1 2 3 4 William Chapman Hewitson, 1862.
  81. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1900.
  82. Field (1999).
  83. Graham & Moulds, 1988.
  84. Herbert H Druce, 1902.
  85. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Georg Semper, 1879.
  86. Staudinger (1888).
  87. 1 2 3 4 5 6 William Chapman Hewitson, 1865.
  88. Johnson, RW Hay & Bollam, 1992.
  89. JFR Kerr & Jack Macqueen, 1967.
  90. Norman Barnett Tindale, 1923.
  91. 1 2 3 4 Moore, 1858.
  92. 1 2 3 William Chapman Hewitson, 1863.
  93. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Cajetan Felder (1860).
  94. JC le Souef & Norman Barnett Tindale, 1970.
  95. Horsfield, 1829.
  96. 1 2 3 Cajetan Felder (1862).
  97. Norman Barnett Tindale, 1965.
  98. JFR Kerr, 1967.
  99. 1 2 Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1886.
  100. Tite, 1963.
  101. 1 2 3 4 JGO Tepper (1882).
  102. Williams & Bollam, 2001.
  103. ED Ewdards & Kerr, 1978.
  104. 1 2 3 Cox, 1873.
  105. Jacob Hübner, 1817.
  106. Burns, 1948.
  107. Michael F. Braby & Fabian Douglas (2004), "The taxonomy, ecology and conservation status of the Golden-rayed Blue: a threatened butterfly endemic to western Victoria", Australia Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81(2): 275–299.
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  109. Norman Barnett Tindale, 1922.
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  117. 1 2 3 Thomas Pennington Lucas (1889).
  118. Hans Fruhstorfer (1916).
  119. 1 2 Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1954.
  120. Mathew, 1889.
  121. Tite, 1959.
  122. Carl Linnaeus, 1767.
  123. Murray, 1873.
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  125. 1 2 3 4 Godart, 1824.
  126. 1 2 Johan Christian Fabricius, 1787.
  127. Thomas Pennington Lucas (1890).
  128. Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1962.
  129. Hans Fruhstorfer (1919).
  130. Johan Christian Fabricius, 1798.
  131. 1 2 Kollar, 1844.
  132. Snellen, 1860.
  133. Hans Fruhstorfer (1900).
  134. Jacob Hübner, 1831.
  135. 1 2 3 4 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1875.
  136. 1 2 William Chapman Hewitson, 1864.
  137. 1 2 3 Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1890.
  138. Edward Meyrick, 1885.
  139. Leonard Edgar Couchman, 1953.
  140. Geyer, 1832.
  141. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1866.
  142. Oswald Bertram Lower, 1893.
  143. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1937.
  144. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1904.
  145. Arthur Sydney Olliff, 1888.
  146. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1865.
  147. 1 2 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1900.
  148. Ribbe, 1884.
  149. Hans Fruhstorfer (1905).
  150. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1874.
  151. Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1873.
  152. 1 2 3 4 Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1867).
  153. Hans Fruhstorfer (1903).
  154. 1 2 3 Wallace, 1869.
  155. Carolus Linnaeus (1764), Museum S:ae Rae M:tis Ludovicae Ulricae Reginae Suecorum, Gothorum, Vandalorumque ... in quo animalia rariora, exotica, imprimis insecta et conchilia describuntur et determinantur (Holmiae, Laurentii Salvii). (in Latin)
  156. 1 2 3 Godart, 1819.
  157. McCoy, 1868.
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  159. de Nicéville, 1898.
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  163. Stoll (1790).
  164. Staudinger (1884).
  165. Fenner (1991).
  166. Moore, 1883.
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  168. Johann Friedrich Gmelin, 1790.
  169. 1 2 Snellen, 1889.
  170. 1 2 Pierre André Latreille, 1809.
  171. Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister, 1878.
  172. Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville, 1831.
  173. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Edward Meyrick & Lower, 1902.
  174. Jules Paul Mabille, 1903.
  175. 1 2 3 4 Edward Meyrick, 1888.
  176. 1 2 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1932.
  177. 1 2 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1870.
  178. 1 2 Walter Rothschild, 1915.
  179. Cajetan and Rudolf Felder (1859).
  180. 1 2 Hans Fruhstorfer (1911).
  181. Jules Paul Mabille, 1876.
  182. Swinhoe (1899).
  183. 1 2 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1882.
  184. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 William Chapman Hewitson, 1868.
  185. 1 2 3 4 5 Oswald Bertram Lower, 1908.
  186. Moore, 1878.
  187. 1 2 ED Edwards, 1979.
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  189. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Oswald Bertram Lower, 1911.
  190. Gustavus Athol Waterhouse, 1940.
  191. 1 2 3 4 Carl Plötz, 1884.
  192. 1 2 Gustavus Athol Waterhouse and George Lyell (1912).
  193. Don PA Sands & JFR Kerr, 1973.
  194. Andrew F. Atkins, 1978.
  195. Edward Meyrick, 1901.
  196. ED Edwards, 1987.
  197. ED Edwards & Graham, 1995.
  198. William Chapman Hewitson, 1902.
  199. 1 2 WF Kirby, 1893.
  200. 1 2 Arthur Gardiner Butler, 1883.
  201. 1 2 Jules Paul Mabille, 1891.
  202. AAE Williams, MR Williams & RW Hay, 1998.
  203. 1 2 Andrew F. Atkins, 1997.
  204. JFR Kerr & Don PA Sands, 1970.
  205. William Chapman Hewitson, 1877.
  206. Jacob Hübner, 1823.
  207. Mayo & Atkins, 1992.
  208. Carl Plötz, 1882.
  209. 1 2 George Thomas Bethune-Baker, 1906.
  210. Pierre André Latreille, 1824.
  211. Lambkin & Donaldson, 1994.
  212. Heron, 1894.
  213. Rosenstock, 1885.
  214. Carl Plötz, 1885.
  215. 1 2 3 Carl Plötz, 1883.
  216. William Chapman Hewitson, 1886.
  217. Evans, 1866.
  218. Wallace, 1866.
  219. Jules Paul Mabille, 1883.
  220. Christmas Island National Park

Bibliography

[ Reviewed in Australian Journal of Entomology 40 (2001): 202–204.]

Taxonomic authorities

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