Seabed Arms Control Treaty

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Seabed Arms Control Treaty
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof
Seabed Arms Control Treaty parties.svg
Ratifications and signatories of the treaty
  Parties
  Signatories
  Non-parties
Signed11 February 1971
Effective18 May 1972
Condition22 ratifications (including depositary states)
Signatories84
Parties94 [1] (as of May 2014)
DepositaryGovernments of the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
LanguagesEnglish, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese
Wikisource-logo.svg Seabed Arms Control Treaty at Wikisource

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty (or Seabed Treaty, formally the Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil thereof) is a multilateral agreement between the United States, Soviet Union (now Russia), United Kingdom, and 91 other countries [1] banning the emplacement of nuclear weapons or "weapons of mass destruction" on the ocean floor beyond a 12-mile (22.2 km) coastal zone. It allows signatories to observe all seabed "activities" of any other signatory beyond the 12-mile zone to ensure compliance.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Soviet Union 1922–1991 country in Europe and Asia

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, and over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, taiga, steppes, desert and mountains.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.79 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

Contents

Like the Antarctic Treaty, the Outer Space Treaty, and the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone treaties, the Seabed Arms Control Treaty sought to prevent the introduction of international conflict and nuclear weapons into an area hitherto free of them. Reaching agreement on the seabed, however, involved problems not met in framing the other two agreements.

Outer Space Treaty Treaty that forms the basis of international space law

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law. The treaty was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union on 27 January 1967, and entered into force on 10 October 1967. As of February 2019, 108 countries are parties to the treaty, while another 23 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification. In addition, Taiwan, which is currently recognized by 16 UN member states, ratified the treaty prior to the United Nations General Assembly's vote to transfer China's seat to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. The Outer Space Treaty does not ban military activities within space or the weaponization of space, with the exception of the placement of weapons of mass destruction in space.

History

In the 1960s, advances in the technology of oceanography and greatly increased interest in the vast and virtually untapped resources of the ocean floor led to concern that the absence of clearly established rules of law might lead to strife. And there were concurrent fears that nations might use the seabed as a new environment for military installations, including those capable of launching nuclear weapons.

Oceanography The study of the physical and biological aspects of water

Oceanography, also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean. It is an important Earth science, which covers a wide range of topics, including ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics. Paleoceanography studies the history of the oceans in the geologic past.

In keeping with a proposal submitted to the U.N. Secretary General by Ambassador Pardo of Malta in August 1967, the U.N. General Assembly, on 18 December 1967, established an ad hoc committee to study ways of reserving the seabed for peaceful purposes, with the objective of ensuring "that the exploration and use of the seabed and the ocean floor should be conducted in accordance with the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, in the interests of maintaining international peace and security and for the benefit of all mankind." The Committee was given permanent status the following year. At the same time, seabed-related military and arms control issues were referred to the Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENDC) and its successor, the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament (CCD). In a message of 18 March 1969, President Nixon said the American delegation to the ENDC should seek discussion of the factors necessary for an international agreement prohibiting the emplacement of weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and ocean floor and pointed out that an agreement of this kind would, like the Antarctic and Outer Space treaties, "prevent an arms race before it has a chance to start."

Malta island republic in Europe

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta, is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. It lies 80 km (50 mi) south of Italy, 284 km (176 mi) east of Tunisia, and 333 km (207 mi) north of Libya. With a population of about 475,000 over an area of 316 km2 (122 sq mi), Malta is the world's tenth smallest and fifth most densely populated country. Its capital is Valletta, which is the smallest national capital in the European Union by area at 0.8 km². The official languages are Maltese and English, with Maltese officially recognised as the national language and the only Semitic language in the European Union.

Charter of the United Nations treaty

The Charter of the United Nations of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization. The UN Charter articulated a commitment to uphold human rights of citizens and outlined a broad set of principles relating to achieving ‘higher standards of living’, addressing ‘economic, social, health, and related problems,’ and ‘universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion.’ As a charter, it is a constituent treaty, and all members are bound by its articles. Furthermore, Article 103 of the Charter states that obligations to the United Nations prevail over all other treaty obligations.

The Eighteen Nation Committee on Disarmament (ENCD) was sponsored by the United Nations in 1961. The ENCD considered disarmament, confidence-building measures and nuclear test controls. Between 1965 and 1968, the ENCD negotiated the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

Status

List of parties

The Seabed Arms Control Treaty was opened for signature in Washington, London, and Moscow on 11 February 1971. It entered into force 18 May 1972, when the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and more than 22 nations had deposited instruments of ratification. As of October 2018, 94 current states are parties to the treaty, while another 21 have signed the treaty but have not completed ratification. [1]

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom, as well as the largest city within the European Union. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Moscow Capital city of Russia

Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.

Multiple dates indicate the different days in which states submitted their signature or deposition, which varied by location. This location is noted by: (L) for London, (M) for Moscow, and (W) for Washington.

State [1] [2] [3] [4] SignedDepositedMethod
Flag of Afghanistan.svg  Afghanistan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Apr 22, 1971 (M)
Apr 23, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria Jan 27, 1992 (W)Accession
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg  Antigua and Barbuda Nov 16, 1988 (W)
Dec 26, 1988 (M)
Jan 26, 1989 (L)
Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Argentina.svg  Argentina Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W)Mar 21, 1983 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jan 23, 1973 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Aug 10, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of the Bahamas.svg  Bahamas Jun 7, 1989 (W)Accession
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus Mar 3, 1971 (M)Sep 14, 1971 (M)Ratification
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Nov 20, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Benin.svg  Benin Mar 18, 1971 (W)Jun 19, 1986 (M)
Jul 2, 1986 (L)
Jul 7, 1986 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg  Bosnia and Herzegovina Aug 15, 1994 (W)Succession from Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Flag of Botswana.svg  Botswana Feb 11, 1971 (W)Nov 10, 1972 (W)Ratification
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil Sep 3, 1971 (L, M, W)May 10, 1988 (L, W)
Aug 4, 1988 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Apr 16, 1971 (M)
May 7, 1971 (W)
May 26, 1971 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 17, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Cape Verde.svg  Cape Verde Oct 24, 1979 (M)Accession
Flag of the Central African Republic.svg  Central African Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W)Jul 9, 1981 (W)Ratification
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China Feb 28, 1991 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of the Republic of the Congo.svg  Congo Oct 23, 1978 (W)Accession
Flag of Cote d'Ivoire.svg  Côte d'Ivoire Jan 14, 1972 (M, W)Accession
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba Jun 3, 1977 (M)Accession
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Nov 17, 1971 (L, M)
Dec 30, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic Jan 1, 1993 (W)
Apr 5, 1993 (L)
Apr 9, 1993 (M)
Succession from Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jun 15, 1971 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg  Dominican Republic Feb 11, 1971 (W)Feb 11, 1972 (W)Ratification
Flag of Ethiopia.svg  Ethiopia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jul 12, 1977 (L)
Jul 14, 1977 (M, W)
Ratification
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany Jun 8, 1971 (L, M, W)Nov 18, 1975 (L, W)Ratification
Flag of Ghana.svg  Ghana Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Aug 9, 1972 (W)Ratification
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece Feb 11, 1971 (M)
Feb 12, 1971 (W)
May 28, 1985 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Guatemala.svg  Guatemala Feb 11, 1971 (W)Apr 1, 1996 (W)Ratification
Flag of Guinea-Bissau.svg  Guinea-Bissau Aug 20, 1976 (M)Accession
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Aug 13, 1971 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Iceland.svg  Iceland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 30, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of India.svg  India Jul 20, 1973 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Aug 26, 1971 (L, W)
Sep 6, 1971 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Iraq.svg  Iraq Feb 22, 1971 (M)Sep 13, 1972 (M)Ratification
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)Aug 19, 1971 (L, W)Ratification
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Sep 3, 1974 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Jamaica.svg  Jamaica Oct 11, 1971 (L, W)
Oct 14, 1971 (M)
Jul 30, 1986 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jun 21, 1971 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Jordan.svg  Jordan Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Aug 17, 1971 (W)
Aug 30, 1971 (M)
Nov 1, 1971 (L)
Ratification
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)Jun 25, 1987 (L, W)Ratification
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
Oct 19, 1971 (L)
Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Nov 3, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Latvia.svg  Latvia Jun 24, 1992 (L)
Aug 3, 1992 (W)
Aug 21, 1992 (M)
Accession
Flag of Lesotho.svg  Lesotho Sep 8, 1971 (W)Apr 3, 1973 (W)Ratification
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya Jul 6, 1990 (M)Accession
Flag of Liechtenstein.svg  Liechtenstein May 30, 1991 (L, W)
May 31, 1991 (M)
Accession
Flag of Luxembourg.svg  Luxembourg Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Nov 11, 1982 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia May 20, 1971 (L, M, W)Jun 21, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Malta.svg  Malta Feb 11, 1971 (L, W)May 4, 1971 (W)Ratification
Flag of Mauritius.svg  Mauritius Feb 11, 1971 (W)Apr 23, 1971 (W)
May 3, 1971 (L)
May 18, 1971 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Mexico.svg  Mexico Mar 23, 1984 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of Mongolia.svg  Mongolia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M)Oct 8, 1971 (M)
Nov 15, 1981 (L)
Ratification
Flag of Montenegro.svg  Montenegro Jun 3, 2006 (M)
Dec 12, 2006 (L)
Succession from Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Serbia and Montenegro [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 18, 1971 (L)
Jul 26, 1971 (L)
Aug 5, 1971 (W)
Jan 18, 1972 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Nepal.svg    Nepal Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Feb 24, 1971 (L)
Jul 6, 1971 (L)
Jul 29, 1971 (M)
Aug 9, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jan 14, 1976 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Feb 24, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Nicaragua.svg  Nicaragua Feb 11, 1971 (W)Feb 7, 1973 (W)Ratification
Flag of Niger.svg  Niger Feb 11, 1971 (W)Aug 9, 1971 (W)Ratification
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jun 28, 1971 (L, M)
Jun 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Panama.svg  Panama Feb 11, 1971 (W)Mar 20, 1974 (W)Ratification
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines Nov 5, 1993 (L)Accession
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Nov 15, 1971 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Portugal.svg  Portugal Jun 24, 1975 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of Qatar.svg  Qatar Nov 12, 1974 (L)Accession
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Jul 10, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 18, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Rwanda.svg  Rwanda Feb 11, 1971 (W)May 20, 1975 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis.svg  Saint Kitts and Nevis May 18, 1972 (W)Accession
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines.svg  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines May 13, 1999 (L)Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of Sao Tome and Principe.svg  Sao Tome and Principe Aug 24, 1979 (M)Accession
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia Jan 7, 1972 (W)Jun 23, 1972 (W)Ratification
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia Jun 3, 2006 (L, M)Succession from Flag of Serbia and Montenegro (1992-2006).svg  Serbia and Montenegro
Flag of the Seychelles.svg  Seychelles Mar 12, 1985 (L)
Mar 14, 1985 (M)
Apr 8, 1985 (W)
Accession
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore May 5, 1971 (L, M, W)Sep 10, 1976 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia Jan 1, 1993 (W)
May 17, 1993 (L)
Jun 25, 1993 (M)
Succession from Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia Apr 7, 1992 (L)
Aug 20, 1992 (W)
Succession from Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Flag of the Solomon Islands.svg  Solomon Islands Jun 17, 1981 (L)Succession from Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Flag of South Africa.svg  South Africa Feb 11, 1971 (W)Nov 14, 1973 (W)
Nov 26, 1973 (L)
Nov 30, 1973 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Spain.svg  Spain Jul 15, 1987 (L, M, W)Accession
Flag of Eswatini.svg  Swaziland Feb 11, 1971 (W)Aug 9, 1971 (W)Ratification
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Apr 28, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 4, 1976 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Togo.svg  Togo Apr 2, 1971 (W)Jun 28, 1971 (W)Ratification
Flag of Tunisia.svg  Tunisia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)Oct 22, 1971 (M)
Oct 28, 1971 (L)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
Ratification
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey Feb 25, 1971 (L, M, W)Oct 19, 1972 (W)
Oct 25, 1972 (L)
Oct 30, 1972 (M)
Ratification
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine Mar 3, 1971 (M)Sep 3, 1971 (M)Ratification
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 18, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of the United States.svg  United States Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)May 18, 1972 (L, M, W)Ratification
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam Jun 20, 1980 (M)Accession as the Flag of Vietnam.svg  Socialist Republic of Vietnam [lower-alpha 2]
Flag of Yemen.svg  Yemen Feb 23, 1971 (M)Jun 1, 1979 (M)Ratification
Flag of Zambia.svg  Zambia Oct 9, 1972 (L)
Nov 1, 1972 (W)
Nov 2, 1972 (M)
Accession
Notes
  1. Montenegro's effective date of succession was 3 June 2006. [5]
  2. Signed by the Flag of South Vietnam.svg  Republic of Vietnam on 11 February 1971, but following the victory by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the Vietnam War, the reunified Socialist Republic of Vietnam renounced all treaty actions performed by the Republic of Vietnam. [6]

State with limited recognition, abiding by treaty

The Republic of China (Taiwan), which is currently only recognized by 16 UN member states, deposited their instruments of ratification of the treaty prior to the United States' decision to switch their recognition of the sole legitimate government of China from the Republic of China (ROC) to the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1971. When the PRC subsequently ratified the treaty, they described the ROC's ratification as "illegal". The ROC has committed itself to continue to adhere to the requirements of the treaty, and the United States has declared that they still consider them to be "bound by its obligations". [7]

One-China policy Policy of only recognizing one state of China

"One-China policy" is a policy saying that there is only one country of China, despite the fact that there are two governments, the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC), with the official name of China. Many countries follow a one China policy, but the meanings are not exactly the same. The PRC exclusively uses the term "One China Principle" in its official communications.

StateSignedDepositedMethod
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Republic of China Feb 11, 1971Feb 22, 1972Ratification

States that have signed but not ratified

StateSigned
Flag of Bolivia.svg  Bolivia Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
Flag of Burundi.svg  Burundi Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Cameroon.svg  Cameroon Nov 11, 1971 (M)
Flag of Colombia.svg  Colombia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Costa Rica.svg  Costa Rica Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Equatorial Guinea.svg  Equatorial Guinea Jun 4, 1971 (W)
Flag of The Gambia.svg  Gambia May 18, 1971 (L)
May 21, 1971 (M)
Oct 29, 1971 (W)
Flag of Guinea.svg  Guinea Feb 11, 1971 (M, W)
Flag of Honduras.svg  Honduras Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
Flag of Liberia.svg  Liberia Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Madagascar.svg  Madagascar Sep 14, 1971 (W)
Flag of Mali.svg  Mali Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Feb 15, 1971 (M)
Flag of Myanmar.svg  Myanmar Feb 11, 1971 (L, M, W)
Flag of Paraguay.svg  Paraguay Feb 23, 1971 (W)
Flag of Senegal.svg  Senegal Mar 17, 1971 (W)
Flag of Sierra Leone.svg  Sierra Leone Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
Feb 24, 1971 (W)
Flag of Sudan.svg  Sudan Feb 11, 1971 (L)
Feb 12, 1971 (M)
Flag of Tanzania.svg  Tanzania Feb 11, 1971 (W)
Flag of Uruguay.svg  Uruguay Feb 11, 1971 (W)

See also

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The Convention on the Continental Shelf was an international treaty created to codify the rules of international law relating to continental shelves. The treaty, after entering into force 10 June 1964, established the rights of a sovereign state over the continental shelf surrounding it, if there be any. The treaty was one of three agreed upon at the first United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It has since been superseded by a new agreement reached in 1982 at UNCLOS III.

Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons legally binding international agreement to prohibit nuclear weapons

The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons (TPNW), or the Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty, is the first legally binding international agreement to comprehensively prohibit nuclear weapons, with the goal of leading towards their total elimination. It was passed on 7 July 2017. In order to come into effect, signature and ratification by at least 50 countries is required. For those nations that are party to it, the treaty prohibits the development, testing, production, stockpiling, stationing, transfer, use and threat of use of nuclear weapons, as well as assistance and encouragement to the prohibited activities. For nuclear armed states joining the treaty, it provides for a time-bound framework for negotiations leading to the verified and irreversible elimination of its nuclear weapons programme.

References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates  public domain material from the United States Department of State document "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof" .

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs . Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  2. "TREATY ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE EMPLACEMENT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS AND OTHER WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION ON THE SEA-BED AND THE OCEAN FLOOR AND IN THE SUBSOIL THEREOF". Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
    "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Sea-Bed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (London Version)". Foreign and Commonwealth Office . Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  3. "Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and the Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof" (PDF). United States Department of State. 6 October 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  4. "Договор о запрещении размещения на дне морей и океанов и в его недрах ядерного оружия и других видов оружия массового уничтожения" (in Russian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  5. "Montenegro: Succession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs . Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  6. "Viet Nam: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs . Retrieved 16 February 2015.
  7. "China: Accession to Sea-Bed Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs . Retrieved 16 February 2015.