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Tobramycin/dexamethasone, sold under the brand name Tobradex, is a fixed-dose combination medication in the form of eye drops and eye ointment, marketed by Alcon.The active ingredients are tobramycin (an antibiotic) and dexamethasone (a corticosteroid). It is prescribed for the treatment of pink eye in combination with bacterial infections.
It is contraindicated with herpetic and other viral eye infections. Other contraindications include fungal and mycobacterial infections because tobramycin is inactive against those, and the corticoid acts as an immunosuppressive agent, preventing the body's immune system from dealing with the infection. The drops are also contraindicated in patients with corneal lesions.
Similarly to other corticosteroid eye drops, side effects include hypersensitivity and, especially after long-term use, secondary eye infections, cataract (clouding of the eye lens) and increased intraocular pressure, leading to glaucoma. Consequently, the drug should not be applied longer than 24 dayswithout further medical evaluation.
Anticholinergic eye drops potentiate the risk of increased intraocular pressure. Systemic aminoglycoside antibiotics increase toxicity for ears, nerves and kidney.
Tobrason is a brand name in Jordan. [ failed verification ]
Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid medication used to treat rheumatic problems, a number of skin diseases, severe allergies, asthma, chronic obstructive lung disease, croup, brain swelling, eye pain following eye surgery, superior vena cava syndrome, and along with antibiotics in tuberculosis. In adrenocortical insufficiency, it may be used in combination with a mineralocorticoid medication such as fludrocortisone. In preterm labor, it may be used to improve outcomes in the baby. It may be given by mouth, as an injection into a muscle, as an injection into a vein, as a topical cream or ointment for the skin or as a topical ophthalmic solution to the eye. The effects of dexamethasone are frequently seen within a day and last for about three days.
A chalazion or meibomian cyst is a cyst in the eyelid usually due to a blocked meibomian gland, typically in the middle of the eyelid, red, and not painful. They tend to come on gradually over a few weeks.
Betamethasone is a steroid medication. It is used for a number of diseases including rheumatic disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, skin diseases such as dermatitis and psoriasis, allergic conditions such as asthma and angioedema, preterm labor to speed the development of the baby's lungs, Crohn's disease, cancers such as leukemia, and along with fludrocortisone for adrenocortical insufficiency, among others. It can be taken by mouth, injected into a muscle, or applied to the skin, typically in cream, lotion, or liquid forms.
Neomycin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, also known as triple antibiotic ointment, is a medication used to reduce the risk of infections following minor skin injuries. It contains three antibiotics: neomycin, polymyxin B, and bacitracin. It is for topical use only and should not be ingested due to risk of kidney damage.
Triamcinolone acetonide, sold under the brand name Kenalog among others, is a synthetic corticosteroid medication used topically to treat various skin conditions, to relieve the discomfort of mouth sores, and by injection into joints to treat various joint conditions. It is also injected into lesions to treat inflammation in some parts of the body, particularly the skin. In nasal spray form, it is used to treat allergic rhinitis. It is used for the treatment of macular edema associated with uveitis. It is a more potent derivative of triamcinolone, and is about eight times as potent as prednisone.
Tobramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic derived from Streptomyces tenebrarius that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. It is especially effective against species of Pseudomonas.
Amikacin is an antibiotic medication used for a number of bacterial infections. This includes joint infections, intra-abdominal infections, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, and urinary tract infections. It is also used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. It is used by injection into a vein using an IV or into a muscle.
Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis is an inflammatory syndrome caused by a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to one or more antigens. The triggering antigen is usually a bacterial protein, but may also be a virus, fungus, or nematode.
Ciprofloxacin/dexamethasone (Ciprodex) is an antibiotic/steroid combination medication. It contains the synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (0.3%), combined with the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, dexamethasone (0.1%), in a sterile, preserved suspension for otic use.
Bimatoprost, sold under the brand name Lumigan among others, is a medication used to treat high pressure inside the eye including glaucoma. Specifically it is used for open angle glaucoma when other agents are not sufficient. It may also be used to increase the size of the eyelashes. It is used as an eye drop and effects generally occur within four hours.
Clobetasone (INN) is a corticosteroid used in dermatology, for treating such skin inflammation as seen in eczema, psoriasis and other forms of dermatitis, and ophthalmology. Topical clobetasone butyrate has shown minimal suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis.
Loteprednol is a topical corticosteroid used to treat inflammations of the eye. It is marketed by Bausch and Lomb as Lotemax and Loterex.
Topical steroids are the topical forms of corticosteroids. Topical steroids are the most commonly prescribed topical medications for the treatment of rash, eczema, and dermatitis. Topical steroids have anti-inflammatory properties and are classified based on their skin vasoconstrictive abilities. There are numerous topical steroid products. All the preparations in each class have the same anti-inflammatory properties but essentially differ in base and price.
Calcipotriol/betamethasone dipropionate, sold under the brand name Taclonex among others, is a fixed-dose combination medication of the synthetic vitamin D3 analog calcipotriol (also known as calcipotriene) and the synthetic corticosteroid betamethasone dipropionate for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. It is used in the form of ointment, topical suspension, gel, aerosol, and foam.
Netarsudil, sold under the brand name Rhopressa among others, is a medication for the treatment of glaucoma. In the United States, in December 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a 0.02% ophthalmic solution for the lowering of elevated intraocular pressure in people with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. The European Medicines Agency approved it in 2019 for the same uses under the brand name Rhokiinsa.
Bimatoprost/timolol, sold under the brand name Ganfort, is a medication for the treatment of certain conditions involving high pressure in the eyes, specifically open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is available as eye drops.
Intravitreal injection is the method of administration of drugs into the eye by injection with a fine needle. The medication will be directly applied into the vitreous humor. It is used to treat various eye diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, and infections inside the eye such as endophthalmitis. As compared to topical administration, this method is beneficial for a more localized delivery of medications to the targeted site, as the needle can directly pass through the anatomical eye barrier and dynamic barrier. It could also minimize adverse drug effect to other body tissues via the systemic circulation, which could be a possible risk for intravenous injection of medications. Although there are risks of infections or other complications, with suitable precautions throughout the injection process, chances for these complications could be lowered.
Netarsudil/latanoprost, sold under the brand name Rocklatan among others, is a fixed-dose combination medication use to treat elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in people with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. It contains netarsudil mesylate and latanoprost. It is applied as eye drops to the eyes.
Brinzolamide/brimonidine, sold under the brand name Simbrinza, is a fixed-dose combination medication used to reduce intra-ocular pressure in adults with ocular hypertension or in those with an eye condition known as open-angle glaucoma. It contains brinzolamide and brimonidine tartrate. It is used as an eye drop.
Topical prednisolone is a type of glucocorticoid, mainly used in the ophthalmic pathway as eye drops in numerous eye conditions, such as corneal injuries caused by chemicals, burns and alien objects, inflammation of the eyes, mild to moderate non-infectious allergies, disorders of the eyelid, conjunctiva or sclera, ocular inflammation caused by operation and optic neuritis. Some side effects include glaucoma, blurring of vision, eye discomfort, impaired recovery of injured site, scarring of the optic nerve, clouding of lenses and urticaria. However, their prevalence is not known.