This article may be too technical for most readers to understand.(September 2010)
|Max. CPU clock rate||1.06 GHz to 2.33 GHz|
|FSB speeds||533 MT/s to 667 MT/s|
|L2 cache||2 MB|
|Architecture and classification|
|Min. feature size||65nm|
|Microarchitecture||Enhanced Pentium M|
|Products, models, variants|
Yonah was the code name of Intel's first generation 65 nm process CPU cores, based on cores of the earlier Banias (130 nm) / Dothan (90 nm) Pentium M microarchitecture. Yonah CPU cores were used within Intel's Core Solo and Core Duo mobile microprocessor products. SIMD performance on Yonah improved through the addition of SSE3 instructions and improvements to SSE and SSE2 implementations; integer performance decreased slightly due to higher latency cache. Additionally, Yonah included support for the NX bit.
The Intel Core Duo brand referred to a low-power (less than 25 watts) dual-core microprocessor, which offered lower power operation than the competing AMD Opteron 260 and 860 HE at 55 watts. Core Duo was released on 5 January 2006, with the other components of the Napa platform. It was the first Intel processor to be used in Apple Macintosh products (although the Apple Developer Transition Kit machines, non-production units distributed to some developers, used Pentium 4 processors).
There were two variants and one derivative of the Yonah, which did not bear the "Intel Core" brand name:
|Brand (main article)||Model (list)||Cores||L2 Cache||TDP|
|Core Duo||T2xxx||2||2 MB||31 W|
|Core Solo||T1xxx||1||2 MB||27-31 W|
|Pentium Dual-Core||T2xxx||2||1 MB||31 W|
|Celeron||M 215||1||512 KB||27 W|
|M 4x0||1 MB||27 W|
|M 4x3||5.5 W|
Core Duo contains 151 million transistors, including the shared 2 MB L2 cache. Yonah's execution core contains a 12-stage pipeline, forecast to eventually be able to run at a maximum frequency of 2.33–2.50 GHz. The communication between the L2 cache and both execution cores is handled by a bus unit controller through arbitration, which reduces cache coherency traffic over the FSB, at the expense of raising the core-to-L2 latency from 10 clock cycles (in the Dothan Pentium M) to 14 clock cycles. The increase in clock frequency offsets the impact of the increased clock cycle latency. The power management components of the core features improved grained thermal control, as well as independent scaling of power between the two cores, resulting in very efficient management of power.
Core processors communicate with the system chipset over a 667 MT/s front side bus (FSB), up from 533 MT/s used by the fastest Pentium M. T2050 & T2250 have also appeared in OEM systems as a low-cost option with a lower 533 MT/s FSB and no Intel VT-x.
Yonah is supported by the 945GM, 945PM, 945GT, 965GM, 965PM, and 965GT system chipsets. Core Duo and Core Solo use Socket M, but due to pin arrangement and new chipset functions are not compatible with any previous Pentium M motherboard.
Contrary to early reports, the Intel Core Duo supports Intel VT-x x86 virtualization, except in the T2300E model and proprietary T2050/T2150/T2250 mounted by OEMs (cf. the Intel Centrino Duo Mobile Technology Performance Brief and Intel's Processor Number Feature Table). The Intel Pentium Dual Core processors do not have this feature.However some vendors (including HP) chose to disable this feature, with others making it available through a BIOS option.
The T2300E was later introduced as a replacement for the T2300. It has dropped support for Intel VT-x. Early Intel specifications mistakenly claimed a halving of the Thermal Design Power.
Intel 64 (Intel's x86-64 implementation) is not supported by Yonah. However, Intel 64 support is integrated in Yonah's successor, the mobile version of Core 2, code-named Merom.
The Duo version of Intel Core (Yonah) includes two computational cores, providing performance per watt almost as good as any previous single core Intel processors. In battery-operated devices such as notebook computers, this translates to getting as much total work done per battery charge as with older computers, although the same total work may be done faster. When parallel computations and multiprocessing are able to utilize both cores, the Intel Core Duo delivers much higher peak speed compared to the single-core chips previously available for mobile devices. However, Core (Yonah) did not make any further improvements to single threaded processing performance over Dothan beyond before-mentioned SSE unit enhancements, and it was still only a 32-bit architecture, which proved to be particularly limiting for its server-oriented Sossaman derivative as x86-64 operating systems and software became increasingly prevalent.[ citation needed ]
According to Mobile Roadmaps from 2005, Intel's Yonah project originally focused more on reducing the power consumption of its P6-based Pentium M processor and aimed to reduce it by 50% for Intel Core (Yonah). Despite being less power efficient, Intel continued to market the NetBurst-based Mobile Pentium 4 processors for high performance applications until the Yonah project succeeded in extracting higher performance from its lower-power design. The Intel Core Duo's inclusion of two highly efficient cores on one chip can provide better performance than a Mobile Pentium 4 core, and with much better power-efficiency.
On July 27, 2006, Intel's Core 2 processors were released, which offered x86-64 compatibility and eventually displaced Yonah in production.
Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of x86-compatible microprocessors designed and manufactured by Advanced Micro Devices (AMD). The original Athlon was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and was the first desktop processor to reach speeds of one gigahertz (GHz). It made its debut as AMD's high-end processor brand on June 23, 1999. Over the years AMD has used the Athlon name with the 64-bit Athlon 64 architecture, the Athlon II, and Accelerated Processing Unit (APU) chips targeting the Socket AM1 desktop SoC architecture, and Socket AM4 Zen microarchitecture. The modern Zen-based Athlon with a Radeon Graphics processor was introduced in 2019 as AMD's highest-performance entry-level processor.
Celeron is Intel's brand name for low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.
Pentium 4 is a series of single-core CPUs for desktops, laptops and entry-level servers manufactured by Intel. The processors were shipped from November 20, 2000 until August 8, 2008. The production of Netburst processors was active from 2000 until May 21, 2010.
The Pentium III brand refers to Intel's 32-bit x86 desktop and mobile microprocessors based on the sixth-generation P6 microarchitecture introduced on February 26, 1999. The brand's initial processors were very similar to the earlier Pentium II-branded microprocessors. The most notable differences were the addition of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) instruction set, and the introduction of a controversial serial number embedded in the chip during manufacturing.
The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64-architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP. The second processor to implement the AMD64 architecture and the first 64-bit processor targeted at the average consumer, it was AMD's primary consumer microprocessor, and primarily competed with Intel's Pentium 4, especially the "Prescott" and "Cedar Mill" core revisions. It is AMD's first K8, eighth-generation processor core for desktop and mobile computers. Despite being natively 64-bit, the AMD64 architecture is backward-compatible with 32-bit x86 instructions. Athlon 64s have been produced for Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940 and Socket AM2. The line was succeeded by the dual-core Athlon 64 X2 and Athlon X2 lines.
The Pentium M is a family of mobile 32-bit single-core x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003 and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand. The Pentium M processors had a maximum thermal design power (TDP) of 5–27 W depending on the model, and were intended for use in laptops. They evolved from the core of the last Pentium III–branded CPU by adding the front-side bus (FSB) interface of Pentium 4, an improved instruction decoding and issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and a much larger cache. The first Pentium M–branded CPU, code-named Banias, was followed by Dothan. The Pentium M-branded processors were succeeded by the Core-branded dual-core mobile Yonah CPU with a modified microarchitecture.
Tejas was a code name for Intel's microprocessor, which was to be a successor to the latest Pentium 4 with the Prescott core and was sometimes referred to as Pentium V. Jayhawk was a code name for its Xeon counterpart. The cancellation of the processors in May 2004 underscored Intel's historical transition of its focus on single-core processors to multi-core processors.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.
The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture, which is the dual-core variant of Pentium 4 "Prescott" manufactured by Intel. Each CPU comprised two dies, each containing a single core, residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package. The brand's first processor, codenamed Smithfield, was released by Intel on May 25, 2005. Nine months later, Intel introduced its successor, codenamed Presler, but without offering significant upgrades in design, still resulting in relatively high power consumption. By 2004, the NetBurst processors reached a clock speed barrier at 3.8 GHz due to a thermal limit exemplified by the Presler's 130 watt thermal design power. The future belonged to more energy efficient and slower clocked dual-core CPUs on a single die instead of two. The final shipment date of the dual die Presler chips was August 8, 2008, which marked the end of the Pentium D brand and also the NetBurst microarchitecture.
The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth-generation Intel x86 microarchitecture, implemented by the Pentium Pro microprocessor that was introduced in November 1995. It is frequently referred to as i686. It was succeeded by the NetBurst microarchitecture in 2000, but eventually revived in the Pentium M line of microprocessors. The successor to the Pentium M variant of the P6 microarchitecture is the Core microarchitecture which in turn is also derived from the P6 microarchitecture.
The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.
Intel Core 2 is the processor family encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module. The Core 2 range was the last flagship range of Intel desktop processors to use a front-side bus.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.
Socket M (mPGA478MT) is a CPU interface introduced by Intel in 2006 for the Intel Core line of mobile processors.
The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium. The processors are based on either the 32-bit Yonah or 64-bit Merom-2M, Allendale, and Wolfdale-3M core, targeted at mobile or desktop computers.
AMD Turion is the brand name AMD applies to its x86-64 low-power consumption (mobile) processors codenamed K8L. The Turion 64 and Turion 64 X2/Ultra processors compete with Intel's mobile processors, initially the Pentium M and the Intel Core and Intel Core 2 processors.
Conroe is the code name for many Intel processors sold as Core 2 Duo, Xeon, Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron. It was the first desktop processor to be based on the Core microarchitecture, replacing the NetBurst microarchitecture based Cedar Mill processor. It has product code 80557, which is shared with Allendale and Conroe-L that are very similar but have a smaller L2 cache. Conroe-L has only one processor core and a new CPUID model. The mobile version of Conroe is Merom, the dual-socket server version is Woodcrest, and the quad-core desktop version is Kentsfield. Conroe was replaced by the 45 nm Wolfdale processor.
Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.