Pentium

Last updated

Pentium logos
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2005–2006
Intel Pentium D Logo.png
2006–2009
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2009–2013
Intel Pentium Logo 2015-20.png
2015–2020
Intel Pentium Gold Logo 2020.png
2020–

Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", [1] meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.

Contents

Pentium sticker, around 1993 Pentium 1993.png
Pentium sticker, around 1993

As of 2017, Pentium processors have little more than their name in common with earlier Pentiums, which were Intel's flagship processor for over a decade until the introduction of the Intel Core line in 2006. They are based on both the architecture used in Atom and that of Core processors. In the case of Atom architectures, Pentiums are the highest performance implementations of the architecture. Pentium processors with Core architectures prior to 2017 were distinguished from the faster, higher-end i-series processors by lower clock rates and disabling some features, such as hyper-threading, virtualization and sometimes L3 cache.

The name "Pentium" is originally derived from the Greek word pente (πεντε), meaning "five", a reference to the prior numeric naming convention of Intel's 80x86 processors (8086–80486), with the Latin ending -ium since the processor would otherwise have been named 80586 using that convention.

In 2017, Intel split Pentium into two line-ups:

Overview

During development, Intel generally identifies processors with codenames, such as Prescott, Willamette, Coppermine, Katmai, Klamath, or Deschutes. These usually become widely known, [2] even after the processors are given official names on launch.

BrandMicroarchitectureDesktopLaptopServer
Pentium
Pentium OverDrive
P5 P5 (0.8 μm)
P54C (0.6 μm)
P54CS (0.35 μm)
Pentium MMX
Pentium OverDrive MMX
P55C (0.35 μm)
Tillamook (0.25 μm)
Pentium Pro P6 P6 (0.5 μm)
P6 (0.35 μm)
Pentium II
Pentium II Xeon
Pentium II OverDrive
Mobile Pentium II
Klamath (0.35 μm)
Deschutes (0.25 μm)
Tonga (0.25 μm)
Dixon (0.25 μm)
Dixon (0.18 μm)
Drake (0.25 μm)
Pentium III
Pentium III Xeon
Mobile Pentium III
Pentium III M
Katmai (0.25 μm)
Coppermine (180 nm)
Tualatin (130 nm)
Coppermine (180 nm)
Tualatin(130 nm)
Tanner (0.25 μm)
Cascades (180 nm)
Pentium 4
Pentium 4 Extreme Edition
NetBurst Willamette (180 nm)
Northwood (130 nm)
Gallatin (130 nm)
Prescott-2M (90 nm)
Prescott (90 nm)
Cedar Mill (65 nm)
Northwood (130 nm)
Prescott (90 nm)
Rebranded as Xeon
Pentium D
Pentium Extreme Edition
Smithfield (90 nm)
Presler (65 nm)
Pentium M P6 based Banias (130 nm)
Dothan (90 nm)
Pentium Dual-Core Yonah (65 nm)
Core Allendale (65 nm)
Wolfdale-3M (45 nm)
Merom-2M (65 nm)
Pentium Core Wolfdale-3M (45 nm) Penryn-3M (45 nm)
Nehalem Clarkdale (32 nm) Arrandale (32 nm)
Sandy Bridge Sandy Bridge (32 nm)
Ivy Bridge Ivy Bridge (22 nm)
Haswell Haswell (22 nm)
Broadwell Broadwell (14 nm)
Skylake Skylake (14 nm)Braswell; Goldmont
Kaby Lake Kaby Lake (14 nm)Goldmont Plus (Gemini Lake)
Coffee Lake Coffee Lake (14 nm)
Comet Lake Comet Lake (14 nm)
A 100 MHz Pentium processor manufactured in 1996 A80502100 sy007 pentium observe.png
A 100 MHz Pentium processor manufactured in 1996

The original Pentium-branded CPUs were expected to be named 586 or i586, to follow the naming convention of prior generations (286, i386, i486). However, as the firm wanted to prevent their competitors from branding their processors with similar names (as AMD had done with their Am486), Intel filed a trademark application on the name in the United States, but was denied because a series of numbers was considered to lack trademark distinctiveness . [3]

Following Intel's prior series of 8086, 80186, 80286, 80386, and 80486 microprocessors, the firm's first P5-based microprocessor was released as the original Intel Pentium on March 22, 1993. Marketing firm Lexicon Branding was hired to coin a name for the new processor. The suffix -ium was chosen as it could connote a fundamental ingredient of a computer, like a chemical element, [4] while the prefix pent- could refer to the fifth generation of x86. [3]

Due to its success, the Pentium brand would continue through several generations of high-end processors. In 2006, the name briefly disappeared from Intel's technology roadmaps, [5] [6] only to re-emerge in 2007. [7]

In 1998, Intel introduced the Celeron [8] brand for low-priced microprocessors. With the 2006 introduction of the Intel Core brand as the company's new flagship line of processors, the Pentium series was to be discontinued. However, due to a demand for mid-range dual-core processors, the Pentium brand was repurposed to be Intel's mid-range processor series, between the Celeron and Core series, continuing with the Pentium Dual-Core line. [9] [10] [11]

In 2009, the "Dual-Core" suffix was dropped, and new x86 microprocessors started carrying the plain Pentium name again.

In 2014, Intel released the Pentium 20th Anniversary Edition, to mark the 20th anniversary of the Pentium brand. The processors are unlocked and highly overclockable.

In 2017, Intel split Pentium into two line-ups. Pentium Silver targets low-power devices and shares architecture with Atom and Celeron, while Pentium Gold targets entry-level desktops and uses existing architecture, such as Kaby Lake and Coffee Lake.

Pentium-branded processors

Die of a Pentium processor Pentium P54C Die.jpg
Die of a Pentium processor

P5 microarchitecture based

The original Intel P5 or Pentium and Pentium MMX processors were the superscalar follow-on to the 80486 processor and were marketed from 1993 to 1999. Some versions of these were available as Pentium OverDrive that would fit into older CPU sockets.

Pentium

Core p Process Clock rates L1 cache FSB Socket Release date
P5 0.8 μm60–66 MHz16 KB60–66 MHz Socket 4 March 1993
P54C 0.6 μm75–120 MHz16 KB50–66 MHz Socket 5 October 1994
P54CS 0.35 μm133–200 MHz16 KB60–66 MHz Socket 7 June 1995
P55C 0.35 μm120–233 MHz32 KB60–66 MHzSocket 7January 1997 [12]
Tillamook 0.25 μm166–300 MHz32 KB66 MHzSocket 7August 1997

P6 microarchitecture based

In parallel with the P5 microarchitecture, Intel developed the P6 microarchitecture and started marketing it as the Pentium Pro for the high-end market in 1995. It introduced out-of-order execution and an integrated second-level cache on dual-chip processor package. The second P6 generation replaced the original P5 with the Pentium II and rebranded the high-end version as Pentium II Xeon . It was followed by a third version named the Pentium III and Pentium III Xeon respectively. The Pentium II line added the MMX instructions that were also present in the Pentium MMX.

Versions of these processors for the laptop market were initially named Mobile Pentium II and Mobile Pentium III, later versions were named Pentium III-M. Starting with the Pentium II, the Celeron brand was used for low-end versions of most Pentium processors with a reduced feature set such as a smaller cache or missing power management features.

Pentium Pro

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
P60.5 μm150 MHz256 KB60–66 MHz Socket 8 November 1995
P60.35 μm166–200 MHz256–1024 KB60–66 MHzSocket 8

Pentium II

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Klamath 0.35 μm233–300 MHz512 KB66 MHz Slot 1 May 1997
Deschutes 0.25 μm266–450 MHz512 KB66–100 MHzSlot 1January 1998
Tonga 0.25 μm233–300 MHz512 KB66 MHzMMC-2April 1998
Dixon 0.25 μm266–366 MHz256 KB66 MHzMMC-2January 1999

Pentium III

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Katmai 0.25 μm450–600 MHz512 KB100–133 MHz Slot 1 February 1999
Coppermine 0.18 μm400–1.13 GHz256 KB100–133 MHzSlot 1, Socket 370, BGA2, μPGA2 October 1999
Tualatin 0.13 μm700–1.4 GHz512 KB100–133 MHzSocket 370, BGA2, μPGA2July 2001

Netburst microarchitecture based

In 2000, Intel introduced a new microarchitecture named NetBurst , with a much longer pipeline enabling higher clock frequencies than the P6-based processors. Initially, these were named Pentium 4 , and the high-end versions have since been named simply Xeon. As with Pentium III, there are both Mobile Pentium 4 and Pentium 4 M processors for the laptop market, with Pentium 4 M denoting the more power-efficient versions. Enthusiast versions of the Pentium 4 with the highest clock rates were named Pentium 4 Extreme Edition .

The Pentium D was the first multi-core Pentium, integrating two Pentium 4 chips in one package and was available as the enthusiast Pentium Extreme Edition .

Pentium 4

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Willamette180 nm1.3–2.0 GHz256 KB400 MT/s Socket 423, Socket 478 November 2000
Northwood130 nm1.6–3.4 GHz512 KB400 MT/s–800 MT/sSocket 478January 2002
Gallatin130 nm3.2–3.46 GHz512 KB + 2 MB L3800–1066 MT/sSocket 478, LGA 775 November 2003
Prescott90 nm2.4–3.8 GHz1 MB533 MT/s–800 MT/sSocket 478, LGA 775February 2004
Prescott-2M90 nm2.8–3.8 GHz2 MB800–1066 MT/sLGA 775February 2005
Cedar Mill65 nm3.0–3.6 GHz2 MB800 MT/sLGA 775January 2006

Pentium D

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Smithfield90 nm2.66–3.2 GHz2 MB533–800 MT/sLGA 775May 2005
Smithfield XE90 nm3.2 GHz2 MB800 MT/sLGA 775May 2005
Presler65 nm2.8–3.6 GHz4 MB800 MT/sLGA 775January 2006
Presler XE65 nm3.46–3.73 GHz4 MB1066 MT/sLGA 775January 2006

Pentium M microarchitecture based

In 2003, Intel introduced a new processor based on the P6 microarchitecture named Pentium M , which was much more power-efficient than the Mobile Pentium 4, Pentium 4 M, and Pentium III M. Dual-core versions of the Pentium M were developed under the code name Yonah and sold under the marketing names Core Duo and Pentium Dual-Core . Unlike Pentium D, it integrated both cores on one chip. From this point, the Intel Core brand name was used for the mainstream Intel processors, and the Pentium brand became a low-end version between Celeron and Core. All Pentium M based designs including Yonah are for the mobile market.

Pentium M

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB Socket Release date
Banias 130 nm0.9–1.7 GHz64 KB1 MB400 MT/s Socket 479 March 2003
Dothan 90 nm1.00–2.26 GHz64 KB2 MB400–533 MT/s FC-uBGA June 2004

Pentium Dual-Core

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Yonah 65 nm1.6–1.86 GHz64 KB1 MB533 MT/sSocket MJanuary 2007

Core microarchitecture based

The Pentium Dual-Core name continued to be used when the Yonah design was extended with 64-bit support, now named the Core microarchitecture . This eventually replaced all NetBurst-based processors across the four brands Celeron, Pentium, Core, and Xeon. Pentium Dual-Core processors based on the Core microarchitecture use the Allendale and Wolfdale-3M designs for desktop processors and Merom-2M for mobile processors.

Pentium Dual-Core

Pentium Dual Core logo Logo Pentium DualCore thumb2.jpg
Pentium Dual Core logo
Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Merom-2M 65 nm1.46–2.16 GHz64 KB1 MB533–667 MT/sSocket PQ4 2007
Allendale 65 nm1.6–2.4 GHz64 KB1 MB800 MT/sSocket 775June 2007
Wolfdale-3M 45 nm2.2–2.7 GHz64 KB2 MB800 MT/sSocket 775August 2008

Pentium (2009)

Core Process Clock rates L1 cache L2 cache FSB rates Socket Release date
Wolfdale-3M 45 nm2.8–3.2 GHz64 KB2 MB1066 MT/sSocket 775May 2009
Penryn-3M 45 nm2.0–2.3 GHz64 KB1 MB800 MT/sSocket PJanuary 2009
Penryn-3M ULV45 nm1.3–1.5 GHz64 KB2 MB800 MT/sBGA 956September 2009
Penryn-L ULV 1 45 nm1.3–1.4 GHz64 KB2 MB800 MT/sBGA 956May 2009
CodenameBrand nameModel (list)CoresL2 cache Socket TDP
Allendale Pentium Dual-Core E2xxx 21 MBLGA 77565 W
Merom-2MMobile Pentium Dual-Core T2xxx
T3xxx
21 MBSocket P35 W
Wolfdale-3M Pentium Dual-Core E2xxx 21 MBLGA 77565 W
E5xxx 2 MB
Pentium E6xxx
Penryn-3MMobile Pentium T4xxx 21 MBSocket P35 W
SU4xxx 2 MBμFC-BGA 95610 W
Penryn-L SU2xxx 15.5 W

In 2009, Intel changed the naming system for Pentium processors, renaming the Wolfdale-3M based processors to Pentium, without the Dual-Core name, and introduced new single- and dual-core processors based on Penryn under the Pentium name.

The Penryn core is the successor to the Merom core and Intel's 45 nm version of their mobile series of Pentium microprocessors. The FSB frequency is increased from 667 MHz to 800 MHz, and the voltage is lowered. Intel released the first Penryn Core, the Pentium T4200, in December 2008. In June 2009, Intel released the first single-core processor to use the Pentium name, a Consumer Ultra-Low Voltage (CULV) Penryn core named Pentium SU2700.

In September 2009, Intel introduced the Pentium SU4000 series together with the Celeron SU2000 and Core 2 Duo SU7000 series, which are dual-core CULV processors based on Penryn-3M and using 800 MHz FSB. The Pentium SU4000 series has 2 MB L2 cache but is otherwise basically identical to the other two lines.

Nehalem microarchitecture based

The Nehalem microarchitecture was introduced in late 2008 as a successor to the Core microarchitecture, and in early 2010, a new Pentium G6950 processor based on the Clarkdale design was introduced based on the Westmere refresh of Nehalem, which were followed by the mobile P6xxx based on Arrandale a few months later.

Core Process Clock rates L2 cache L3 cache I/O bus Socket Release date
Clarkdale 32 nm2.8 GHz512 KB3 MBDMISocket 1156January 2010
Arrandale 32 nm1.2–1.86 GHz512 KB3 MBDMISocket 988
BGA
Q2 2010
CodenameBrand nameL3 cache Socket TDPFeatures
Clarkdale Pentium G6xxx 3 MB LGA 1156 73 WIntegrated GPU
Arrandale Pentium P6xxx 3 MB LGA 1156 35 WIntegrated GPU
Pentium U5xxx BGA18 W

On January 7, 2010, Intel launched a new Pentium model using the Clarkdale chip in parallel with other desktop and mobile CPUs based on their new Westmere microarchitecture. The first model in this series is the Pentium G6950. The Clarkdale chip is also used in the Core i3-5xx and Core i5-6xx series and features a 32 nm process (as it is based on the Westmere microarchitecture), integrated memory controller and 45 nm graphics controller and a third-level cache. In the Pentium series, some features of Clarkdale are disabled, including AES-NI, hyper-threading (versus Core i3), and the graphics controller in the Pentium runs at 533 MHz, while in the Core i3 i3-5xx series they run at 733 MHz, and Dual Video Decode that enables Blu-ray picture-in picture hardware acceleration, and support for Deep Color and xvYCC.[ citation needed ] The memory controller in the Pentium supports DDR3-1066 max, the same as the Core i3 i3-5xx series. [13] The L3 cache is also 1 MB less than in the Core i3-5xx series.

Sandy Bridge microarchitecture based

The Sandy Bridge microarchitecture was released in the Pentium line on May 22, 2011.

CodenameBrand nameaL3 cache b Socket TDPFeaturesc,d
Sandy Bridge Pentium 3xx 3 MB LGA 1155 15 W hyper-threading, ECC
Pentium 9x72 MBBGA102317 WIntegrated GPU
Pentium B9x02 MBrPGA988B35 WIntegrated GPU
Pentium G6xxT [14] 3 MB,
8-way set associative,
64 byte line size
LGA 1155 35 WIntegrated GPU e
Pentium G6xx [15] 65 W
Pentium G8xx [16] [17] 3 MB,
12-way set associative,
64 byte line size
Sandy Bridge-ENPentium 140x 5 MB LGA 1356 40–80 WECC, AVX, TXT, Intel VT-d, AES-NI

Ivy Bridge microarchitecture based

Currently, there exist Ivy Bridge models G2010, G2020, G2120, G2030, and G2130. All are dual-core and have no hyper-threading or Turbo Boost.

CodenameBrand nameL3 cache Socket TDPNotes
Ivy BridgeG2010, G2020, G2030, G2120, [18] G21303 MBLGA 115555 Ww/o hyper-threading

Haswell microarchitecture based

Several Haswell-based Pentium processors were released in 2013, among them the G3258 "Anniversary Edition", first released in 2014 by Intel to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the line. As with prior-generation Pentium processors, Haswell and Haswell Refresh-based parts have two cores only, lack support for hyper-threading, and use the LGA1150 socket form factor.

Broadwell microarchitecture based

It was launched in Q1 2015 using a 14 nm process (e.g. the dual-core 1.9 GHz Intel Pentium 3805U with 2 MB cache). It used the FCBGA1168 socket.

Skylake microarchitecture based

Supporting up to 64 GB RAM. Features like Turbo Boost, Intel vPro, Hyper-Threading are not available. Supports AES-NI and RDRAND. [19]

Integrated graphics are provided by Intel HD Graphics 510, utilizing a maximum of 1.7 GB of memory, for resolutions up to 4096×2304 @ 60 Hz using Display Port supporting up to 3 displays. [20]

Kaby Lake microarchitecture based

In Q1 2017 Intel released the Kaby Lake-based Pentium G4560; it is the first Pentium-branded CPU since the Netburst-based Pentium 4 to support hyper-threading, a feature available in some "Core"-branded products. Features include a clock speed of 3.5 GHz with four threads, 3 MB of L3 cache and Intel HD 610 integrated graphics.

Coffee Lake microarchitecture based

All Coffee Lake Pentium processors support Hyper-threading, [21] and integrated Intel UHD Graphics.

Comet Lake microarchitecture based

Pentium-compatible Intel processors

Due to its prominence, the term "Pentium-compatible" is often used to describe any x86 processor that supports the IA-32 instruction set and architecture. Even though they do not use the Pentium name, Intel also manufactures other processors based on the Pentium series for other markets. Most of these processors share the core design with one of the Pentium processor lines, usually differing in the amount of CPU cache, power efficiency or other features. The notable exception is the Atom line, which is an independent design.

See also

Related Research Articles

Celeron Brand name by Intel

Celeron is a brand name given by Intel to a number of different low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.

Hyper-threading

Hyper-threading is Intel's proprietary simultaneous multithreading (SMT) implementation used to improve parallelization of computations performed on x86 microprocessors. It was introduced on Xeon server processors in February 2002 and on Pentium 4 desktop processors in November 2002. Since then, Intel has included this technology in Itanium, Atom, and Core 'i' Series CPUs, among others.

Pentium 4 is a series of single-core CPUs for desktops, laptops and entry-level servers manufactured by Intel. The processors were shipped from November 20, 2000 until August 8, 2008. The production of Netburst processors was active from 2000 until May 21, 2010.

Pentium II Intel microprocessor

The Pentium II brand refers to Intel's sixth-generation microarchitecture ("P6") and x86-compatible microprocessors introduced on May 7, 1997. Containing 7.5 million transistors, the Pentium II featured an improved version of the first P6-generation core of the Pentium Pro, which contained 5.5 million transistors. However, its L2 cache subsystem was a downgrade when compared to the Pentium Pros.

Xeon Line of Intel server processors

Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.

The NetBurst microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, was the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of central processing units (CPUs) made by Intel. The first CPU to use this architecture was the Willamette-core Pentium 4, released on November 20, 2000 and the first of the Pentium 4 CPUs; all subsequent Pentium 4 and Pentium D variants have also been based on NetBurst. In mid-2004, Intel released the Foster core, which was also based on NetBurst, thus switching the Xeon CPUs to the new architecture as well. Pentium 4-based Celeron CPUs also use the NetBurst architecture.

The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture, which is the dual-core variant of Pentium 4 "Prescott" manufactured by Intel. Each CPU comprised two dies, each containing a single core, residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package. The brand's first processor, codenamed Smithfield, was released by Intel on May 25, 2005. Nine months later, Intel introduced its successor, codenamed Presler, but without offering significant upgrades in design, still resulting in relatively high power consumption. By 2004, the NetBurst processors reached a clock speed barrier at 3.8 GHz due to a thermal limit exemplified by the Presler's 130 watt thermal design power. The future belonged to more energy efficient and slower clocked dual-core CPUs on a single die instead of two. The final shipment date of the dual die Presler chips was August 8, 2008, which marked the end of the Pentium D brand and also the NetBurst microarchitecture.

The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth-generation Intel x86 microarchitecture, implemented by the Pentium Pro microprocessor that was introduced in November 1995. It is frequently referred to as i686. It was succeeded by the NetBurst microarchitecture in 2000, but eventually revived in the Pentium M line of microprocessors. The successor to the Pentium M variant of the P6 microarchitecture is the Core microarchitecture which in turn is also derived from the P6 microarchitecture.

The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.

As of 2020, the x86 architecture is used in most high end compute-intensive computers, including cloud computing, servers, workstations, and many less powerful computers, including personal computer desktops and laptops. The ARM architecture is used in most other product categories, especially high-volume battery powered mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.

Pentium Dual-Core

The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium. The processors are based on either the 32-bit Yonah or 64-bit Merom-2M, Allendale, and Wolfdale-3M core, targeted at mobile or desktop computers.

Haswell (microarchitecture) Intel processor microarchitecture

Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "Y" suffix.

Wolfdale (microprocessor)

Wolfdale is the code name for a processor from Intel that is sold in varying configurations as Core 2 Duo, Celeron, Pentium and Xeon. In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was Penryn microarchitecture, the shrink of the Core microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23. This replaced the Conroe processor with Wolfdale.

Arrandale is the code name for a family of mobile Intel processors, sold as mobile Intel Core i3, i5 and i7 as well as Celeron and Pentium. It is closely related to the desktop Clarkdale processor; both use dual-core dies based on the Westmere 32 nm die shrink of the Nehalem microarchitecture, and have integrated Graphics as well as PCI Express and DMI links.

Intel Core Mid-range to high-end central processing units

Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.

Clarkdale is the code name for an Intel processor, initially sold as desktop Intel Core i5 and Core i3 and Pentium. It is closely related to the mobile Arrandale processor; both use dual-core dies based on the Westmere 32 nm die shrink of the Nehalem microarchitecture, and have integrated Graphics as well as PCI Express and DMI links.

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