Intel 80186

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Intel 80186
KL Intel i186.jpg
An Intel A80186 processor with a gray heat spreader.
General information
Launched1982
DiscontinuedSeptember 28, 2007 [1]
Common manufacturer(s)
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate 6 MHz to 25 MHz
FSB speeds6 MHz to 25 MHz
Data width16 bits
Address width20 bits
Architecture and classification
Min. feature size 3 µm [3]
Instruction set x86-16
Physical specifications
Transistors
  • 55,000
Co-processor 8087 and later, 80187 (for 80186 only)
Package(s)
  • 68-pin PLCC
    68-pin LCC
    100-pin PQFP (Engineering Sample Only)
    68-pin PGA
Socket(s)
Products, models, variants
Variant(s) Intel 80188
History
Predecessor Intel 8088
Successor Intel 80386 (The 80286 was also introduced in early 1982, and thus contemporary with the 80186)
A greatly simplified block diagram of the 80186 architecture Intel 80186 80188 arch.svg
A greatly simplified block diagram of the 80186 architecture
Die of Intel 80186 Intel 80186 die.JPG
Die of Intel 80186

The Intel 80186, also known as the iAPX 186, [4] or just 186, is a microprocessor and microcontroller introduced in 1982. It was based on the Intel 8086 and, like it, had a 16-bit external data bus multiplexed with a 20-bit address bus. The 80188 variant, with an 8-bit external data bus was also available.

Contents

Description

The 80186 series was generally intended for embedded systems, as microcontrollers with external memory. Therefore, to reduce the number of integrated circuits required, it included features such as clock generator, interrupt controller, timers, wait state generator, DMA channels, and external chip select lines.

The initial clock rate of the 80186 was 6  MHz, but due to more hardware available for the microcode to use, especially for address calculation, many individual instructions ran faster than on an 8086 at the same clock frequency. For instance, the common register+immediate [lower-alpha 1] addressing mode was significantly faster than on the 8086, especially when a memory location was both (one of) the operand(s) and the destination. Multiply and divide also showed great improvement being several times as fast as on the original 8086 and multi-bit shifts were done almost four times as quickly as in the 8086.

A few new instructions were introduced with the 80186 (referred to as the 8086-2 instruction set in some datasheets): enter/leave (replacing several instructions when handling stack frames), pusha/popa (push/pop all general registers), bound (check array index against bounds), and ins/outs (input/output of string). A useful immediate mode was added for the push, imul, and multi-bit shift instructions. These instructions were also included in the contemporary 80286 and in successor chips. (The instruction set of the 80286 is superset of the 80186's, plus new instructions for Protected mode.)

Die of Intel 80C186. Intel 80C186 die.JPG
Die of Intel 80C186.

The (redesigned) CMOS version, 80C186, introduced DRAM refresh, a power-save mode, and a direct interface to the 80C187 floating point numeric coprocessor.

Uses

In personal computers

The 80186 would have been a natural successor to the 8086 in personal computers.[ citation needed ] However, because its integrated hardware was incompatible with the hardware used in the original IBM PC, the 80286 was used as the successor instead, in the IBM PC/AT.

A few notable personal computers used the 80186: the Australian Dulmont Magnum laptop, one of the first laptops; the Wang Office Assistant, marketed as a PC-like stand-alone word processor; the Mindset; the Siemens PC-D  [ de ] (not 100% IBM PC compatible but using MS-DOS 2.11); the Compis (a Swedish school computer); the French SMT-Goupil G4; the RM Nimbus (a British school computer); the Unisys ICON (a Canadian school computer); ORB Computer by ABS; the HP 100LX, HP 200LX, HP 1000CX, and HP OmniGo 700LX; the Tandy 2000 desktop (a somewhat PC-compatible workstation with sharp graphics for its day); the Telex 1260 (a desktop PC-XT compatible); the Philips :YES; the Nokia MikroMikko 2. Acorn created a plug-in for the BBC Master range of computers containing an 80186-10 with 512 KB of RAM, the BBC Master 512 system.

In addition to the above examples of stand-alone implementations of the 80186 for personal computers, there was at least one example of an "add-in" accelerator card implementation: the Orchid Technology PC Turbo 186, [5] released in 1985. It was intended for use with the original Intel 8088-based IBM PC (Model 5150).

Other devices

The Intel 80186 is intended to be embedded in electronic devices that are not primarily computers. For example:

In May 2006, Intel announced that production of the 186 would cease at the end of September 2007. [9] Pin- and instruction-compatible replacements might still be manufactured by various third party sources, [10] and FPGA versions are publicly available. [11]

See also

Notes

  1. In fact, all variants, including reg+reg and reg+reg+immediate were faster.

Related Research Articles

Intel 80286 Microprocessor model

The Intel 80286 is a 16-bit microprocessor that was introduced on February 1, 1982. It was the first 8086-based CPU with separate, non-multiplexed address and data buses and also the first with memory management and wide protection abilities. The 80286 used approximately 134,000 transistors in its original nMOS (HMOS) incarnation and, just like the contemporary 80186, it could correctly execute most software written for the earlier Intel 8086 and 8088 processors.

Intel 8086 16-bit microprocessor

The 8086 is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and June 8, 1978, when it was released. The Intel 8088, released July 1, 1979, is a slightly modified chip with an external 8-bit data bus, and is notable as the processor used in the original IBM PC design.

Intel 8088

The Intel 8088 microprocessor is a variant of the Intel 8086. Introduced on June 1, 1979, the 8088 has an eight-bit external data bus instead of the 16-bit bus of the 8086. The 16-bit registers and the one megabyte address range are unchanged, however. In fact, according to the Intel documentation, the 8086 and 8088 have the same execution unit (EU)—only the bus interface unit (BIU) is different. The original IBM PC is based on the 8088, as are its clones. The Wang PC from Wang Laboratories uses the Intel 8086.

i386 32-bit microprocessor by Intel

The Intel 386, originally released as 80386 and later renamed into i386, is a 32-bit microprocessor introduced in 1985. The first versions had 275,000 transistors and were the CPU of many workstations and high-end personal computers of the time. As the original implementation of the 32-bit extension of the 80286 architecture, the i386 instruction set, programming model, and binary encodings are still the common denominator for all 32-bit x86 processors, which is termed the i386-architecture, x86, or IA-32, depending on context.

i486 Successor to the Intel 386

The Intel 486, officially named i486 and also known as 80486, is a higher-performance follow-up to the Intel 386 microprocessor. The i486 was introduced in 1989 and was the first tightly pipelined x86 design as well as the first x86 chip to use more than a million transistors, due to a large on-chip cache and an integrated floating-point unit. It represents a fourth generation of binary compatible CPUs since the original 8086 of 1978.

Intel 80188

The Intel 80188 microprocessor was a variant of the Intel 80186. The 80188 had an 8-bit external data bus instead of the 16-bit bus of the 80186; this made it less expensive to connect to peripherals. The 16-bit registers and the one megabyte address range were unchanged, however. It had a throughput of 1 million instructions per second.

Microprocessor Computer processor contained on an integrated-circuit chip

A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer’s central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions and performing arithmetic operations. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system.

x86 Family of instruction set architectures

x86 is a family of instruction set architectures initially developed by Intel based on the Intel 8086 microprocessor and its 8088 variant. The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address. The term "x86" came into being because the names of several successors to Intel's 8086 processor end in "86", including the 80186, 80286, 80386 and 80486 processors.

Intel MCS-48

The MCS-48 microcontroller series, Intel's first microcontroller, was originally released in 1976. Its first members were 8048, 8035 and 8748. The 8048 is probably the most prominent member of the family. Initially, this family was produced using NMOS technology. In the early 1980s, it became available in CMOS technology. It was still manufactured into the 1990s to support older designs that still used it.

Real mode, also called real address mode, is an operating mode of all x86-compatible CPUs. The mode gets its name from the fact that addresses in real mode always correspond to real locations in memory. Real mode is characterized by a 20-bit segmented memory address space and unlimited direct software access to all addressable memory, I/O addresses and peripheral hardware. Real mode provides no support for memory protection, multitasking, or code privilege levels.

In computing, protected mode, also called protected virtual address mode, is an operational mode of x86-compatible central processing units (CPUs). It allows system software to use features such as virtual memory, paging and safe multi-tasking designed to increase an operating system's control over application software.

Am386

The Am386 CPU is a 100%-compatible clone of the Intel 80386 design released by AMD in March 1991. It sold millions of units, positioning AMD as a legitimate competitor to Intel, rather than being merely a second source for x86 CPUs.

Intel iAPX 432

The iAPX 432 is a discontinued computer architecture introduced in 1981. It was Intel's first 32-bit processor design. The main processor of the architecture, the general data processor, is implemented as a set of two separate integrated circuits, due to technical limitations at the time. Although some early 8086, 80186 and 80286-based systems and manuals also used the iAPX prefix for marketing reasons, the iAPX 432 and the 8086 processor lines are completely separate designs with completely different instruction sets.

Intel i960

Intel's i960 was a RISC-based microprocessor design that became popular during the early 1990s as an embedded microcontroller. It became a best-selling CPU in that segment, along with the competing AMD 29000. In spite of its success, Intel stopped marketing the i960 in the late 1990s, as a result of a settlement with DEC whereby Intel received the rights to produce the StrongARM CPU. The processor continues to be used for a few military applications.

NEC V20

The NEC V20 was a microprocessor made by NEC. It was both pin and object-code compatible with the Intel 8088, with an instruction set similar to that of the Intel 80188 with some extensions. The V20 was introduced in March 1984.

The maximum random access memory (RAM) installed in any computer system is limited by hardware, software and economic factors. The hardware may have a limited number of address bus bits, limited by the processor package or design of the system. Some of the address space may be shared between RAM, peripherals, and read-only memory. In the case of a microcontroller with no external RAM, the size of the RAM array is limited by the size of the integrated circuit die. In a packaged system, only enough RAM may be provided for the system's required functions, with no provision for addition of memory after manufacture.

Each time Intel launched a new microprocessor, they simultaneously provided a System Development Kit (SDK) allowing engineers, university students, and others to familiarise themselves with the new processor's concepts and features. The SDK single-board computers allowed the user to enter object code from a keyboard or upload it through a communication port, and then test run the code. The SDK boards provided a system monitor ROM to operate the keyboard and other interfaces. Kits varied in their specific features but generally offered optional memory and interface configurations, a serial terminal link, audio cassette storage, and EPROM program memory. Intel's Intellec development system could download code to the SDK boards.

In computer architecture, 16-bit integers, memory addresses, or other data units are those that are 16 bits wide. Also, 16-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. 16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

In marketing, iAPX was a short lived designation used for several Intel microprocessors, including some 8086 family processors. Not being a simple initialism seems to have confused even Intel's technical writers as can be seen in their iAPX-88 Book where the asterisked expansion shows iAPX to mean Intel Advanced Processor System.

References

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  2. CPU http://www.cpu-world.com.
  3. WikiChip
  4. iAPX 286 Programmer's Reference (PDF). Intel. 1983. page 1-1.
  5. Adding Spunk to the IBM PC in InfoWorld, May 20, 1985
  6. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqLBmWu6Mg4
  7. Brear, Scott (21 January 1985). "Cycle of change speeds up". Computerworld. IDG Enterprise. 19 (3): ID/15. ISSN   0010-4841.
  8. 7171 Reference Manual and Programming Guide (PDF). IBM Corporation. 1986. pp. 4–13. GA37-0021-0.
  9. "Intel cashes in ancient chips". Archived from the original on 2011-08-22. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  10. "Innovasic Offers Replacement ICs for Intel 186/188 Microcontrollers". Archived from the original on 2012-02-13. Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  11. "S80186: 16-bit 80186 compatible IP core".