|Max. CPU clock rate||600 MHz to 2.13 GHz|
|FSB speeds||400 MHz to 667 MHz|
|Architecture and classification|
|Min. feature size||45 nm to 32 nm|
|Instruction set||Intel Atom x86|
|Products, models, variants|
Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can execute up to two instructions per cycle.Like many other x86 microprocessors, it translates x86 instructions (CISC instructions) into simpler internal operations (sometimes referred to as micro-ops, effectively RISC style instructions) prior to execution. The majority of instructions produce one micro-op when translated, with around 4% of instructions used in typical programs producing multiple micro-ops. The number of instructions that produce more than one micro-op is significantly fewer than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, internal micro-ops can contain both a memory load and a memory store in connection with an ALU operation, thus being more similar to the x86 level and more powerful than the micro-ops used in previous designs. This enables relatively good performance with only two integer ALUs, and without any instruction reordering, speculative execution or register renaming. A side effect of having no speculative execution is invulnerability against Meltdown and Spectre.
The Bonnell microarchitecture therefore represents a partial revival of the principles used in earlier Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of enhancing the performance per watt ratio. However, Hyper-Threading is implemented in an easy (i.e. low-power) way to employ the whole pipeline efficiently by avoiding the typical single thread dependencies.
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced a new single-core Atom Z5xx series processor (code-named Silverthorne), to be used in ultra-mobile PCs and mobile Internet devices (MIDs), which will supersede Stealey (A100 and A110). The processor has 47 million transistors on a 25 mm2 die, allowing for extremely economical production at that time (~2500 chips on a single 300 mm diameter wafer).
An Atom Z500 processor's dual-thread performance is equivalent to its predecessor Stealey, but should outperform it on applications that can use simultaneous multithreading and SSE3. GHz and have a TDP rating between 0.65 and 2.4 W that can dip down to 0.01 W when idle. They feature 32 KB instruction L1 and 24 KB data L1 caches, 512 KB L2 cache and a 533 MT/s front-side bus. The processors are manufactured in 45 nm process. Poulsbo was used as System Controller Hub and the platform was called Menlow.They run from 0.8 to 2.0
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced lower-power variants of the Diamondville CPU named Atom N2xx. It was intended for use in nettops and the Classmate PC.Like their predecessors, these are single-core CPUs with Hyper-Threading.
The N270 has a TDP rating of 2.5 W, runs at 1.6 GHz and has a 533 MHz FSB. The N280 has a clock speed of 1.66 GHz and a 667 MHz FSB.
On 22 September 2008, Intel announced a new 64-bit dual-core processor (unofficially code-named Dual Diamondville) branded Atom 330, to be used in desktop computers. It runs at 1.6 GHz and has an FSB speed of 533 MHz and a TDP rating of 8 W. Its dual core consists of two Diamondville dies on a single substrate.
During 2009, Nvidia used the Atom 300 and their GeForce 9400M chipset on a mini-ITX form factor motherboard for their Ion platform.
Although the Atom processor itself is relatively low-power for an x86 microprocessor, many chipsets commonly used with it dissipate significantly more power. For example, while the Atom N270 commonly used in netbooks through mid-2010 has a TDP rating of 2.5 W, an Intel Atom platform that uses the 945GSE Express chipset has a specified maximum TDP of 11.8 W, with the processor responsible for a relatively small portion of the total power dissipated. Individual figures are 2.5 W for the N270 processor, 6 W for the 945GSE chipset and 3.3 W for the 82801GBM I/O controller. Intel also provides a US15W System Controller Hub-based chipset with a combined TDP of less than 5 W together with the Atom Z5xx (Silverthorne) series processors, to be used in ultra-mobile PCs and MIDs, though some manufacturers have released ultra-thin systems running these processors (e.g. Sony VAIO X).
Initially, all Atom motherboards on the consumer market featured the Intel 945GC chipset, which uses 22 watts by itself. As of early 2009, only a few manufacturers are offering lower-power motherboards with a 945GSE or US15W chipset and an Atom N270, N280 or Z5xx series CPU.
On 21 December 2009, Intel announced the N450, D510 and D410 CPUs with integrated graphics. nm shrink of the GMA 3100 with no HD capabilities, is included as the on-die GPU. Netbooks using this new processor were released on 11 January 2010. The major new feature is longer battery life (10 or more hours for 6-cell systems).The new manufacturing process resulted in a 20% reduction in power consumption and a 60% smaller die size. The Intel GMA 3150, a 45
This generation of the Atom was codenamed Pineview, which is used in the Pine Trail platform. Intel's Pine Trail-M platform utilizes an Atom processor (codenamed Pineview-M) and Platform Controller Hub (codenamed Tiger Point). The graphics and memory controller have moved into the processor, which is paired with the Tiger Point PCH. This creates a more power-efficient 2-chip platform rather than the 3-chip one used with previous-generation Atom chipsets.
On 1 March 2010, Intel introduced the N470 processor, GHz with a 667 MHz FSB and a TDP rating of 6.5 W.running at 1.83
The new Atom N4xx chips became available on 11 January 2010. nm process. The new design uses half the power of the older Menlow platform. This reduced overall power consumption and size makes the platform more desirable for use in smartphones and other mobile internet devices.It is used in netbook and nettop systems and includes an integrated single-channel DDR2 memory controller and an integrated graphics core. It also features Hyper-Threading and is manufactured on a 45
The D4xx and D5xx series support the x86-64 bit instruction set and DDR2-800 memory. They are rated for embedded use. The series has an integrated graphics processor built directly into the CPU to help improve performance. The models are targeted at nettops and low-end desktops. They do not support SpeedStep.
The Atom D510 dual-core processor runs at 1.66 GHz, with 1 MB of L2 cache and a TDP rating of 13 W. The single-core Atom D410 runs at 1.66 GHz, with 512 KB of L2 cache and a TDP rating of 10 W.
Tunnel Creek is an embedded Atom processor used in the Queens Bay platform with the Topcliff PCH.
The Lincroft (Z6xx) with the Whitney Point PCH is included in the Oak Trail tablet platform. Oak Trail is an Intel Atom platform based on Moorestown. Both platforms include a Lincroft microprocessor, but use two distinct input/output Platform Controller Hubs (I/O-PCH), codenamed Langwell and Whitney Point respectively. Oak Trail was presented on 11 April 2011 and was to be released in May 2011.[ needs update ] The Z670 processor, part of the Oak Trail platform, delivers improved video playback, faster Internet browsing and longer battery life, "without sacrificing performance" according to Intel. Oak Trail includes support for 1080p video decoding as well as HDMI. The platform also has improved power efficiency and allows applications to run on various operating systems, including Android, MeeGo and Windows.
Stellarton is a Tunnel Creek CPU with an Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
Sodaville is a consumer electronics Atom SoC.
Groveland is a consumer electronics Atom SoC.
The 32 nm shrink of Bonnell is called Saltwell.
Intel released their third-generation Cedar Trail platform (consisting of a range of Cedarview processors nm process technology in the fourth quarter of 2011. Intel stated that improvements in graphics capabilities, including support for 1080p video, additional display options including HDMI and DisplayPort, and enhancements in power consumption are to enable fanless designs with longer battery life.and the NM10 southbridge chip) based on 32
The Cedar Trail platform includes two new CPUs, 32 nm-based N2800 (1.86 GHz) and N2600 (1.6 GHz), which replace the previous generation Pineview N4xx and N5xx processors. The CPUs also feature an integrated GPU that supports DirectX 9.
In addition to the netbook platform, two new Cedarview CPUs for nettops, D2500 and D2700, were released on 25 September 2011.
In early March 2012, the N2800-based Intel DN2800MT motherboard W.started to become available. Due to the use of a netbook processor, this Mini-ITX motherboard can reach idle power consumption as low as 7.1
Penwell is an Atom SoC that is part of the Medfield MID/Smartphone platform.
Berryville is a consumer electronics Atom SoC.
Cloverview is an Atom SoC that is part of the Clover Trail tablet platform.
In December 2012, Intel launched the 64-bit Centerton family of Atom CPUs, designed specifically for use in Bordenville platform servers. nm Saltwell architecture, Centerton adds features previously unavailable in most Atom processors, such as Intel VT virtualization technology, and support for ECC memory.Based on the 32
Briarwood is an Atom SoC that is designed for a server platform.
Celeron is Intel's brand name for low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.
Pentium 4 is a series of single-core CPUs for desktops, laptops and entry-level servers manufactured by Intel. The processors were shipped from November 20, 2000 until August 8, 2008. The production of Netburst processors was active from 2000 until May 21, 2010.
The Pentium M is a family of mobile 32-bit single-core x86 microprocessors introduced in March 2003 and forming a part of the Intel Carmel notebook platform under the then new Centrino brand. The Pentium M processors had a maximum thermal design power (TDP) of 5–27 W depending on the model, and were intended for use in laptops. They evolved from the core of the last Pentium III–branded CPU by adding the front-side bus (FSB) interface of Pentium 4, an improved instruction decoding and issuing front end, improved branch prediction, SSE2 support, and a much larger cache. The first Pentium M–branded CPU, code-named Banias, was followed by Dothan. The Pentium M-branded processors were succeeded by the Core-branded dual-core mobile Yonah CPU with a modified microarchitecture.
Tejas was a code name for Intel's microprocessor, which was to be a successor to the latest Pentium 4 with the Prescott core and was sometimes referred to as Pentium V. Jayhawk was a code name for its Xeon counterpart. The cancellation of the processors in May 2004 underscored Intel's historical transition of its focus on single-core processors to multi-core processors.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.
The Pentium D brand refers to two series of desktop dual-core 64-bit x86-64 microprocessors with the NetBurst microarchitecture, which is the dual-core variant of Pentium 4 "Prescott" manufactured by Intel. Each CPU comprised two dies, each containing a single core, residing next to each other on a multi-chip module package. The brand's first processor, codenamed Smithfield, was released by Intel on May 25, 2005. Nine months later, Intel introduced its successor, codenamed Presler, but without offering significant upgrades in design, still resulting in relatively high power consumption. By 2004, the NetBurst processors reached a clock speed barrier at 3.8 GHz due to a thermal limit exemplified by the Presler's 130 watt thermal design power. The future belonged to more energy efficient and slower clocked dual-core CPUs on a single die instead of two. The final shipment date of the dual die Presler chips was August 8, 2008, which marked the end of the Pentium D brand and also the NetBurst microarchitecture.
The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.
The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) is a series of integrated graphics processors introduced in 2004 by Intel, replacing the earlier Intel Extreme Graphics series and being succeeded by the Intel HD and Iris Graphics series.
A mobile Internet device (MID) is a multimedia capable mobile device providing wireless Internet access. They are designed to provide entertainment, information and location-based services for personal or business use. They allow 2-way communication and real-time sharing. They have been described as filling a niche between smartphones and tablet computers.
AMD Turion is the brand name AMD applies to its x86-64 low-power consumption (mobile) processors codenamed K8L. The Turion 64 and Turion 64 X2/Ultra processors compete with Intel's mobile processors, initially the Pentium M and the Intel Core and Intel Core 2 processors.
Asus Eee is a family of products by AsusTek Computer Inc. The product family began with the release of the Eee PC subnotebook in 2007; since then, the product family has diversified into a number of PC form factors. According to the company, the name Eee derives from "the three Es," an abbreviation of its advertising slogan for the device: "Easy to learn, Easy to work, Easy to play".
Stealey is the codename for a low-power x86 architecture microprocessor based on a Dothan core derived from the Intel Pentium M, built on a 90 nm process with 512 KB L2 cache and 400 MT/s front side bus (FSB). It was branded as Intel A100 and Intel A110 and appeared as part of the McCaslin platform. They were replaced in 2008 by the Menlow platform, including the 45 nm Silverthorne CPU and Poulsbo SCH.
Intel Atom is the brand name for a line of IA-32 and x86-64 instruction set ultra-low-voltage microprocessors by Intel Corporation designed to reduce electric consumption and power dissipation in comparison with ordinary processors of the Intel Core series. Atom is mainly used in netbooks, nettops, embedded applications ranging from health care to advanced robotics, and mobile Internet devices (MIDs). The line was originally designed in 45 nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) technology and subsequent models, codenamed Cedar, used a 32 nm process.
Acer Aspire One is a line of netbooks first released in July 2008 by Acer Inc.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "U" suffix.
A nettop is a small-sized, inexpensive, low-power, legacy-free desktop computer designed for basic tasks such as web browsing, accessing web-based applications, document processing, and audio/video playback. The word nettop is a portmanteau of network and desktop. It is the desktop counterpart of the netbook. Modern mini PCs or small form factor PCs can be much more powerful, being equipped with high-end laptop components or mid-range desktop components.
Phenom II is a family of AMD's multi-core 45 nm processors using the AMD K10 microarchitecture, succeeding the original Phenom. Advanced Micro Devices released the Socket AM2+ version of Phenom II in December 2008, while Socket AM3 versions with DDR3 support, along with an initial batch of triple- and quad-core processors were released on February 9, 2009. Dual-processor systems require Socket F+ for the Quad FX platform. The next-generation Phenom II X6 was released on April 27, 2010.
Silvermont is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. Silvermont forms the basis for a total of four SoC families: