|Launched||November 15, 1971|
|Max. CPU clock rate||740-750 kHz|
|Data width||4 bits|
|Address width||12 bits (multiplexed)|
|Architecture and classification|
|Application||Busicom calculator, arithmetic manipulation|
|Min. feature size||10 μm|
|Instruction set||4-bit BCD oriented|
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. It was the first commercially produced microprocessor,and the first in a long line of Intel CPUs.
The chip design, implemented with the MOS silicon gate technology, started in April 1970, and was created by Federico Faggin who led the project from beginning to completion in 1971. Marcian Hoff formulated and led the architectural proposal in 1969, and Masatoshi Shima contributed to the architecture and later to the logic design. The first delivery of a fully operational 4004 occurred in March 1971 to Busicom Corp. of Japan for its 141-PF printing calculator engineering prototype (now displayed in the Computer History Museum – Mountain View, Ca).This calculator for which the 4004 was originally designed and built as a custom chip was first commercially available in July 1971.
Federico Faggin accomplished what no one had achieved before: to fit a general-purpose CPU into a small, commercial silicon chip. He invented how to design and layout 2300 random-logic transistors into a single chip with 5 times the speed and twice the circuit density (half the cost) of the incumbent metal gate technology. This unprecedented integration was achieved through the new process technology he invented at Fairchild Semiconductors in 1968, the MOS silicon gate technology (SGT), with which he also designed the first commercial IC (the Fairchild 3708). To design the Intel 4004, Faggin used the SGT with two new inventions of his, the “buried contact” and the “bootstrap load in silicon gate,” which made possible the necessary speed, power, and cost for a useful general-purpose microprocessor.
The 4004 was the first random logic circuit integrated in one chip using the MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) silicon gate technology (SGT). It was the most advanced integrated circuit (IC) design undertaken up until then. Hoff, head of Intel's Application Research department, had formulated an architectural proposal consisting of a block architecture with an instruction set during 1969, while talking with Busicom engineers led by Shima and with the assistance of Stan Mazor. Hoff and Mazor were not MOS chip designers and did not participate in the actual design or development of the 4004.
The chip design was realized independently in the MOS department, different from Application Research. It could only be realized by a designer with deep knowledge of MOS process technology and of the new SGT. Faggin was hired at Intel in April 1970 from Fairchild Semiconductor to be the project leader and designer of the 4004 and he transferred to manufacturing a fully functional chip in March 1971. Faggin brought to Intel his mastery of the SGT that he had invented at Fairchild (in 1968) and used it to develop his novel methodology for random chip design that was key to making the first and all the early Intel microprocessors. Shima, representing Busicom, was engaged with Hoff and Mazor in the architectural phase during 1969 and he also assisted Faggin with the final logic design for 6 months in 1970.
In November 1971, with the prophetic advert "Announcing a new era in integrated electronics", the 4004 was made commercially available to the general market. The 4004 was the first monolithic processor, fully integrated in one small chip.Such a feat of integration was made possible by the use of the new silicon gate technology for integrated circuits, originally developed by Faggin (with Tom Klein) at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968, which allowed twice the number of random-logic transistors and an increase in speed by a factor of five compared to the incumbent MOS aluminum gate technology. Faggin also invented the bootstrap load with silicon gate and the "buried contact", improving speed and circuit density compared with aluminum gate.
The 4004 microprocessor, the 4001 ROM, 4002 RAM, and 4003 Shift Register constituted the four chips in the Intel MCS-4 chip set. With these components, small computers with varying amounts of memory and I/O facilities could be built.
Three other CPU chip designs were produced at about the same time: the Four-Phase Systems AL1, done in 1969; the MP944, completed in 1970 and used in the F-14 Tomcat fighter jet; and the Texas Instruments TMS-0100 chip, announced on 17 September 1971. The MP944 was a collection of six chips forming a single processor unit. The TMS0100 chip was presented as a "calculator on a chip" with the original designation TMS1802NC. [ citation needed ]This chip contains a very primitive CPU and can only be used to implement various simple four-function calculators. It is the precursor of the TMS1000, introduced in 1974, which is considered the first microcontroller—i.e., a computer on a chip containing not only the CPU, but also ROM, RAM, and I/O functions. The MCS-4 family of four chips developed by Intel, of which the 4004 is the CPU or microprocessor, was far more versatile and powerful than the single-chip TMS1000, allowing the creation of a variety of small computers for various applications.
Zilog, the first company entirely dedicated to microprocessors and microcontrollers, was started by Federico Faggin and Ralph Ungermann at the end of 1974.[ citation needed ]
The first public mention of 4004 was an advertisement in the 15 November 1971 edition of Electronic News .The first delivery was to Busicom for their engineering prototype calculator in March 1971, followed by their 141-PF prototype calculator commercially available in the market in July 1971. Packaged in a 16-pin ceramic dual in-line package, the 4004 was the first commercially available computer processor designed and manufactured by chip maker Intel, which had previously made semiconductor memory chips. The chief designers of the chip were Federico Faggin, the leader of the project after the architectural definition was finalized with Busicom, who created the design methodology and the silicon-based chip design; Ted Hoff who formulated the architecture, both of Intel, and Masatoshi Shima of Busicom who assisted in the development.
Faggin, the sole chip designer among the engineers on the MCS-4 project, was the only one with experience in metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) random logic and circuit design. He also had the crucial knowledge of the new silicon gate process technology with self-aligned gates, which he had created at Fairchild in 1968. At Fairchild in 1968, Faggin also designed and manufactured the world's first commercial IC using SGT, the Fairchild 3708that was featured on the cover of Electronics (29 September 1969). As soon as he joined the Intel MOS Department he created a new random logic design methodology based on silicon gate, and contributed many technology and circuit design inventions that enabled their single chip microprocessor to become a reality. His methodology set the design style for all the early Intel microprocessors and later for the Zilog Z80. He also led the MCS-4 project and was responsible for its successful outcome (1970–1971). Marcian "Ted" Hoff, head of the Application Research Department, contributed the architectural proposal for Busicom working with Stanley Mazor in 1969, then he moved on to other projects. When asked where he got the ideas for the architecture of the first microprocessor, Hoff related that Plessey, "a British tractor company", had donated a minicomputer to Stanford, and he had "played with it some" while he was there. Shima designed the Busicom calculator firmware and assisted Faggin during the first six months of the implementation. The manager of Intel's MOS Design Department was Leslie L. Vadász. At the time of the MCS-4 development, Vadasz's attention was completely focused on the mainstream business of semiconductor memories and he left the leadership and the management of the MCS-4 project to Faggin.
Busicom had designed their own special-purpose LSI chipset for use in their Busicom 141-PF calculator with integrated printer. They based their design on the architecture of the Olivetti Programma 101, one of the world's first tabletop programmable calculators, which Olivetti introduced in 1965.Busicom commissioned Intel to develop their design for production. Like the Olivetti Programma 101, the Busicom design used serial read-write memory. The Busicom memory was based on MOS shift registers rather than the costly Olivetti memory based on magnetostriction wire.
Intel determined the Busicom design was too complex, since serial memories required more components, and would use 40 pins, a packaging standard different from Intel's own 16-pin standard. Intel proposed to develop a new design which could be produced with standard 16-pin DIP packaging, and would have a reduced instruction set.The memory simplification would come from using Intel's newly developed dynamic RAM memory. This new design was the 4004 chip, which is one of a set of four chips, along with ROM, DRAM, and serial-to-parallel shift register chips. The 4004 was subsequently designed by Federico Faggin using silicon gate technology and built of approximately 2,300 transistors and was followed the next year by the first ever 8-bit microprocessor, the 3,500 transistor 8008 (and the 4040, a revised and improved 4004). It was not until the development of the 40-pin 8080 in 1974, a project conceived and directed by Faggin that the address and data buses would be separated, giving faster and simpler access to memory.
The 4004 employs a 10 μm process silicon-gate enhancement load pMOS technology on a 12 mm2 die and can execute approximately 92,000 instructions per second; a single instruction cycle is 10.8 microseconds. The original clock rate design goal was 1 MHz, the same as the IBM 1620 Model I.[ citation needed ]
The Intel 4004 was designed by physically cutting sheets of Rubylith into thin strips to lay out the circuits to be printed, a process made obsolete by current computer graphic design capabilities.
For the purpose of testing the produced chips, Faggin developed a tester for silicon wafers of MCS-4 family that was itself driven by 4004 chip. The tester also served as a proof for the management that Intel 4004 microprocessor could be used not only in calculator-like products, but also for control applications.
When Faggin designed the MCS-4 family, he also christened the chips with distinct names: 4001, 4002, 4003, and 4004, breaking away from the numbering scheme used by Intel at that time which would have required the names 1302, 1105, 1507, and 1202 respectively. Had he followed Intel's number sequence, the idea that the chips were part of a family of components intended to work seamlessly together would have been lost.Intel's early numbering scheme for integrated circuits used a four-digit number for each component. The first digit indicated the process technology used, the second digit indicated the generic function, and the last two digits of the number were used to indicate the sequential number in the development of the component. The 8008 microprocessor was originally called 1201, per Intel's naming conventions. Before its market introduction, the 1201 was renamed 8008, following the new naming convention started with the 4001/4002/4003/4004.
Tadashi Sasaki attributes the basic invention to break the calculator into four parts with ROM (4001), RAM (4002), shift registers (4003) and CPU (4004) to an unnamed woman from the Nara Women's College present at a brainstorming meeting that was held in Japan prior to his first meeting with Robert Noyce from Intel, leading up to the Busicom deal.
The 4004 is part of the MCS-4 family of LSI chips that can be used to build digital computers with varying amounts of memory. The other members of the MCS-4 family are memories and input/output circuits, which are necessary to implement a complete computer. The 4001 is a ROM (read-only memory) with four lines of output; the 4002 is a RAM (random-access memory) with four lines of input/output. The 4003 is a static shift register to be used for expanding the I/O lines; e.g., for keyboard scanning or controlling a printer.[ citation needed ]
The 4004 includes functions for direct low-level control of memory chip selection and I/O, which are not normally handled by the microprocessor; however, its functionality is limited in that it cannot execute code from RAM and is limited to whatever instructions are provided in ROM (or an independently loaded RAM working as ROM—in either case, the processor is itself unable to write or transfer data into an executable memory space). The RAM and ROM parts were also unusual in their integration of output (and, in the ROMs, input) ports that significantly reduced the minimum part count in an MCS-4 system, but required inclusion of a certain amount of processor-like logic on the chips themselves to accept, decode and execute relatively high-level data transfer instructions.
The standard arrangement for a 4004 system is anything up to 16 × 4001 ROM chips (in a single bank) and 16 × 4002 RAM chips (in four banks of four), which together provide the 4KB program storage, 1024 + 256 nibbles of data/status storage, plus 64 output and 64 input/output external data/control lines (which can themselves be used to operate, e.g. a 4003). Intel's MCS-4 documentation, however, claims that up to 48 ROM and RAM chips (providing up to 192 external control lines) "in any combination" can be connected to the 4004 "with simple gating hardware", but declines to give any further detail or examples of how this would actually be achieved.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(November 2017)
The minimum system specification described by Intel consists of a 4004 with a single 256-byte 4001 program ROM; there is no explicit need for separate RAM in minimal complexity applications thanks to the 4004's large number of onboard index registers, which represent the equivalent of 16 × 4-bit or 8 × 8-bit characters (or a mixture) of working RAM, nor for simple interface chips thanks to the ROM's built-in I/O lines. However, as project complexity increases, the various other support chips start to become useful.
Numerous versions of the Intel MCS-4 line of processors were produced. The earliest versions, marked C (like C4004), were ceramic and used a zebra pattern of white and gray on the back of the chips, often called "grey traces". The next generation of the chips was plain white ceramic (also marked C), and then dark grey ceramic (D). Many of the more recent versions of MCS-4 family were also produced with plastic (P).
The first commercial product to use a microprocessor was the Busicom calculator 141-PF. The 4004 was also used in the first microprocessor-controlled pinball game, a prototype produced by Dave Nutting Associates for Bally in 1974.
According to Nick Tredennick, a microprocessor designer and expert witness to the Boone/Hyatt patent case:[ clarification needed ]
Here are my opinions from [the] study [I conducted for the patent case]. The first microprocessor in a commercial product was the Four Phase Systems AL1. The first commercially available (sold as a component) microprocessor was the 4004 from Intel.
A popular myth has it that Pioneer 10, the first spacecraft to leave the solar system, used an Intel 4004 microprocessor. According to Dr. Larry Lasher of Ames Research Center, the Pioneer team did evaluate the 4004, but decided it was too new at the time to include in any of the Pioneer projects.[ citation needed ] The myth was repeated by Federico Faggin himself in a lecture for the Computer History Museum in 2006.
Federico Faggin signed the 4004 with his initials because he knew that his silicon gate design embodied "the essence of the microprocessor". A corner of the die reads "F.F."
On 15 November 2006, the 35th anniversary of the 4004, Intel celebrated by releasing the chip's schematics, mask works, and user manual. cm, 130× scale replica of the Intel 4004 was built using discrete transistors and put on display in 2006 at the Intel Museum in Santa Clara, California.A fully functional 41 × 58
On 15 October 2010, Faggin, Hoff, and Mazor were awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by President Barack Obama for their pioneering work on the 4004.
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") is the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel. It first appeared in April 1974 and is an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility. The initial specified clock rate or frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions using 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles this meant that it operated at a typical speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second. A faster variant 8080A-1 became available later with clock frequency limit up to 3.125 MHz.
A microprocessor is a computer processor where the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer’s central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions and performing arithmetic operations. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic. Microprocessors operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system.
The 6800 is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974. The MC6800 microprocessor was part of the M6800 Microcomputer System that also included serial and parallel interface ICs, RAM, ROM and other support chips. A significant design feature was that the M6800 family of ICs required only a single five-volt power supply at a time when most other microprocessors required three voltages. The M6800 Microcomputer System was announced in March 1974 and was in full production by the end of that year.
The Intel 8008 is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972. It is an 8-bit CPU with an external 14-bit address bus that could address 16 KB of memory. Originally known as the 1201, the chip was commissioned by Computer Terminal Corporation (CTC) to implement an instruction set of their design for their Datapoint 2200 programmable terminal. As the chip was delayed and did not meet CTC's performance goals, the 2200 ended up using CTC's own TTL-based CPU instead. An agreement permitted Intel to market the chip to other customers after Seiko expressed an interest in using it for a calculator.
The Intel 4040 microprocessor was the successor to the Intel 4004. It was introduced in 1974. The 4040 employed a 10 μm silicon gate enhancement load PMOS technology, was made up of 3,000 transistors and could execute approximately 62,000 instructions per second. General performance, bus layout and instruction set was identical to the 4004, with the main improvements being in the addition of extra lines and instructions to recognise and service interrupts and hardware Halt/Stop commands, an extended internal stack and general-purpose "Index" register space to handle nesting of several subroutines and/or interrupts, plus a doubling of program ROM address range.
The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid-state devices such as transistors and then integrated circuit (IC) chips. Around 1953 - 1959, discrete transistors started being considered sufficiently reliable and economical that they made further vacuum tube computers uncompetitive. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) large-scale integration (LSI) technology subsequently led to the development of semiconductor memory in the mid-to-late 1960s and then the microprocessor in the early 1970s. This led to primary computer memory moving away from magnetic-core memory devices to solid-state static and dynamic semiconductor memory, which greatly reduced the cost, size, and power consumption of computers. These advances led to the miniaturized personal computer (PC) in the 1970s, starting with home computers and desktop computers, followed by laptops and then mobile computers over the next several decades.
Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. is one of the inventors of the microprocessor.
Federico Faggin is an Italian-American physicist, engineer, inventor and entrepreneur. He is best known for designing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004. He led the 4004 (MCS-4) project and the design group during the first five years of Intel's microprocessor effort. Faggin also created, while working at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968, the self-aligned MOS (metal–oxide–semiconductor) silicon-gate technology (SGT), which made possible MOS semiconductor memory chips, CCD image sensors, and the microprocessor. After the 4004, he led development of the Intel 8008 and 8080, using his SGT methodology for random logic chip design, which was essential to the creation of early Intel microprocessors. He was co-founder and CEO of Zilog, the first company solely dedicated to microprocessors, and led the development of the Zilog Z80 and Z8 processors. He was later the co-founder and CEO of Cygnet Technologies, and then Synaptics.
Masatoshi Shima is a Japanese electronics engineer. He was one of the architects of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004. In 1968, Shima worked for Busicom in Japan, and did the logic design for a specialized CPU to be translated into three-chip custom chips. In 1969, he worked with Intel's Ted Hoff and Stanley Mazor to reduce the three-chip Busicom proposal into a one-chip architecture. In 1970, that architecture was transformed into a silicon chip, the Intel 4004, by Federico Faggin, with Shima's assistance in logic design.
Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic semiconductor device used for digital data storage, such as computer memory. It typically refers to MOS memory, where data is stored within metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) memory cells on a silicon integrated circuit memory chip. There are numerous different types using different semiconductor technologies. The two main types of random-access memory (RAM) are static RAM (SRAM), which uses several MOS transistors per memory cell, and dynamic RAM (DRAM), which uses a MOS transistor and a MOS capacitor per cell. Non-volatile memory uses floating-gate memory cells, which consist of a single floating-gate MOS transistor per cell.
Mostek was an integrated circuit manufacturer, founded in 1969 by L. J. Sevin, Louay E. Sharif, Richard L. Petritz and other ex-employees of Texas Instruments. Initially their products were manufactured in Worcester, Massachusetts, however by 1974 most of its manufacturing was done in the Carrollton, Texas facility on Crosby Road. At its peak in the late 1970s, Mostek held an 85% market share of the dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) memory chip market worldwide, until being eclipsed by Japanese DRAM manufacturers who offered equivalent chips at lower prices by dumping memory on the market.
Busicom was a Japanese company that owned the rights to Intel's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, which they created in partnership with Intel in 1970.
In integrated circuits, depletion-load NMOS is a form of digital logic family that uses only a single power supply voltage, unlike earlier nMOS logic families that needed more than one different power supply voltage. Although manufacturing these integrated circuits required additional processing steps, improved switching speed and the elimination of the extra power supply made this logic family the preferred choice for many microprocessors and other logic elements.
This article details the history of electrical engineering.
In electronics, a self-aligned gate is a transistor manufacturing feature whereby a refractory gate electrode region of a MOSFET is used as a mask for the doping of the source and drain regions. This technique ensures that the gate will slightly overlap the edges of the source and drain.
The history of general-purpose CPUs is a continuation of the earlier history of computing hardware.
PMOS or pMOS logic is a family of digital circuits based on p-channel, enhancement mode metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). In the late 1960s and early 1970s, PMOS logic was the dominant semiconductor technology for large-scale integrated circuits before being superseded by NMOS and CMOS devices.
Stanley Mazor is an American microelectronics engineer who was born on 22 October 1941 in Chicago, Illinois. He is one of the co-inventors of the world's first microprocessor architecture, the Intel 4004, together with Ted Hoff, Masatoshi Shima, and Federico Faggin.
Random-access memory is a form of computer memory that can be read and changed in any order, typically used to store working data and machine code. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in almost the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory, in contrast with other direct-access data storage media, where the time required to read and write data items varies significantly depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement.
This article details the history of electronic engineering. Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1972) defines electronics as "The science and technology of the conduction of electricity in a vacuum, a gas, or a semiconductor, and devices based thereon".
Intel's first advertisement for the 4004 appeared in the November 15, 1971 issue of Electronic News
technically, the machine was a programmable calculator, not a computer.
It appears that the Mathatronics Mathatron calculator preceeded[sic] the Programma 101 to market.
In February Intel releases the 4004 microprocessor to the market. It has 12 sq mm die size and 16 pins which fit into a motherboard.
including fully functional 130x scale replicas of the 4004 built using discrete transistors, museum-durable keyboards and slide switches, and video display electronics.