Intel Quark

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Intel Galileo-board with Quark-processor Embedded World 2014 Intel Galileo 01.jpg
Intel Galileo-board with Quark-processor

Intel Quark is a line of 32-bit x86 SoCs and microcontrollers by Intel, designed for small size and low power consumption, and targeted at new markets including wearable devices. The line was introduced at Intel Developer Forum in 2013, and discontinued in January 2019. [1] Quark processors, while slower than Atom processors, are much smaller and consume less power. They lack support for SIMD instruction sets (such as MMX and SSE) [2] and only support embedded operating systems. Quark powers the (now discontinued) Intel Galileo developer microcontroller board. [3] However, in 2016 Arduino released the Arduino 101 board [4] that includes an Intel Quark SoC. [5] The CPU instruction set is the same as a Pentium (P54C/i586) CPU. [6]

Contents

History

The first product in the Quark line is the single-core 32 nm X1000 SoC with a clock rate of up to 400  MHz. The system includes several interfaces, including PCI Express, serial UART, I²C, Fast Ethernet, USB 2.0, SDIO, power management controller, and GPIO. There are 16  kB of on-chip embedded SRAM and an integrated DDR3 memory controller. [7] [8]

A second Intel product that includes Quark core, the Intel Edison microcomputer, was presented in January 2014. It has a form factor close to the size of an SD card, and is capable of wireless networking using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. [9]

In January 2015, Intel announced the sub-miniature Intel Curie module for wearable applications, based on a Quark SE core with 80  kB SRAM and 384 kB flash. [10] At the size of a button, it also features a 6-axis accelerometer, a DSP sensor hub, a Bluetooth LE unit and a battery charge controller.

Intel announced the end-of-life of its Quark products in January 2019, with orders accepted until July 2019 and final shipments set for July 2022. [1] [11]

List of processors

"Lakemont" (32 nm)
The name Lakemont has been used in reference to the processor core in multiple Quark-series processors. [12] :4 [13] :42
"Clanton"
(The L2 cache column shows the size of the L1 cache.)
Model
number
sSpec
number
CoresFrequencyGPU
frequency
L2
cache
I/O bus Memory Voltage TDP Socket Release datePart
number(s)
Release
price (USD)
Quark X1000
  • SR1BY (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q4'13
  • DH8066101538300
$9.63
Quark X1001
  • SR1VB (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q2'14
  • DHQ1ET
$11.77
Quark X1010
  • SR1BZ (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q1'14
  • DH8066101555100
$10.16
Quark X1011
  • SR1VC (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q2'14
  • DHQ1ECCET
$12.31
Quark X1020
  • SR1VW (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q2'14
  • DHQ1ECCSECCTS1
$11.45
Quark X1020D
  • SR1BX (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q1'14
  • DH8066101531900
$10.70
Quark X1021
  • SR1WH (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q2'14
  • DHQ1ECCSECETS1
$13.39
Quark X1021D
  • SR1VA (A0)
1400 MHzN/A16 KBDDR3-800
2.2 W
  • FC-BGA11E
Q2'14
  • DHQ1ECCSECET
$12.85
"Silver Butte"
Model
number
sSpec
number
CoresFrequencyGPU
frequency
L2
cache
I/O bus Memory Voltage TDP Socket Release datePart
number(s)
Release
price (USD)
Quark D1000
  • SLKMJ (B1)
132 MHzN/A AHB-Lite, APB [14] :30 eSRAM 1.62–3.63 V
  • 0.025 W
Q3'15
DMNIAD01SLVBT
$2.54
"Mint Valley"
Model
number
sSpec
number
CoresFrequencyGPU
frequency
L2
cache
I/O bus Memory Voltage TDP Socket Release datePart
number(s)
Release
price (USD)
Quark D2000
  • SR2KF (A0)
132 MHzN/AAHB-Lite, [13] :72APB [13] :96eSRAM1.62–3.63 V
0.025 W
  • QFN40
Q3'15
FND2000
$2.54
"Atlas Peak"
Model
number
sSpec
number
CoresFrequencyGPU
frequency
L2
cache
I/O bus Memory Voltage TDP Socket Release datePart
number(s)
Release
price (USD)
Quark SE C1000
  • SR2T6 (A0)
  • SR2TJ (A1)
132 MHzN/A8 KBAHB-Lite, APBeSRAM1.8–3.3 V
0.025 W
  • VFBGA144
Q4'15
LMCQ1000
$10.32

Segfault bug

Intel Quark SoC X1000 contains a bug #71538 [15] that "under specific circumstances" results in a type of crash known as a segfault. The workaround implemented by Intel is to omit LOCK prefixes (not required on single-threaded processors) in the compiled code. [16] While source-based embedded systems like those built using the Yocto Project can incorporate this workaround at compile time, general purpose Linux distributions such as Debian are deeply affected by the bug. Such a workaround is not easy to implement in binaries meant to support multithreading too as they require LOCK prefixes to function properly. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

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A microprocessor is a computer processor wherein the data processing logic and control is included on a single integrated circuit, or a small number of integrated circuits. The microprocessor contains the arithmetic, logic, and control circuitry required to perform the functions of a computer's central processing unit. The integrated circuit is capable of interpreting and executing program instructions and performing arithmetic operations. The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock-driven, register-based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microprocessors contain both combinational logic and sequential digital logic, and operate on numbers and symbols represented in the binary number system.

Pentium (original) Intel microporocessor

The Pentium microprocessor was introduced by Intel on March 22, 1993, as the first CPU in the Pentium brand. It was instruction set compatible with the 80486 but was a new and very different microarchitecture design. The P5 Pentium was the first superscalar x86 microarchitecture and the world's first superscalar microprocessor to be in mass production. It included dual integer pipelines, a faster floating-point unit, wider data bus, separate code and data caches, and many other techniques and features to enhance performance and support security, encryption, and multiprocessing, for workstations and servers.

AVR microcontrollers

AVR is a family of microcontrollers developed since 1996 by Atmel, acquired by Microchip Technology in 2016. These are modified Harvard architecture 8-bit RISC single-chip microcontrollers. AVR was one of the first microcontroller families to use on-chip flash memory for program storage, as opposed to one-time programmable ROM, EPROM, or EEPROM used by other microcontrollers at the time.

System on a chip Integrated circuit that incorporates the components of a computer

A system on a chip is an integrated circuit that integrates all or most components of a computer or other electronic system. These components almost always include a central processing unit (CPU), memory, input/output ports and secondary storage, often alongside other components such as radio modems and a graphics processing unit (GPU) – all on a single substrate or microchip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio frequency signal processing functions.

XScale is a microarchitecture for central processing units initially designed by Intel implementing the ARM architecture instruction set. XScale comprises several distinct families: IXP, IXC, IOP, PXA and CE, with some later models designed as SoCs. Intel sold the PXA family to Marvell Technology Group in June 2006. Marvell then extended the brand to include processors with other microarchitectures, like ARM's Cortex.

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Xeon Line of Intel server processors

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Multi-core processor Microprocessor with more than one processing unit

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Pentium Brand of microprocessors produced by Intel

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Intel Atom Microprocessor brand name by Intel

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Vortex86 X86-compatible system-on-a-chip

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Single-board microcontroller

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STM32 ARM Cortex-M based Microcontrollers by STMicroelectronics

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Silvermont is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. Silvermont forms the basis for a total of four SoC families:

Intel Galileo

Intel Galileo is the first in a line of Arduino-certified development boards based on Intel x86 architecture and is designed for the maker and education communities. Intel released two versions of Galileo, referred to as Gen 1 and Gen 2. These development boards are sometimes called "Breakout boards".

Intel Edison

The Intel Edison is a computer-on-module that was offered by Intel as a development system for wearable devices and Internet of Things devices. The system was initially announced to be the same size and shape as an SD card and containing a dual-core Intel Quark x86 CPU at 400 MHz communicating via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. A later announcement changed the CPU to a 500 MHz Silvermont dual-core Intel Atom CPU, and in September 2014 a second version of Edison was shown at IDF, which was bigger and thicker than a standard SD card.

Goldmont Plus is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium Silver branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. The Gemini Lake platform with 14 nm Goldmont Plus core was officially launched on December 11, 2017. Intel launched Gemini Lake Refresh platform on November 4, 2019.

References

  1. 1 2 "Product Change Notification 116715-00" (PDF). Intel Quality Document Management System. Intel. 2019-01-18. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  2. Turley, Jim (October 16, 2013). "Intel Quark Provides Spin, Charm, and Strange New Low-end x86 MCU Line Emerging from the Lab". EEJournal. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014.
  3. Intel® Galileo Datasheet
  4. "Arduino 101".
  5. JavaFX 9 by Example, Chapter on Arduino
  6. "Intel Quark SoC X1000 Core - Developer's Manual". Archived from the original on 2014-10-19. Retrieved 2014-10-19.
  7. Flaherty, Nick (2013-10-07). "Intel Tackles SoC With Quark". EETimes. Archived from the original on 29 February 2016. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  8. Intel® Quark SoC X1000 (16K Cache, 400 MHz) Specifications, Intel
  9. Gareth Halfacree (7 January 2014). "Intel unveils Quark-based Edison microcomputer". BitTech. Retrieved 2014-01-07.
  10. "Intel® Curie Module: Unleashing Wearable Device Innovation". Intel. 2015-01-06. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  11. Shilov, Anton (2019-01-22). "Intel Discontinues Quark SoCs and Microcontrollers". AnandTech . Retrieved 2020-09-29.
  12. Intel Quark SoC X1000 Debug Operations. Intel Corporation. 2014.
  13. 1 2 3 Intel Quark microcontroller D2000. Intel Corporation. 2015.
  14. Intel Quark Microcontroller D1000 Datasheet. Intel Corporation. 2015.
  15. "Intel Quark SoC X1000 Software - Release Notes" (PDF). Revision 002. 22 May 2014. p. 21.
  16. "debian-glibc@lists.debian.org: Bug#738575: pthread: segfault in libpthread on Intel Galileo board".
  17. "#738575 - pthread: Segfault in libpthread on Intel Galileo board - Debian Bug report logs".