|Max. CPU clock rate||1.2 GHz to 3.06 GHz|
|FSB speeds||800 MHz to 1066 MHz|
|Architecture and classification|
|Instruction set||x86, x86-64|
|Products, models, variants|
Penryn is the code name of a processor from Intel that is sold in varying configurations as Core 2 Solo, Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Quad, Pentium and Celeron.
During development, Penryn was the Intel code name for the 2007/2008 "Tick" of Intel's Tick-Tock cycle which shrunk Merom to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23. The term "Penryn" is sometimes used to refer to all 45 nm chips with the Core architecture.
Chips with Penryn architecture come in two sizes, with 6 MB and 3 MB L2 cache.
Low power versions of Penryn are known as the Penryn-L; these are single-core processors.The Penryn-QC quad-cores are made from two chips with two cores and 6 MB of cache per chip.
The desktop version of Penryn is Wolfdale and the dual-socket server version is Wolfdale-DP. Penryn-QC is related to Yorkfield on the desktop and Harpertown in servers. The MP server Dunnington chip is a more distant relative based on a different chip but using the same 45 nm Core microarchitecture.
Penryn was replaced by the Nehalem-based Arrandale (dual core) and Clarksfield (quad core).
|Processor||Brand name||Model (list)||Cores||L2 Cache||Socket||TDP|
|Penryn-L||Core 2 Solo||SU3xxx||1||3 MB||BGA956||5.5 W|
|Penryn-3M||Core 2 Duo||SU7xxx||2||3 MB||BGA956||10 W|
|Penryn||SL9xxx||6 MB||17 W|
|Penryn-3M||P7xxx||3 MB|| Socket P |
|Penryn-3M||T6xxx||2 MB||35 W|
|E8x35||6 MB||Socket P||35-55 W|
|Penryn-QC||Core 2 Quad||Q9xxx||4||2x3-2x6 MB||Socket P||45 W|
|Penryn XE||Core 2 Extreme||X9xxx||2||6 MB||Socket P||44 W|
|Penryn-QC||QX9300||4||2x6 MB||45 W|
|Penryn-3M||Celeron||T3xxx||2||1 MB||Socket P||35 W|
|SU2xxx||µFC-BGA 956||10 W|
|Penryn-L||9xx||1||1 MB||Socket P||35 W|
|7x3||µFC-BGA 956||10 W|
|Penryn-3M||Pentium||T4xxx||2||1 MB||Socket P||35 W|
|SU4xxx||2 MB||µFC-BGA 956||10 W|
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The successor to the Merom core for the Core 2 Duo T5000/T7000 series mobile processors, code-named Penryn, debuted on the 45 nanometer process. Many details about Penryn appeared at the April 2007 Intel Developer Forum.
Important advancesinclude the addition of new instructions including SSE4 (also known as Penryn New Instructions) and new fabrication materials; most significantly a hafnium-based high-k dielectric.
Penryn is paired with the 2007 desktop chipset series, Bearlake, MT/s and support for DDR3 SDRAM. In notebooks and other mobile equipment, Penryn pairs with the mobile chipset series Crestline, which does not support DDR3, although Intel believes future DDR3 support will benefit mobile equipment's power- and heat-constrained environments.some of whose models include an increase in bus performance (connection to the northbridge, etc.) to 1333
Intel's new 45 nm Penryn-based Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Extreme processors were released on January 6, 2008. The new processors launched exclusively with a TDP of 35 W. HP began to offer the first model, the T9500, from late January 2008. The T9500 offers a 2.6 GHz clock rate, higher than all but the Extreme Edition of the Merom range, and 6 MB (rather than 4 MB) of Level 2 Cache.
Intel released an Apple-only Exxx chip on April 28, 2008 that increased the clock rate to 3.06 GHz as well as increasing the Front Side Bus to 1066 MT/s, and changed the Cache to 6 MB shared L2. While it is used in desktop computers and has an E8xxx name, it uses the same packaging as mobile CPUs and is therefore considered a Penryn and not Wolfdale.
All SL9xxx, SP9xxx, P9xxx, T9xxx and X9xxx processors are Penryn with the full 6 MB L2 cache enabled, while P7xxx, P8xxx and T8xxx can be either Penryn-3M or Penryn with only 3 MB cache enabled. They are indistinguishable by software, but Penryn uses product code 80576.
The smaller (82 mm² instead of 107 mm²) Penryn-3M is used in mobile processors with an L2 Cache 3 MB or less as a successor to Merom-2M. Its product code is 80577. The entry level Penryn-3M Core 2 processor is the T6xxx series, with 2 MB L2 Cache and begins with the T6400 at a clock rate of 2 GHz. Other Penryn-3M based processor series are Celeron T3xxx, Pentium T4xxx, as well as most Core 2 Duo SU9xxx, P7xxx, P8xxx, T8xxx processors.
In September 2009, Intel introduced new Consumer Ultra-Low Voltage processors based on Penryn-3M, as Celeron SU2xxx series, Pentium SU4xxx series and Core 2 Duo SU7xxx series, with 1, 2 and 3 MB of active L2 cache. Like the earlier Core 2 Duo SU9xxx series, they are always soldered on using a BGA956 package and have a TDP of only 10 W.
Penryn-L does not actually seem to be a separate chip but only a version of Penryn-3M with a single core enabled. However, it has a separate product code of 80585. Penryn-L is used in the ultra-low voltage Core 2 SU3xxx, the standard voltage Celeron 9xx and the CULV Celeron 7xx and Pentium SU2xxx series. The Celeron versions have only 1 MB active L2 cache, Pentium versions have 2 MB.
In August 2008 Intel released their first two quad-core processors for notebooks, the Core 2 Quad Q9100 and Core 2 Extreme QX9300. W) and cooling than other Penryn processors they are not automatically compatible with all Centrino 2 notebooks. Also the Extreme version requires the GS45/GM45/PM45 chipset.As these require more power (45
Microsoft has released a microcode update (KB2493989) for Windows 7 that addresses several stability issues on selected "Penryn" and "Merom" CPUs.
Celeron is a brand name given by Intel to a number of different low-end IA-32 and x86-64 computer microprocessor models targeted at low-cost personal computers.
Xeon is a brand of x86 microprocessors designed, manufactured, and marketed by Intel, targeted at the non-consumer workstation, server, and embedded system markets. It was introduced in June 1998. Xeon processors are based on the same architecture as regular desktop-grade CPUs, but have advanced features such as support for ECC memory, higher core counts, more PCI Express lanes, support for larger amounts of RAM, larger cache memory and extra provision for enterprise-grade reliability, availability and serviceability (RAS) features responsible for handling hardware exceptions through the Machine Check Architecture. They are often capable of safely continuing execution where a normal processor cannot due to these extra RAS features, depending on the type and severity of the machine-check exception (MCE). Some also support multi-socket systems with two, four, or eight sockets through use of the Quick Path Interconnect (QPI) bus.
The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth-generation Intel x86 microarchitecture, implemented by the Pentium Pro microprocessor that was introduced in November 1995. It is frequently referred to as i686. It was succeeded by the NetBurst microarchitecture in 2000, but eventually revived in the Pentium M line of microprocessors. The successor to the Pentium M variant of the P6 microarchitecture is the Core microarchitecture which in turn is also derived from the P6 microarchitecture.
The Intel Core microarchitecture is a multi-core processor microarchitecture unveiled by Intel in Q1 2006. It is based on the Yonah processor design and can be considered an iteration of the P6 microarchitecture introduced in 1995 with Pentium Pro. High power consumption and heat intensity, the resulting inability to effectively increase clock rate, and other shortcomings such as an inefficient pipeline were the primary reasons why Intel abandoned the NetBurst microarchitecture and switched to a different architectural design, delivering high efficiency through a small pipeline rather than high clock rates. The Core microarchitecture initially did not reach the clock rates of the NetBurst microarchitecture, even after moving to 45 nm lithography. However after many generations of successor microarchitectures which used Core as their basis, Intel managed to eventually surpass the clock rates of Netburst with the Devil's Canyon microarchitecture reaching a base frequency of 4 GHz and a maximum tested frequency of 4.4 GHz using 22 nm lithography.
Yonah was the code name of Intel's first generation 65 nm process CPU cores, based on cores of the earlier Banias / Dothan Pentium M microarchitecture. Yonah CPU cores were used within Intel's Core Solo and Core Duo mobile microprocessor products. SIMD performance on Yonah improved through the addition of SSE3 instructions and improvements to SSE and SSE2 implementations; integer performance decreased slightly due to higher latency cache. Additionally, Yonah included support for the NX bit.
Intel Core 2 is the processor family encompassing a range of Intel's consumer 64-bit x86-64 single-, dual-, and quad-core microprocessors based on the Core microarchitecture. The single- and dual-core models are single-die, whereas the quad-core models comprise two dies, each containing two cores, packaged in a multi-chip module. The Core 2 range was the last flagship range of Intel desktop processors to use a front-side bus.
Pentium is a brand used for a series of x86 architecture-compatible microprocessors produced by Intel since 1993. In their form as of November 2011, Pentium processors are considered entry-level products that Intel rates as "two stars", meaning that they are above the low-end Atom and Celeron series, but below the faster Intel Core lineup, and workstation Xeon series.
The Pentium Dual-Core brand was used for mainstream x86-architecture microprocessors from Intel from 2006 to 2009 when it was renamed to Pentium. The processors are based on either the 32-bit Yonah or 64-bit Merom-2M, Allendale, and Wolfdale-3M core, targeted at mobile or desktop computers.
Haswell is the codename for a processor microarchitecture developed by Intel as the "fourth-generation core" successor to the Ivy Bridge. Intel officially announced CPUs based on this microarchitecture on June 4, 2013, at Computex Taipei 2013, while a working Haswell chip was demonstrated at the 2011 Intel Developer Forum. With Haswell, which uses a 22 nm process, Intel also introduced low-power processors designed for convertible or "hybrid" ultrabooks, designated by the "Y" suffix.
Conroe is the code name for many Intel processors sold as Core 2 Duo, Xeon, Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron. It was the first desktop processor to be based on the Core microarchitecture, replacing the NetBurst microarchitecture based Cedar Mill processor. It has product code 80557, which is shared with Allendale and Conroe-L that are very similar but have a smaller L2 cache. Conroe-L has only one processor core and a new CPUID model. The mobile version of Conroe is Merom, the dual-socket server version is Woodcrest, and the quad-core desktop version is Kentsfield. Conroe was replaced by the 45 nm Wolfdale processor.
Merom is the code name for various Intel processors that are sold as Core 2 Duo, Core 2 Solo, Pentium Dual-Core and Celeron. It was the first mobile processor to be based on the Core microarchitecture, replacing the Enhanced Pentium M-based Yonah processor. Merom has the product code 80537, which is shared with Merom-2M and Merom-L that are very similar but have a smaller L2 cache. Merom-L has only one processor core and a different CPUID model. The desktop version of Merom is Conroe and the dual-socket server version is Woodcrest. Merom was manufactured in a 65 nanometer process, and was succeeded by Penryn, a 45 nm version of the Merom architecture. Together, Penryn and Merom represented the first 'tick-tock' in Intel's Tick-Tock manufacturing paradigm, in which Penryn was the 'tick' to Merom's 'tock'.
Wolfdale is the code name for a processor from Intel that is sold in varying configurations as Core 2 Duo, Celeron, Pentium and Xeon. In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was Penryn microarchitecture, the shrink of the Core microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23. This replaced the Conroe processor with Wolfdale.
Yorkfield is the code name for some Intel processors sold as Core 2 Quad and Xeon. In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was Penryn microarchitecture, the shrink of the Core microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23, replacing Kentsfield, the previous model.
Intel Core are streamlined midrange consumer, workstation and enthusiast computers central processing units (CPU) marketed by Intel Corporation. These processors displaced the existing mid- to high-end Pentium processors at the time of their introduction, moving the Pentium to the entry level, and bumping the Celeron series of processors to the low end. Identical or more capable versions of Core processors are also sold as Xeon processors for the server and workstation markets.
In Intel's Tick-Tock cycle, the 2007/2008 "Tick" was the shrink of the Core microarchitecture to 45 nanometers as CPUID model 23. In Core 2 processors, it is used with the code names Penryn, Wolfdale and Yorkfield, some of which are also sold as Celeron, Pentium and Xeon processors. In the Xeon brand, the Wolfdale-DP and Harpertown code names are used for LGA 771 based MCMs with two or four active Wolfdale cores.
Goldmont Plus is a microarchitecture for low-power Atom, Celeron and Pentium Silver branded processors used in systems on a chip (SoCs) made by Intel. The Gemini Lake platform with 14 nm Goldmont Plus core was officially launched on December 11, 2017. Intel launched Gemini Lake Refresh platform on November 4, 2019.