Bulawayo

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Bulawayo

Bulawayo
City and Province
Bulawayo CBD.jpg
View of Bulawayo's Central Business District (CBD) from Pioneer House by Prince Phumulani Nyoni. The CBD is 5.4 square kilometres and is in a grid pattern with 17 avenues and 11 streets.
Flag of Bulawayo.svg
Flag
Bulawayo Zimbabwe COA.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
'City of Kings', 'Skies', 'Bluez', 'Bompton' or 'Bulliesberg'
Motto(s): 
(In Sindebele) Si ye pambili (Let us go forward)
Bulawayo district.png
Location of Bulawayo Province
Zimbabwe adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Bulawayo
Location of Bulawayo Province
Coordinates: 20°10′12″S28°34′48″E / 20.17000°S 28.58000°E / -20.17000; 28.58000 Coordinates: 20°10′12″S28°34′48″E / 20.17000°S 28.58000°E / -20.17000; 28.58000
Country Zimbabwe
Province Bulawayo
District City of Bulawayo
Settled1840
Incorporated (town)1897
Incorporated (city)1943
Divisions
 
4 Districts, 29 Wards, 156 Suburbs
Government
  Type Provincial Municipality
   Mayor Solomon Mguni MDC-T
Area
  City and Province 1,706.8 km2 (659.0 sq mi)
  Water129.3 km2 (49.9 sq mi)
  Urban
993.5 km2 (383.6 sq mi)
  Metro
1,706.8 km2 (659.0 sq mi)
Elevation
[1]
1,358 m (4,455 ft)
Population
 (2016)
  City and Province 1,200,337
  Density700/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
   Urban
1,205,675
  Urban density2,305/km2 (5,970/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+2 (CAT)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (not observed)
Area code(s) 029
HDI (2018)0.670 [2]
medium · 1st
Website citybyo.co.zw

Bulawayo (/ˌbʊləˈwɑjoʊ, -ˈweɪəʊ/; [3] Ndebele: Bulawayo) is the second largest city in Zimbabwe, and the largest city in the country's Matabeleland. The city's population is disputed; the 2012 census listed it at 653,337, while the Bulawayo City Council claimed it to be about 1.2 million. Bulawayo covers an area of about 1,707 square kilometres (659 square miles) in the western part of the country, along the Matsheumhlope River. Along with the capital Harare, Bulawayo is one of two cities in Zimbabwe that is also a province.

Contents

Bulawayo was founded around 1840 as the kraal of Mzilikazi, the Ndebele king. His son, Lobengula, succeeded him in the 1860s, and ruled from Bulawayo until 1893, when the settlement was captured by British South Africa Company soldiers during the First Matabele War. That year, the first white settlers arrived and rebuilt the town. The town was besieged by Ndebele warriors during the Second Matabele War. Bulawayo attained municipality status in 1897, and city status in 1943.

Historically, Bulawayo has been the principal industrial center of Zimbabwe; its factories produce cars and car products, building materials, electronic products, textiles, furniture, and food products. Bulawayo is also the hub of Zimbabwe's rail network and the headquarters of the National Railways of Zimbabwe. In recent years, the city's economy has struggled, as many factories either closed or moved operations to Harare. Still, Bulawayo has the highest Human Development Index in the country, at 0.649 as of 2017.

Bulawayo's central business district (CBD) covers 5.4 km2 (2 18 sq mi) in the heart of the city, and is surrounded by numerous suburbs towards the outskirts. The majority of the city's population belong to the Ndebele people, with minorities of Shona and other groups. Bulawayo is home to over a dozen colleges and universities, most notably the National University of Science and Technology, Bulawayo Polytechic College Bulawayo Polytechnic, Zimbabwe School of Mines, United College of Education to name but a few. The Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, formerly the National Museum, is located in Bulawayo. The city is in close proximity to tourist sites such as Matobo National Park and the Khami World Heritage Site.

History

The principal street in Bulawayo in 1905. PSM V68 D156 The principal street in bulawayo.png
The principal street in Bulawayo in 1905.
Bulawayo in 1976. Bulawayo, Rhodesia -- 1976.jpg
Bulawayo in 1976.

The city was founded by the Ndebele king, Lobhengula, the son of King Mzilikazi, born of Matshobana, who settled in modern-day Zimbabwe around the 1840s. This followed the Ndebele people's great trek from northern Kwazulu. The name Bulawayo comes from the Ndebele word bulala and it translates to "the one to be killed". It is thought that, at the time of the formation of the city, there was a civil war. Mbiko Masuku, a trusted confident of King Mzilikazi and leader of the Zwangendaba regiment fought Prince Lobengula as he did not believe that he was the legitimate heir to the throne. This was because Lobhengula was born to a Swazi mother and Mbiko ka Madlenya Masuku felt that she was of a lesser class. He named his capital "the place of the one to be killed".

At the time Lobengula, was a prince fighting to ascend to the throne of his father Mzilikazi. It was common at the time for people to refer to Bulawayo as "Bulawayo UmntwaneNkosi", "a place where they are fighting or rising against the prince". The city of Bulawayo coincidentally has a similar name as the capital of the great Zulu warrior king Shaka ka Senzangakhona in Kwazulu, where Mzilikazi and his Khumalo clan and other Nguni people came from.

In the 1860s, the city was influenced by European intrigue. Many colonial powers cast covetous eyes on Bulawayo and the land surrounding it because of its strategic location. Britain made skillful use of private initiative in the shape of Cecil Rhodes and the Chartered Company to disarm the suspicion of her rivals. Lobengula once described Britain as a chameleon and himself as the fly. [4]

During the 1893 Matabele War, British South Africa Company troops invaded and forced King Lobengula to evacuate his followers, after first detonating munitions and setting fire to the town. [5] BSAC troops and white settlers occupied the ruins. On 4 November 1893, Leander Starr Jameson declared Bulawayo a settlement under the rule of the British South Africa Company. Cecil Rhodes ordered the new settlement to be founded on the ruins of Lobengula's royal kraal, a typical action by a conquering power. This is where the State House stands today. [6]

In 1897, the new town of Bulawayo acquired the status of municipality in the British colonial system, and Lt. Col. Harry White was appointed as one of the first mayors. [6] [7]

Siege

At the outbreak of the Second Matabele War, in March 1896, Bulawayo was besieged by Ndebele forces. The settlers established a laager here for defensive purposes. The Ndebele had suffered the brutal effectiveness of the British Maxim guns in the First Matabele War, so they never mounted a significant attack against Bulawayo, although over 10,000 Ndebele warriors gathered to surround the town. Rather than wait passively for attack, the settlers mounted patrols, called the Bulawayo Field Force, under Frederick Selous and Frederick Russell Burnham. These patrols rode out to rescue any surviving settlers in the countryside and attacked the Ndebele. In the first week of fighting, 20 men of the Bulawayo Field Force were killed and 50 were wounded. An unknown number of Ndebele were killed and wounded.

During the siege, conditions in Bulawayo quickly deteriorated. By day, settlers could go to homes and buildings in the town, but at night they were forced to seek shelter in the much smaller laager. Nearly 1,000 women and children were crowded into the small area and false alarms of attacks were common. The Ndebele neglected to cut the telegraph lines connecting Bulawayo to Mafikeng. The settlers and forces appealed for relief, and the British sent additional troops from Salisbury and Fort Victoria (now Harare and Masvingo respectively) 500 kilometres (300 miles) to the north, and from Kimberley and Mafeking 1,000 km (600 mi) to the south. Once the relief forces arrived in late May 1896, the siege was broken. An estimated 50,000 Ndebele retreated into their stronghold of the Matobo Hills near Bulawayo. Not until October 1896 did the Ndebele finally surrender their arms to the invaders.

Modern city

In 1943, Bulawayo received city status.

Since the late 20th century, Bulawayo has suffered a sharp fall in living standards coinciding with the severe economic crisis affecting the country. The main problems include poor investment, reluctance by government to improve infrastructure, and the effects of corruption and nepotism. Most of the original dwellers of the city and their descendants have migrated south to neighbouring South Africa. Since 1992 water shortages, due to lack of expansion in facilities and supplies, have become steadily more acute. Cholera broke out in 2008. Though the city is the centre of the southern population generally categorized as the Matebele, the population includes ethnicities from all over the country.

The Central Business District has the widest roads. These were designed to accommodate the carts that were used as a primary means of transport when the town was planned and erected.

Bulawayo is nicknamed the "City of Kings" or "kontuthu ziyathunqa"—a Ndebele phrase for "smoke arising". This name arose from the city's historically large industrial base. The large cooling towers of the coal-powered electricity generating plant situated in the city centre once used to exhaust steam and smoke over the city. [8] The majority of Bulawayo's population belongs to the Ndebele ethnic and language group (otherwise known as Northern Ndebele). [9]

Suburbs


NoSuburb/locationOrigin of name
1AscotAdjoining the Bulawayo Ascot race-course
2BarbourfieldsThe suburb was named after a former mayor, H. R. Barbour, who during the colonial era was greatly interested in the welfare of the indigenous people. [10] There is a place called Barbour in Argyll & Bute. Barbour is a Scottish family name, though it was apparently first recorded on the English side of the border, in Cumberland and Northumberland. The father of Scottish vernacular poetry, John Barbour (1320–1395), is best remembered for his epic poem "The Brus", telling the story of King Robert I. The origin of the name is occupational (a cutter of hair as well as an extractor of teeth during the Middle Ages).
3Barham GreenThe suburb was named after two people. The first was a former Bulawayo City Councillor (who later became an Alderman) Mrs. M. E. Barham, M.B.E. and the other was Rev. Rufus Green. They were critical in the establishment of this suburb. During the colonial Rhodesia era, it was designated for the Coloured community.
4Beacon HillAlso known as Beryl Drive, reference is made to fact that it is the high point of the suburbs and possesses the areas with the highest marking beacon at its summit.
5BellevueThe suburb was named after the estate name.[ clarification needed ] It is sometimes spelled Belle Vue, and derives from the French meaning "beautiful view".[ citation needed ]
6Belmont
7Belmont Industrial AreaThe area was named after a former Bulawayo City Engineer, Mr. Kinmont.
8BradfieldThe suburb was named after Edwin Eugene Bradfield, a pioneer.
9BurnsideThis area used to be a portion of former town council area and used to be part of Matsheumhlope Farms. The name is derived from the reference to the River Matsheumhlophe. "Burn" is a Scottish and northern English word for a stream.
10CementThis was named after the surrounding industrial area, responsible for the making of cement.
11Cowdray Park
12Donnington
13Donnington West
14DouglasdaleThe Douglas family, descendants of William de Douglas (late 12th century), was one of the most powerful in Scotland.
15Eloana
16EmakhandeniEmakhandeni is the isiNdebele name for Fort Rixon, which was the area where the regiment aMakhanda were located. eMakhandeni is the locative term.
17EmganwiniReference is made to the plentiful amarula trees in the vicinity.
18Enqameni
19Enqotsheni
20EntumbaneThis is where King Mzilikazi was buried. It is one of the dozens of high-density suburbs of Bulawayo, commonly referred to as the "Western Suburbs". The first disturbances that led to the Gukurahundi were sparked in Entumbane, hence the term "Impi ye Ntumbane" that refers to the disturbances.
21Fagadola
22FamonaThe suburb was named after Famona, one of the daughters of King Lobengula. It means jealousy or envy must end (literally, "die").
23Fortunes Gate (including Mtaba Moya)The suburb's name comes from the original property name, and the gates are those of the original market building.
24Four WindsThe suburb name comes from the original property name; the first house was on top of a hill.
25GlencoeThis name is etched into the Scottish psyche as the bleak glen in the Highlands where, in 1692, a party of MacDonald men, women, and children were treacherously massacred by the Campbells, who were acting under government orders.
26GlengaryThe suburb was named after its estate name.
27Glenville (including Richmond South)The suburb was named after its estate name.
28Granite Park
29GreenhillThe suburb's name is a reference to scenery and topography.
30GwabalandaNamed after a Ndebele chief, Gwabalanda Mathe.
31Harrisvale
32Helenvale
33Highmount
34HillcrestThe suburb's name comes from the reference to topography. It is Greenhill's crest.
35HillsideThe suburb's name is a reference to topography (Greenhill's slope).
36Hillside SouthThe suburb's name comes from its position as the south facing slope of Greenhill.
37Hume Park"Hume"/"Home" is a Lowland Scottish family name.
38Hyde ParkThe name originates from the large number of residents who trace their ancestry to England.
39IlandaNdebele name for the egret
40IminyelaThis is the name of a type of tree common in the area.
41IntiniThe name was given as a commemoration to the Mhlanga family, who originally set out with the Khumalo family under Mzilikazi as gratitude to their contribution to the Ndebele Kingdom, Mthwakazi. The Ntini is the totem of the Mhlanga-Mabuya clan.
42JacarandaThis is a reference to the jacaranda trees.
43Kelvin (Industrial area, includes North East and West)The area was named in reference to a suburb of Glasgow. It takes its name from the River Kelvin, a tributary of the River Clyde.
44KenilworthThe suburb was named after its estate name.
45KhumaloThe suburb was named after the Royal Clan of the Matabele. The Khumalo hockey stadium is here.
46Khumalo NorthThis is a reference to the position of Kumalo suburb.
47Kilallo
48 Killarney
49Kingsdale
50LakesideLakeside is the stretch of water at the junction of the Old Essexvale Road and the road to the suburb of Waterford, and then on to Hope Fountain Mission.
51LobengulaIt is named after the second and last Matabele King, Lobengula.
52LobenvaleThe suburb's name is derived from a combination of King Lobengula's name and Umguza Valley.
53LochviewThe suburb's name is in reference to Lakeside Dam and is famous in the city for its large Scottish residents and the Scottish style houses. According to the Bulawayo City Suburb Names website, the suburb was named in reference to Lakeside Dam.
54LuveveNamed after Ndebele chief Luveve; established in 1935
55MabuthweniThe suburb's name means "where the soldiers are"; the name was given in reference to a bachelors' quarters.
56MagwegweThe suburb name is named after Magwegwe, who was one of the significant people in King Lobengula's royal Bulawayo town.
57Magwegwe NorthThis is a reference to the position relative to that of Magwegwe.
58Magwegwe WestThis is a reference to the position relative to that of Magwegwe.
59MahatshulaMahatshula is named after one of the Ndebele Indunas, Mahatshula Ndiweni.
60 Makokoba The suburb got its name from the actions of Mr. Fallon, who used walk around with a stick. The name comes from the word "umakhokhoba" which was how the locals referred to Fallon, meaning "the little old man who walks with a stick". The word actually describes the noise of the stick on the ground, ko-ko-ko, or the doors. It is the oldest African dwelling in the city. Political activism was rife in the pre-ZAPU era.
61MalindelaThe suburb was named after the mother of Faluta, who was the mother of Lobengula, i.e., after Lobengula's maternal grandmother.
62ManningdaleIt is named after the developer of the suburb.
63Marlands
64MatsheumhlopeThe name comes from the association with the river ("White Stones"). White stones in Ndebele and Zulu proper languages are "amatshe amhlope".
65MatshobanaThe suburb was named after Matshobana, who was a chief of the Khumalo clan and more significantly he was the father of Mzilikazi, the founder of the Ndebele Kingdom.
66MontgomeryIt is named after Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, a decorated British Army commander.
67MontroseThe suburb was named by the estate developers, and street names are of many Cotswolds villages and towns.
68Morningside
69MpopomaThe name comes from a descriptive Ndebele name for the area, which was derived from the sound the Mpopoma River makes when flowing.
70MundaThe Tonga name for a plot of land on which people would farm
71MzilikaziThe suburb was named after the founder of uMthwakazi, King Mzilikazi. It is a stone's throw away from Barbourfields suburb, separated by a road called Ambulance Drive that leads to one of the city's largest hospitals, Mpilo.
72New LuveveReference is made to the suburb Luveve; see Luveve suburb.
73Newsmansford
74NewtonEstate name
75Newton WestReference to position (Newton)
76NguboyenjaNamed after Lobengula's son and heir
77NjubeNamed after one of Lobengula's sons
78 Nketa It is named after the traditional heritage site of Nketa Hill on which King Lobengula assembled his entire kingdom and in the spirit of nation building, chose a Kalanga wife, MaDumane or Ma Mlalazi and married her. This was against the advise from his Khumalo or Zansi advisers. He then told them that the Kalanga where more than the Khumalos, Ngunis and other clans who came from south of the Limpopo. He stated that it was then important that the broader Mthwakazi society must be inclussive of everyone and it was high time the Kalanga had a Queen from their own clan. At that stage Mthwakazi was divided into 3 subgroups : the Zansi - the people that Mzilikazi left Kwazulu with, mostly the Khumalo and Ndwandwe clans, : the Enhla - mostly Swazi, Ndebele (Mabhena, Mahlangu etc) and Sotho (Sibanda/Batau, Ngwenya/Bakwena etc) tribes from central Transvaal in South Africa and : the Hole - these were the Kalanga and Lozwi (Moyo, Tshuma, Nleya etc) people Mzilikazi found in this area. The division was done mostly for security reasons and the Khumalo royal family had to maintain that to ensure they preserve royalty.
79NkulumaneOne of the sons of King Mzilikazi and heir, founder of the Matebele kingdom
80North EndReference to the direction of the suburb
81North Lynne
82North TrenanceReference to position relative to that of Trenance
83Northlea
84NorthvaleFormer town council area; reference to position and (Umguza) valley
85Ntaba Moyo
86Orange Grove
87PaddonhurstNamed after Major Cecil Paddon, O.B.E. (pioneer)
88ParklandsEstate name; Park Lands estate A (portion of original grant to Dominican Sisters)
89ParkviewSituated on the location adjacent to the Centenary Park and proposed location of Bulawayo Zoo
90 Phelandaba Phelandaba translates as "the matter is concluded", a reference to the successful conclusion to the struggle for security.
91PhumulaPhumula means "a resting place", reference to the fact that many have built homes there to retire to.
92Phumula SouthNamed in reference to relative position of Pumula
93Queens ParkA reference to the Queen and the three main roads – Victoria, Alexandra and Elizabeth
94Queens Park EastA reference to the position relative to that of Queen Park
95Queens Park WestA reference to the position relative to that of Queen Park
96Queensdale
97RangemoreThe suburb adopted the original estate name.
98RayltonThe suburb adopted the original estate name.
99Richmond
100RiversideDerived from the original estate name, which was in reference to the Umguza River
101Romney ParkThe suburb was named after George Romney, a British painter.
102SauerstownNamed after Dr. Han Sauer the owner of the land.
103Selbourne ParkNamed after the main road of Selbourne Avenue, now called L. Takawira Avenue, facing Ascot Mansions
104SizindaBattle regiment of Mzilikazi of the Matabele
105Southdale
106SouththwoldThe suburb was named by the estate developers, and street names are of many Cotswolds villages and towns.
107SteeldaleComposite name referring to industry
108SuburbsThis was the first suburb in Bulawayo and retained that name. The suburb has many tree-lined avenues and is where the Centenary Park, Natural History Museum and the Bulawayo Athletic Club are found.
109SunninghillAfter British royal residence (given to present Queen at time of marriage)
110SunnysideChosen from list of suggested names
111TegelaThe name is derived from a Ndebele word ukwethekela meaning "to visit".
112The Jungle
113ThorngroveThe suburb's name came from the large number of mimosa (thorn) trees in the area.
114Trenance
115TshabalalaThis is the "isibongo" or praise name for Lobengula's mother, Fulata, who was of Swazi extraction.
116Tshabalala ExtensionExtension in reference to the suburb of Tshabalala
117Umguza EstateNamed after the Umguza River which runs through it
118Upper RangemoreName in reference to Rangemore suburb
119Waterford
120Waterlea
121West Somerton
122Westgate
123Westondale
124Willsgrove
125Windsor ParkNamed after English town or Guildford Castle grounds
126WoodlandsChosen from a list of suggested names
127Woodville
128Woodville Park
Retained the old estate name. [11] [12]
Bougainvillea outside a Bulawayo home Bougainvillea, Bulawayo.jpg
Bougainvillea outside a Bulawayo home

Topography

The city sits on a plain that marks the Highveld of Zimbabwe and is close to the watershed between the Zambezi and Limpopo drainage basins. The land slopes gently downwards to the north and northwest. The southern side is hillier, and the land becomes more broken in the direction of the Matobo Hills to the south.

Petrea flower in a garden in Bulawayo Petrea flowers, Bulawayo.jpg
Petrea flower in a garden in Bulawayo

Climate

Due to its relatively high altitude, the city has a humid subtropical climate despite lying in the tropics. Under the Köppen climate classification, Bulawayo features a semiarid climate (BSh). The mean annual temperature is 19.16 °C (66.49 °F), [13] similar to Pretoria at a similar altitude but almost 600 km (373 mi) further south. As with much of southern and eastern Zimbabwe, Bulawayo is cooled by a prevailing southeasterly airflow most of the year and experiences three broad seasons: a dry, cool winter season from May to August; a hot dry period in early summer from late August to early November; and a warm wet period in the rest of the summer, early November to April.

The hottest month is October, which is usually the height of the dry season. The average maximum temperature ranges from 21 °C (70 °F) in July to 30 °C (86 °F) in October. During the rainy season, daytime maxima are around 26 °C (79 °F). Nights are always cool, ranging from 8 °C (46 °F) in July to 16 °C (61 °F) in January.

The city's average annual rainfall is 594 mm (23 38 in), which supports a natural vegetation of open woodland, dominated by Combretum and Terminalia trees. Most rain falls in the December to February period, while June to August is usually rainless. Being close to the Kalahari Desert, Bulawayo is vulnerable to droughts and rainfall tends to vary sharply from one year to another. In 1978, 888 mm (35 in) of rain fell in the three months up to February (February 1944 is the wettest month on record with 368mm) while in the three months ending February 1983, only 84 mm (3 14 in) fell.

Climate data for Bulawayo
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)36.7
(98.1)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.0
(91.4)
30.6
(87.1)
28.3
(82.9)
28.3
(82.9)
32.2
(90.0)
35.0
(95.0)
36.7
(98.1)
37.2
(99.0)
35.2
(95.4)
37.2
(99.0)
Average high °C (°F)27.7
(81.9)
27.2
(81.0)
27.1
(80.8)
25.9
(78.6)
24.1
(75.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
24.4
(75.9)
27.9
(82.2)
29.4
(84.9)
28.7
(83.7)
27.7
(81.9)
26.1
(79.0)
Daily mean °C (°F)21.8
(71.2)
21.2
(70.2)
20.6
(69.1)
18.7
(65.7)
16.0
(60.8)
13.7
(56.7)
13.8
(56.8)
16.4
(61.5)
19.9
(67.8)
21.6
(70.9)
21.7
(71.1)
21.4
(70.5)
18.9
(66.0)
Average low °C (°F)16.5
(61.7)
16.2
(61.2)
15.3
(59.5)
13.0
(55.4)
9.9
(49.8)
7.4
(45.3)
7.2
(45.0)
9.1
(48.4)
12.4
(54.3)
15.0
(59.0)
16.0
(60.8)
16.3
(61.3)
12.9
(55.2)
Record low °C (°F)10.0
(50.0)
9.4
(48.9)
8.4
(47.1)
3.5
(38.3)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
0.0
(32.0)
0.0
(32.0)
1.4
(34.5)
6.9
(44.4)
7.2
(45.0)
8.9
(48.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches)117.8
(4.64)
104.6
(4.12)
51.4
(2.02)
33.3
(1.31)
7.0
(0.28)
2.2
(0.09)
1.0
(0.04)
1.4
(0.06)
7.0
(0.28)
38.4
(1.51)
91.1
(3.59)
120.3
(4.74)
575.5
(22.66)
Average rainy days1085311001481051
Average relative humidity (%)69717062565448434143556356
Mean monthly sunshine hours 244.9212.8251.1252.0279.0267.0288.3300.7288.0272.8237.0226.33,119.9
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.97.68.18.49.08.99.39.79.68.87.97.38.5
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization [14] NOAA (sun and mean temperature, 1961–1990) [15]
Source 2: Deutscher Wetterdienst (extremes and humidity) [16]

Water supply

Bulawayo has good-quality tap water owing to the management of the water authorities, meeting international standards. Bulawayo does not recycle waste water but uses treated waste water for irrigation.

Bulawayo experiences water shortages in drought seasons due to the overwhelming increase in population versus the static and sometimes decreasing capacity of the reserve dams. The geographical factors causing water scarcity are rising temperatures, the area's high elevation and the arid environment of Matabeleland. Bulawayo provides residents with water by using a system of dams, treatment plants, and reservoirs.

Environmental and sanitation circumstances have detrimental effects on water quality. Sources such as groundwater and tap water are subject to pollution due to waste from burst sewers contaminating them. Samples taken from well water from the Pumula and Robert Sinyoka suburbs show that well water maintain levels of coliform higher than the Standards Association of Zimbabwe and World Health Organization give. [17] [18]

Demographics

Population census controversy

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1982 413,814    
1992 620,936+50.1%
2002 676,650+9.0%
2012 653,337−3.4%
Source: Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT)

The population of Bulawayo, according to the 2012 national census, stood at 653,337; [19] however, this figure has been rejected by the Bulawayo City Council authority with Councillor Martin Moyo claiming an anti-Bulawayo conspiracy to under-fund projects in the city. [20] [21]

The population of the city according to metropolitan council sources is closer to 1.5 million and a more closer and estimated figure being 1.2 million.[ citation needed ] Reports have alluded to the de-industrialization of the city as the reason for its population decline, a claim which was rubbished as council officials referred to the fact that, in 1992 the city's population stood at 620,936. It had grown in the number of households due to urban expansion. City authorities also laid claim to the fact that the current water challenges facing the city were a result of an increasing population despite its economic challenges.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups in Bulawayo City (2012 Census) [19]
Ethnic Groupspercent
Black
97.96%
Coloured
1.0%
White
0.75%
Asian
0.12%
Other
0.02%
Not Stated
0.14%

The vast majority of Bulawayo City residents were Black African with 97.96%. Other ethnic groups in the city were Coloured (0.9%), White (0.75%), Asian (0.22%). Members of other ethnic groups comprised 0.02%, and 0.14% of the city did not state their ethnic group.

Economy

Bulawayo was known as the industrial hub of Zimbabwe. This has led to the Zimbabwe International Trade Fair being hosted in Bulawayo. It had a large manufacturing presence with large industries based here before Zimbabwe's economic decline. However, some of these companies have either moved operations to Harare or have closed down — which has crippled Bulawayo's economy. Most factories are deserted and the infrastructure has since been left to deteriorate. The reason for the de-industrialization has largely been political, with some factories like Goldstar Sugars removing machinery to open new factories in Harare. When the Zimbabwean government passed indigenisation laws, some successful businesses were taken over by ZANU-PF supporters, only to close down a fews years later.

Many locals argue that it is because of marginalisation they experience against the government due to political tensions with the ZANU PF government in Harare and the MDC run Bulawayo council, for instance, the National railways of Zimbabwe (headquarters in Bulawayo) is a government owned entity and, as such, should have been thriving had it not been for embezzlement of funds by company executives who are believed to be Shona. The water issue is not new and had brought about the "help a thirsty Matabele" initiative of the 1970s and the Matabeleland Zambezi Water Project which would put an end to the water issue in Matabeleland was drafted; however, this project was put on hold soon after independence. [22]

These allegations have all been refuted by national authorities. The city still contains the bulk of Zimbabwe's heavy industry and food processing capability. This includes a thermal power station that resumed operations in February 2011 after a capitalisation deal with the Government of Botswana where Bulawayo would supply 45 megawatts in three years.

Like many parts of the country, Bulawayo has for the past ten years[ when? ] seen a huge drop in service delivery and an increase in unemployment, with many who can opting to seek better prospects abroad. Many people resorted to farming, mining, and the black market for sustenance, while others depended on the little foreign currency that would be sent by family in other countries. However, with inauguration of the Mnangagwa government, a new approach is seen by investors in the city who admire the already-available infrastructure; the huge workforce; and Bulawayo as a potential business hub. [23] It is set to once again contribute greatly to the economy of Zimbabwe.

The city is served by Joshua Mqabuko Nkomo International Airport and the other international airport in the region being the Victoria Falls International Airport. Bulawayo is the capital of the bigger Matabeleland province which is arguable Zimbabwe's tourism paradise. Matabeleland boosts of Victoria Falls, Matopo National Park, Hwange National Park, Khami Ruins and a bigger share of Lake Kariba. The city is located within an excellent road and rail transport network linking the region to South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique.

The Bulawayo Centre Bulawayo Centre.jpg
The Bulawayo Centre

Important buildings and infrastructure

The Nesbitt Castle, Bulawayo Nesbittcastle2.jpg
The Nesbitt Castle, Bulawayo

These include:

Government

Bulawayo is governed by the Bulawayo City Council, which is headed by the Mayor of Bulawayo.

Bulawayo City Council

Bulawayo City Council Offices Bulawayo city council headquarters.jpg
Bulawayo City Council Offices

Controlled by the main opposition party MDC-T, the council has managed to stand out as the leading municipality in Zimbabwe in service delivery to its residents, through campaigns engineered by the city council such as the #mycitymypride campaign and #keepbyoclean on social media. These have been met with positive responses by residents and other stakeholders in the city. In recent years, Bulawayo has been widely perceived as the cleanest city in Zimbabwe due to the council's effective waste management strategy.[ citation needed ]

In 2015 the city of Bulawayo was praised for its town planning that, unlike major urban areas such as Harare and Chitungwiza, has not been marred by corruption and problems such as illegal settlements.[ citation needed ]

Culture

Centenary Park Centinary Park.jpg
Centenary Park

Museums

Bulawayo has museums of national importance, including the Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe, National Gallery, Bulawayo and the Bulawayo Railway Museum.

Parks

There are a number of parks in Bulawayo, including

Geography

Bulawayo is located in the south west of Zimbabwe. It is in the middle of the savanna country. It has 4 seasons with rains starting in late October to about March. Coldest months being May and June with July being cold and windy. [24]

Sports

Opening ceremony of the African Olympic Hockey Qualifiers 2011, Khumalo Hockey Stadium Opening ceremony of the African Olympic Hockey Qualifiers 2011.JPG
Opening ceremony of the African Olympic Hockey Qualifiers 2011, Khumalo Hockey Stadium

Bulawayo is home to the Queens Sports Club and Bulawayo Athletic Club, two of the three grounds in Zimbabwe where test match cricket has been played.

Bulawayo Golf Club, the first golf club in the city and country was established in 1895. The Matsheumhlope Stream cuts through the 18 hole course in the suburbs.

It is home to Hartsfield Rugby grounds where many international Test matches have been played. Hartsfield was developed by Reg Hart, after whom the grounds were named and on which field many of southern Africa's greatest rugby players have competed. It is home to two large football teams: Highlanders and Zimbabwe Saints. Other football teams include Bantu Rovers, Chicken Inn, How Mine, Quelaton, and Bulawayo City (R).

Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe Natural History Museum Zimbabwe Bulawayo.jpg
Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe

Other important sporting and recreational facilities include

Infrastructure

Transport

14A class Engine no 515 on Ash Spur shunt, Bulawayo Station NRZ 14A class no 515.jpg
14A class Engine no 515 on Ash Spur shunt, Bulawayo Station

The city has a total road network of about 2,100 kilometres; 70 percent was declared in 2017 in a poor condition. [25] The R2 road links Bulawayo with the Capital Harare, and the Cape to Cairo Road links with the Gaborone and Lusaka.

The Bulawayo railway station is the central point of the railway line that connects the cities of Lusaka and Gaborone (part of the Cape to Cairo Railway), as well as being the terminal of the Beira–Bulawayo railway, which connects with the cities of Gweru, Harare, Mutare and Beira. [26] Through the station in the outskirts of Umzingwane, the city of Bulawayo is connected to the Beitbridge Bulawayo Railway.

On the 1 November 2013, a new terminal of Joshua Mqabuko Nkomo International Airport, formerly known as Bulawayo Airport, was opened. [27]

Healthcare

Bulawayo is home to a large number of hospitals and other medical facilities. The United Bulawayo Hospitals, a public hospital network, operates Bulawayo Central Hospital, Richard Morris Hospital, Lady Rodwell Maternity Hospital, and Robbie Gibson Infectious Diseases Hospital. [28] Mpilo Central Hospital, is the largest hospital in Bulawayo, and the second-largest in Zimbabwe, and features a nursing school and midwifery school on its campus. Bulawayo is also home to Ingutsheni Hospital, which at 700 beds is the largest psychiatric hospital in Zimbabwe. Other hospitals in Bulawayo include All Saints Children's Hospital, Hillside Hospital, Mater Dei Hospital, the Nervous Disorders Hospital, St Francis Hospital and Thorngrove Isolation Hospital.

Education

In Bulawayo, there are 128 primary and 48 secondary schools. [29]

Primary schools

No.School Name
1.Amaswazi Primary School
2.Amaveni Primary School
3.Babambeni Primary School
4.Baines Infant School
5.Baines Junior
6.Barham Green Primary School
7.Carmel Primary School
8. Coghlan Primary School
9. Dominican Convent Primary School, Bulawayo
10.Dumezweni Primary School
11.Emakhandeni Primary School
12.Fairbridge Primary School
13.Fusi Primary School
14.Gampu Primary School
15.Godlwayo Primary School
16.Helemu Primary School
17.Henry Low Primary School
18.Hillside Infant School
19.Hillside Junior School
20.HQ 1 Brigade Primary School
21.Hugh Beadle Primary School
22.Induba Primary School
23. Infant School
24.Ingubo Primary School
25.Ingwegwe Primary School
26.Inkanyezi Primary School
27.Insukamini Primary School
28.Intunta Primary School
29.Inzwananzi Primary School
30.John Slaven Primary School
31.Josiah Chinamano Primary School
32.King George VI Memorial School
33.Kumalo Primary School
34.Lobengula Primary School
35.Lobengula Primary School
36.Lochview Primary School
37.Losikeyi Primary School
38.Lotshe Primary School
39.Lukhanyiso Primary School
40.Luveve Primary School
41.Mabhukudwana Primary School
42.Mafakela Primary School
43.Mafela Primary School
44.Magwegwe Primary School
45.Mahlabezulu Primary School
46.Mahlathini Primary School
47.Malindela Primary School
48.Manondwana Primary School
49.Manyewu Primary School
50.Maphisa Primary School
12.Masiyephambili Junior School
51.Masuku Primary School
52.Maswazi Primary School
53.Matshayisikova Primary School
54.Mawaba Primary School
55.Mazwi Primary School
56.Mbizo Primary School
57.McKeurten Primary School
58.Mganwini Primary School
59.Mgiqika Primary School
60.Mgombane Primary School
61.Mhali Primary School
62.Milton Junior School
63.Mkhithika Primary School
64.Moray Primary School
65.Mpumelelo Primary School
66.Mthombowesizwe Primary School
67.Mtshane Primary School
68.Mtshede Primary School
69.Mtshingwe Primary School
70. Mzilikazi Primary School
71.Newmansford Primary School
72.Ngwalongwalo Primary School
73.Nketa Primary School
74.Nkulumane Primary School
75.Ntabeni Primary School
76.Ntshamathe Primary School
77.Nyamande Primary School
78.Petra Primary School
79.Phelandaba SDA Primary School
80.Queen Elizabeth II Primary School
81.Rangemore Primary School
82.Robert Tradgold Primary School
83.Rose Camp Primary School
84.Senzangakhona Primary School
86.Sigombe Primary School
87.St. Bernards R.C Primary School
88.St. Patricks R.C Primary School
89. St. Thomas Aquinas Primary School
90.Tategulu Primary School
91.Tennyson Primary School
92.Thembiso Primary School
93.Thomas Rudland Primary School
94.Trenance Primary School
95.Waterford Primary School
96. Whitestone School
97.Woodville Primary School
98.Zulukandaba Primary School

Secondary and high schools

Schools outside Bulawayo

Higher education

Bulawayo is home to a number of colleges and universities. The National University of Science and Technology, Zimbabwe, (NUST), the second largest university in Zimbabwe, was established in Bulawayo in 1991. [30] Solusi University, a Seventh-day Adventist institution established in Bulawayo in 1894, gained university status in 1994.

The Bulawayo Polytechnic College offers tertiary training for students who have completed GCE O Level and A Level education. It issues national certificates NC, Diplomas and higher national diplomas HND certificates. Bulawayo has two specialist teacher training colleges : Hillside Teachers College for secondary education and the United College of Education for primary education.

Bulawayo is home to a number of institutes of technology and vocational colleges, including Zimbabwe School of Mines, Westgate Industrial Training College, and the Zimbabwe Theological College. In addition companies such as the National Railways of Zimbabwe NRZ and Zimbabwe Electricity and Supply Authority ZESA offer apprenticeship training for qualifying students who then become certified artisans upon completion.

Media

Newspapers

The Chronicle, a state-owned daily newspaper, and its Sunday edition, The Sunday News, are published in Bulawayo. The Chronicle is the second-oldest newspaper in Zimbabwe, and along with The Herald, published in Harare, it is one of two major state-owned newspapers in the country. UMthunywa, a state-owned Ndebele-language newspaper, is also published in Bulawayo, where the majority of the population belongs to the Ndebele people. Private online publications like Bulawayo24 News and B-Metro are also based in Bulawayo.

Radio

The two radio stations, Skyz Metro FM, which is the first dedicated commercial radio station for the city and Khulumani FM, owned by the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation are based in the city and offer their programming mainly in English and Ndebele and other languages spoken in the Matabeleland region. The other 6 radio stations, in which only two of those are privately owned, are also accessible in the city via FM transmission.

Television

The state owned ZBC TV is the only free to air TV channel in the city. The majority of the households rely on the South African based satellite television distributor, DStv and OVHD for better entertainment, news and sport across Africa and the world.

Internet

There are a number of internet service providers in the city. The majority of the population in the city access the internet through their mobile phones mainly for news, entertainment and communication.

Notable people

International relations

Bulawayo has six sister cities:

See also

Related Research Articles

Matabeleland North Province Province in Zimbabwe

Matabeleland North is a province in western Zimbabwe. With a population of 749,017 as of the 2012 census, it is the country's second-least populous province, after Matabeleland South, and is the country's least densely populated province. Matabeleland North was established in 1974, when the original Matabeleland Province was divided into two provinces, the other being Matabeleland South. In 1997, the province lost territory when the city of Bulawayo became its own province. Matabeleland North is divided into seven districts. Its capital is Lupane, and Victoria Falls and Hwange are its largest towns. The name "Matabeleland" is derived from the Matabele or Ndebele people, the province's largest ethnic group.

Matabeleland South Province Province in Zimbabwe

Matabeleland South is a province in southwestern Zimbabwe. With a population of 683,893 as of the 2012 census, it is the country's least populous province. After Matabeleland North, it is Zimbabwe's second-least densely populated province. Matabeleland South was established in 1974, when the original Matabeleland Province was divided into two provinces, the other being Matabeleland North. The province is divided into six districts. Gwanda is the capital, and the Beitbridge is the province's largest town. The name "Matabeleland" is derived from Ndebele, the province's largest ethnic group.

Lobengula King of Matabeleland

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Matabeleland Place

Matabeleland is a region located in southwestern Zimbabwe that is divided into three provinces: Matabeleland North, Bulawayo,and Matabeleland South. These provinces are in the west and south-west of Zimbabwe, between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers and are further separated from Midlands by the Shangani River in central Zimbabwe. The region is named after its inhabitants, the Ndebele people who were called 'Matabele' by British as they failed to pronounce 'Ma Ndebele'. Other ethnic groups who inhabit parts of Matabeleland include the Tonga, Bakalanga, Venda, Nambya, Khoisan, Xhosa, Sotho, Tswana, and Shangaan. The population of Matabeleland is just over 20% of the Zimbabwe's total.

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See also: 1880s in Zimbabwe, 1900 in Zimbabwe and Years in Zimbabwe.

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Second Matabele War

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Stanlake John William Thompson Samkange (1922–1988) was a Zimbabwean historiographer, educationist, journalist, author, and African nationalist. He was a member of an elite Zimbabwean nationalist political dynasty and the most prolific of the first generation of black Zimbabwean creative writers in English.

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Lupane District

Lupane ( luːpɑːnɛ) District is located in the Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe and it is also the Capital of the Province. Situated at an elevation of 976 m with a population of 198,600 inhabitants by 2019. The Lupane Town is located 172 km along the Victoria Falls Road from Bulawayo where the Government Provincial Administrative offices are located. A new university has been established under the name Lupane State University, which caters for the region and beyond. The word Lupane is a Kalanga or Lozwi word.

Military history of Zimbabwe

The military history of Zimbabwe chronicles a vast time period and complex events from the dawn of history until the present time. It covers invasions of native peoples of Africa, encroachment by Europeans, and civil conflict.

White people first came to the region in southern Africa today called Zimbabwe in the sixteenth century, when Portuguese colonials ventured inland from Mozambique and attacked the Kingdom of Mutapa, which then controlled an area roughly equivalent to eastern Zimbabwe and western Mozambique. Portuguese influence over Mutapa endured for about two centuries before fading away during the 1690s and early-1700s (decade). During the year of 1685, French Huguenots emigrated to present-day South Africa and whilst some settled there, others moved further north into the continent. Those who did, settled within modern-day Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Botswana, and co-existed with the indigenous people; most of whom, in Zimbabwe, were the Naletale people.

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Company rule in Rhodesia

The British South Africa Company's administration of what became Rhodesia was chartered in 1889 by Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and began with the Pioneer Column's march north-east to Mashonaland and conquered it without any resistance in 1890. Empowered by its charter to acquire, govern and develop the area north of the Transvaal in southern Africa, the Company, headed by Cecil Rhodes, raised its own armed forces and carved out a huge bloc of territory through treaties, concessions and occasional military action, most prominently overcoming the powerful Matabele's army in the First and Second Matabele Wars of the 1893 and 1896 which led to Mthwakazi's kingdom being conquered by conquest and its territory losing sovereignty status to terrorists. By the turn of the century, Rhodes's Company held a vast, land-locked country, bisected by the Zambezi river. It officially named this land Rhodesia in 1895, and ran it until the early 1920s.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

The House of Khumalo is the reigning Royal Family of the former Mthwakazi Kingdom. The Mthwakazi Kingdom was founded in 1823 by Mzilikazi kaMatshobana. While the Mthwakazi Kingdom ended in 1894 with the First Matabele War, The house has endured to the present day.

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