Campbelltown, New South Wales

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Campbelltown
Sydney,  New South Wales
Campbelltown centre street.JPG
Queen Street in Campbelltown
Australia New South Wales relief location map.png
Red pog.svg
Campbelltown
Location in New South Wales
Coordinates 34°3′54″S150°48′51″E / 34.06500°S 150.81417°E / -34.06500; 150.81417 Coordinates: 34°3′54″S150°48′51″E / 34.06500°S 150.81417°E / -34.06500; 150.81417
Population12,566 (2016 census) [1]
Established1820
Postcode(s) 2560
Location42 km (26 mi) south-west of Sydney CBD
LGA(s) Campbelltown
Region Metropolitan Sydney, Macarthur, New South Wales
State electorate(s) Campbelltown
Federal Division(s) Macarthur
Localities around Campbelltown:
Blair Athol Woodbine Woodbine
Mount Annan Campbelltown Ruse
Glen Alpine Ambarvale Bradbury

Campbelltown is a suburb and major town centre in the metropolitan area of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is located in Greater Western Sydney 42 kilometres (26 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district. Campbelltown is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Campbelltown. It is also acknowledged on the register of the Geographical Names Board of New South Wales as one of only four cities within the Sydney metropolitan area. [2]

Suburbs and localities are the names of geographic subdivisions in Australia, used mainly for address purposes. The term locality is used in rural areas, while the term suburb is used in urban areas. Australian postcodes closely align with the boundaries of localities and suburbs.

Sydney City in New South Wales, Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,131,326, and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

New South Wales state of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In March 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 7.9 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Contents

Campbelltown gets its name from Elizabeth Campbell, [3] the wife of former Governor of New South Wales Lachlan Macquarie. Originally called Campbell-Town, the name was later simplified to the current Campbelltown. [4]

Elizabeth Macquarie was the second wife of Lachlan Macquarie, who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821. She played a significant role in the establishment of the colony and is recognised in the naming of many Australian landmarks including Mrs Macquarie's Chair and Elizabeth Street, Hobart. Governor Macquarie named the town of Campbelltown, NSW after his wife's maiden name and a statue of her now stands in Mawson Park, Campbelltown.

Governor of New South Wales vice-regal representative of the Australian monarch in New South Wales

The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governors of the Australian states perform constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level. The governor is appointed by the queen on the advice of the premier of New South Wales, for an unfixed period of time—known as serving At Her Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the norm. The current governor is retired General David Hurley, who succeeded Dame Marie Bashir on 2 October 2014.

Lachlan Macquarie Scottish British army officer and New South Wales colonial administrator

Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth and last autocratic Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century.

History

The area that later became Campbelltown was inhabited prior to European settlement by the Tharawal people. Not long after the arrival of the First Fleet in Sydney in 1788, a small herd of six cattle escaped and weren't seen again by the British settlers for seven years. They were spotted, however, by the Tharawal people. In a rock art site called Bull Cave near Campbelltown, they drew a number of cattle with pronounced horns. The Tharawal described the cattle to British explorers and in 1795 the British found a herd of around 60 cattle grazing in the area now known as Camden. [5] [6]

The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies.

First Fleet 11 ships that left Great Britain to found the penal colony in Australia

The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The Fleet consisted of two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships and six convict transports, carrying between 1,000 and 1,500 convicts, marines, seamen, civil officers and free people, and a large quantity of stores. From England, the Fleet sailed southwest to Rio de Janeiro, then east to Cape Town and via the Great Southern Ocean to Botany Bay, arriving over the period of 18 to 20 January 1788, taking 250 to 252 days from departure to final arrival.

Rock art human-made markings on natural stone

In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art. A global phenomenon, rock art is found in many culturally diverse regions of the world. It has been produced in many contexts throughout human history, although the majority of rock art that has been ethnographically recorded has been produced as a part of ritual. Such artworks are often divided into three forms: petroglyphs, which are carved into the rock surface, pictographs, which are painted onto the surface, and earth figures, formed on the ground. The oldest known rock art dates from the Upper Palaeolithic period, having been found in Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa. Archaeologists studying these artworks believe that they likely had magico-religious significance.

The colonial administration was keen for the herd to establish itself so forbade killing of the cattle or settlement in the area. But John Macarthur, who wanted to establish sheep in the colony, took a liking to the prime grazing land. He convinced the British government to overrule the local administration and grant him 5,000 acres (20 km2) just south of the Nepean River in 1805. Four years later a number of other grants were made to farmers between Camden and Liverpool. [7]

John Macarthur (wool pioneer) British army officer, entrepreneur, politician, architect and pioneer in Australia

John Macarthur was a British army officer, entrepreneur, politician, architect and pioneer of settlement in Australia. Macarthur is recognised as the pioneer of the wool industry that was to boom in Australia in the early 19th century and become a trademark of the nation. He is noted as the architect Farm House, his own residence in Parramatta, and as the man who commissioned architect John Verge to design Camden Park Estate in Camden, in New South Wales.

Nepean River river in New South Wales, Australia

Nepean River, is a major perennial river, located in the south-west and west of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The Nepean River and its associated mouth, the Hawkesbury River, virtually encircle the metropolitan region of Sydney.

Liverpool, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Liverpool is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is located in South Western Sydney 27 kilometres (17 mi) south-west of the Sydney central business district. Liverpool is the administrative seat of the local government area of the City of Liverpool and is situated in the Cumberland Plain.

The Tharawal initially worked with the local farmers but a drought in 1814 led to large numbers of neighbouring Gandangara people moving into the area in search of food. Tensions developed between the British and the Gandangara leading to skirmishes and a number of deaths on each side. Governor Macquarie felt a permanent settlement would lead to order in the area and so Campbell-Town was born in 1820. [8]

Town development

Development of the town was slow particularly after the departure of Macquarie, and it wasn't until 1831 that residents took possession of town land. However, it was during this period that Campbelltown's most famous incident occurred. In 1826, local farmer Frederick Fisher disappeared. According to folklore, his ghost appeared sitting on a fence rail over a creek just south of the town and pointed to a site where his body was later found to be buried. In memory of the incident, the Fisher's Ghost festival is held each November in Campbelltown. [9]

Campbelltown's population increased steadily in the decades following. The southern rail line was extended to Campbelltown in 1858, leading to further development, and in 1882, Campbelltown Council was established allowing municipal works to occur in earnest. Campbelltown became the first country town in New South Wales to have piped water in 1888 and in the period between the World Wars, a local power station was built to supply electricity to residents. [4]

Campbelltown was designated in the early 1960s as a satellite city by the New South Wales Planning Authority, and a regional capital for the south west of Sydney. There was extensive building and population growth in the intervening time and the government set aside land surrounding the township for public and private housing and industry. [10]

Geography

Climate

Campbelltown has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa) with mild to cool winters and warm to hot summers.

Climate data for Campbelltown Swimming Centre
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)45.8
(114.4)
43.0
(109.4)
40.8
(105.4)
33.9
(93.0)
28.3
(82.9)
25.6
(78.1)
24.1
(75.4)
29.0
(84.2)
35.9
(96.6)
36.8
(98.2)
42.2
(108.0)
41.0
(105.8)
45.8
(114.4)
Average high °C (°F)28.2
(82.8)
28.4
(83.1)
26.8
(80.2)
24.1
(75.4)
20.4
(68.7)
17.6
(63.7)
17.1
(62.8)
18.7
(65.7)
21.4
(70.5)
23.5
(74.3)
25.8
(78.4)
27.9
(82.2)
23.3
(73.9)
Average low °C (°F)16.7
(62.1)
16.9
(62.4)
15.0
(59.0)
11.2
(52.2)
7.6
(45.7)
5.2
(41.4)
3.2
(37.8)
4.5
(40.1)
7.0
(44.6)
10.4
(50.7)
12.6
(54.7)
15.1
(59.2)
10.4
(50.7)
Record low °C (°F)7.2
(45.0)
6.1
(43.0)
3.9
(39.0)
0.0
(32.0)
−0.6
(30.9)
−2.0
(28.4)
−5.6
(21.9)
−2.5
(27.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
1.1
(34.0)
2.9
(37.2)
6.5
(43.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches)91
(3.6)
79
(3.1)
101
(4.0)
63
(2.5)
60
(2.4)
82
(3.2)
34
(1.3)
50
(2.0)
41
(1.6)
74
(2.9)
84
(3.3)
71
(2.8)
824
(32.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)10.810.410.57.47.98.66.27.87.910.59.69.0107
Source: [11]

Commercial area

Location map of Campbelltown based on NASA satellite images CampbelltownNSWmap.jpg
Location map of Campbelltown based on NASA satellite images

The old town centre, as laid down by Lachlan Macquarie, is still the main commercial area and includes the Queen Street shopping strip, Campbelltown Mall, Campbelltown railway station and bus interchange, the council chambers and a number of historic buildings. The main residential area is to the south and east of the town centre. On the northwestern side of the railway line is an industrial area.

To the southwest is a second commercial area based around Macarthur railway station which includes the University of Western Sydney and Macarthur Square, a large shopping mall. It features an outdoor entertainment and restaurant precinct known as "Kellicar Lane" which opened after the most recent expansion in November 2005. It features a food court that has large glass windows that look over Kellicar Lane, Campbelltown and the surrounding countryside.

Heritage listings

Glenalvon (1840), Lithgow Street (1)Glenalvin Lithgow Street Campbell.jpg
Glenalvon (1840), Lithgow Street
St Peter's Church (c. 1823), Cordeaux Street Campbelltown19.JPG
St Peter's Church (c.1823), Cordeaux Street
Richmond Villa (c. 1840), Lithgow Street (1)Richmond Villa Campbelltown.jpg
Richmond Villa (c.1840), Lithgow Street

Campbelltown has a number of heritage-listed sites on the New South Wales State Heritage Register, including:

The following additional buildings in central Campbelltown are listed on the (now defunct) Register of the National Estate. [19]

Transport

Campbelltown Railway Station Campbelltown Station 4.jpg
Campbelltown Railway Station

Campbelltown lies on the main road and rail links from Sydney to the south-west. The Hume Motorway links Campbelltown north to Liverpool, Sydney Airport and Sydney CBD and south to Goulburn and Canberra.

Campbelltown railway station and Macarthur railway station are on the Airport & South Line of the Sydney Trains network. Campbelltown is also the northern terminus of most Southern Highlands Line intercity services.

Campbelltown is also well serviced by buses. Busabout provides a number of services from Campbelltown Station to virtually all the surrounding suburbs of Campbelltown as well as to Camden. Interline provides a service from Campbelltown to Glenfield and Picton Buslines provides a service from Campbelltown to Picton via Camden. [20] [21] [22]

Health

Campbelltown Hospital CampbelltownNSWhospital.jpg
Campbelltown Hospital

Campbelltown Hospital is part of the South Western Sydney Local Health District and is located on the southern edge of the suburb near Ambarvale. Campbelltown Private Hospital is located nearby and with the Centric building [23] constitute a close-knit, combined public-private-consulting rooms complex within a convenient radius at Park Central.

Campbelltown Hospital is a major metropolitan hospital. Its emergency department is one of the busiest in Sydney, equipped with 32 beds and will expand further with the redevelopment of the hospital. [24] The hospital has a wide range of surgical specialties including general surgery (and its subspecialties of Breast & Endocrine surgery and Colorectal Surgery), orthopaedic surgery, ENT surgery, ophthalmology (Eye surgery), etc. Breast cancers, thyroid and parathyroid diseases, as well as colonic and rectal cancers are particularly well served by the hospital, with its surgeons managing high volumes of these diseases at both Campbelltown Public and Private hospitals. [25] The Macarthur Cancer Therapy Centre is a dedicated facility providing radiotherapy, chemotherapy and multidisciplinary cancer care to the local residents [26]

Bed capacity is currently at 340 during peak times, with a planned addition of 90 beds with the current redevelopment (stage 1), bringing it up to 430 beds by the end of 2015. The new hospital block with an additional 90 beds is nearing completion with planning of the next major stage of redevelopment already underway (stage 2). It has a well-equipped intensive care (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) with the ability to support ventilated and critically ill patients. The hospital is well supported by a radiology department with services including ultrasounds, CT scans as well as a state-of-the-art MRI scanner [27]

Education

Queen Street, Campbelltown, 1893. Image courtesy Campbelltown City Library. CampbelltownQueenSt1893.jpg
Queen Street, Campbelltown, 1893. Image courtesy Campbelltown City Library.

The Western Sydney University (old name University of Western Sydney) has a Campbelltown Campus, located on Narellan Road. It was established from 1983 as the second campus of the Macarthur Institute of Higher Education, which merged into WSU in 1989.

There are a number of local schools, including:


In the surrounding suburbs are a number of other schools associated with Campbelltown such as Broughton Anglican College, Mount Carmel High School (Varroville), Thomas Reddall High School (Ambarvale), Ambarvale High School (Rosemeadow), Menangle Park, and St Gregory's College, Campbelltown which is located in its own suburb, Gregory Hills.

Housing

The residential area has a combination of public and privately owned housing. Public housing estates are scattered across the region and the neighbouring areas.

Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 12,566 people in the suburb of Campbelltown, [1] and 157,006 residents in the Campbelltown Local Government Area. [28]

In the suburb of Campbelltown,

Notable residents

Culture

The Arts

Campbelltown Arts Centre Campbelltown Arts Centre.jpg
Campbelltown Arts Centre

The Campbelltown Arts Centre, situated just south of the main town centre features a 180-seat performance space, exhibition galleries and workspaces. Outside is a sculpture garden and a Japanese Gardens and Teahouse that was a gift from Campbelltown's sister city Koshigaya in Japan. [38]

Fisher's Ghost Festival

The Fisher's Ghost Festival is an annual festival held in recognition of Frederick Fisher, an emancipated convict who owned farming land in Campbelltown. Legend has it that Fisher appeared to local man John Farley as a ghost after being murdered by George Worrall, his friend and neighbour, over a land dispute. An annual parade through Campbelltown's main street, Queen Street, is held each November, and a carnival including fairground rides and other entertainment is held at Bradbury oval, a local sports ground. Over a period of two weeks many activities take place, including the Fisher's Ghost Fun Run, the Fisher's Ghost Art Award and the Street Party which was formerly known as the Mardi Gras. [39]

Media

Campbelltown is home to two local radio stations, 2MCR and C91.3FM. The two local newspapers are the Campbelltown-Macarthur Advertiser and the Macarthur Chronicle. [40]

Campbelltown Sports Stadium from above. Campbelltown Sports Stadium.jpg
Campbelltown Sports Stadium from above.

Sport and recreation

Campbelltown is very well known for its strong sporting culture. This includes Rugby League, Cricket, Athletics, Soccer and Australian Rules Football. Campbelltown has produced many professional athletes who have represented Australia at Olympic level. Its leading sporting team is the Wests Tigers who play in the National Rugby League competition. The Wests Tigers are a merger of two foundation clubs of the old New South Wales Rugby League premiership, the Western Suburbs Magpies and the Balmain Tigers. As such, they play some of their home games at Campbelltown Stadium in neighbouring Leumeah and others at Leichhardt Oval. The Magpies still exist as a stand-alone team in the lower tier competition, the New South Wales Cup.

Another tenant of Campbelltown Stadium is the Macarthur Rams soccer team which plays in the New South Wales Premier League competition. [41] Campbelltown is represented in the Sydney Grade Cricket competition by the Campbelltown-Camden Ghosts who play their home games in Raby [42] and in the Sydney AFL's Premier Division, by the Campbelltown Blues who play their home games in Macquarie Fields. [43] The Campbelltown District Netball Association, based in Minto, plays in the third division of the Netball NSW State League. [44] [45]

Related Research Articles

Campbelltown railway station railway station in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Division of Macarthur Australian federal electoral division

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Ambarvale, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Ambarvale is a suburb of south-western Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Ambarvale is located 55 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Campbelltown and is part of the Macarthur region. The suburb is predominantly residential and contains a mix of public and private housing.

Varroville, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Woodbine, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Woodbine is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 55 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Campbelltown and is part of the Macarthur region. Woodbine shares the postcode of 2560 with Campbelltown.

St Helens Park, New South Wales Suburb of Campbelltown, New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia

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Minto, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Ingleburn, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Ingleburn is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 40 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of City of Campbelltown. It is part of the Macarthur region. Ingleburn is located approximately halfway between the two commercial centres of Liverpool and Campbelltown.

Leumeah, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Leumeah is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 39 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Campbelltown. It is north of the suburb of Campbelltown and is part of the Macarthur region.

Spring Farm, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Spring Farm is a suburb of the Macarthur Region of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia in Camden Council. It is on the east side of the Nepean River. Until recently, it was mainly farmland with a winery, an electricity substation and the Spring Farm Advanced Resource Recovery Facility, but it is currently in the process of suburban redevelopment.

Rosemeadow, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Rosemeadow is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Rosemeadow is located 56 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Campbelltown and is part of the Macarthur region.

Englorie Park, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Glen Alpine, New South Wales Suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

Glen Alpine is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Glen Alpine is located 56 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Campbelltown and is part of the Macarthur region.

Macarthur, New South Wales Region in New South Wales, Australia

Macarthur is a region in south-west of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. The region includes the local government areas of the City of Campbelltown, Camden Council and Wollondilly Shire. It covers an area of 3,067 square kilometres and has a population of close to 310,000 residents. The region geographically forms the foothills between the Blue Mountains and Southern Highlands regions.

Electoral district of Campbelltown state electoral district of New South Wales, Australia

Campbelltown is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly of the Australian state of New South Wales in Sydney's South-west. It includes the suburbs of Airds, Ambarvale, Blair Athol, Blairmount, Bradbury, Campbelltown, Claymore, Eagle Vale, Englorie Park, Gilead, Glen Alpine, Kentlyn, Leumeah, Menangle Park, Rosemeadow, Ruse, St Helens Park, Wedderburn and Woodbine.

Warbys Barn and Stables

Warbys Barn and Stables is a heritage-listed former barns and now commercial building at 14 - 20 Queen Street, Campbelltown in the City of Campbelltown local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by John Warby and built in 1816. It is also known as Warbys Barn and Warbys Stables, The Leumeah Barn, Leumeah Barn Restaurant and Campbelltown Motor Inn. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

St Helens Park

St Helen's Park is a heritage-listed former school, experimental farm, private residence and guesthouse and now homestead located at St Helens Park Drive, St Helens Park, City of Campbelltown, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by George Allen Mansfield and built in 1887 by George Lusted. It is also known as St. Helen's Park and Egypt Farm. The property is privately owned. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

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