Charles Manson

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Charles Manson
Manson1968.jpg
Manson, 1968
Born
Charles Milles Maddox

(1934-11-12)November 12, 1934
DiedNovember 19, 2017(2017-11-19) (aged 83)
OccupationSinger-songwriter
Known for Manson Family murders, esp. the Tate murders
Height5 ft 2 in (157 cm) [1] or 5 ft 6 in (168 cm) [2] depending on source
Spouse(s)
  • Rosalie Willis
    (m. 1955;div. 1958)
  • Leona Stevens
    (m. 1959;div. 1963)
Children2, 1 alleged
Parent(s)
  • Colonel W. H. Scott Sr. (father)
  • Kathleen Maddox (mother)
  • William Manson (stepfather)
Criminal chargeMurder, conspiracy
PenaltyDeath (commuted to life with the possibility of parole after the death penalty was abolished in California)
Partner(s)Members of the Manson Family, including Susan Atkins, Mary Brunner, and Tex Watson
Signature
Charles Manson signature2.svg

Charles Milles Manson (  Maddox, November 12, 1934 November 19, 2017) was an American criminal and cult leader. In mid-1967, he formed what became known as the Manson Family, a quasi-commune based in California. Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in July and August 1969. According to the Los Angeles County district attorney, Manson plotted to start a race war, though Manson and others involved long disputed this motive. [3] In 1971, he was convicted of first-degree murder and conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of seven people. Although the prosecution conceded that Manson never literally ordered the murders, they contended that his ideology constituted an overt act of conspiracy. [4] Manson was also convicted of first-degree murder for the deaths of Gary Hinman and Donald Shae.

Cult A social group defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs,

In modern English, the term cult has come to usually refer to a social group defined by its unusual religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal. This sense of the term is controversial and it has divergent definitions in both popular culture and academia and it also has been an ongoing source of contention among scholars across several fields of study. It is usually considered pejorative.

Manson Family Place in California, United States

The Manson Family was a desert commune and cult active in California in the late 1960s. Led by Charles Manson, the group consisted of approximately 100 of his followers who lived an unconventional lifestyle with habitual use of hallucinogenic drugs. Most of the group members were young women from middle-class backgrounds, many of whom were radicalized by Manson's teachings and drawn by hippie culture and communal living.

The Tate murders were a mass murder conducted by members of the Manson Family on August 8–9, 1969, which claimed the lives of five people. Four members of the Manson Family invaded the rented home of married celebrity couple, actress Sharon Tate and director Roman Polanski at 10050 Cielo Drive in Los Angeles. They murdered Tate, who was eight and a half months pregnant, along with three friends who were visiting at the time, and an 18-year-old visitor, who was slain as he was departing the home. Polanski was not present on the night of the murders, as he was working on a film in Europe.

Contents

At the time the Manson Family began to form, Manson was an unemployed ex-convict who had spent more than half of his life in correctional institutions for a variety of offenses. Before the murders, he was a singer-songwriter on the fringe of the Los Angeles music industry, chiefly through a chance association with Dennis Wilson, drummer and founding member of the Beach Boys. In 1968, the group recorded one of Manson's songs, "Cease to Exist," retitled "Never Learn Not to Love", as a B-sided single, but without a credit to Manson. The Los Angeles district attorney claimed that Manson was obsessed with the Beatles, particularly their 1968 self-titled album (also known as the "White Album") though Manson and others disputed this. [5] Allegedly, guided by his interpretation of the band's lyrics, Manson adopted the term "Helter Skelter" to describe an impending apocalyptic race war. At trial the prosecution claimed that Manson and his followers, who were mostly young women, believed that the murders would help precipitate that war. Other contemporary interviews and those who testified during the penalty phase of Manson's original trial insisted that the motive for the Tate-LaBianca murders were copycat crimes designed to exonerate Manson's friend Bobby Beausoleil. [6] [5]

Los Angeles City in California

Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood, the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.

Dennis Wilson American musician, member of the Beach Boys

Dennis Carl Wilson was an American musician, singer, songwriter and occasional actor who co-founded the Beach Boys. He is best remembered as their drummer and as the middle brother of bandmates Brian and Carl Wilson. Dennis was the only true surfer in the Beach Boys, and his personal life exemplified the "California Myth" that the band's early songs often celebrated.

The Beach Boys Rock band from Hawthorne, California

The Beach Boys are an American rock band formed in Hawthorne, California, in 1961. The group's original lineup consisted of brothers Brian, Dennis, and Carl Wilson, their cousin Mike Love, and their friend Al Jardine. Distinguished by their vocal harmonies and early surf songs, they are one of the most influential acts of the rock era. The band drew on the music of jazz-based vocal groups, 1950s rock and roll, and black R&B to create their unique sound, and with Brian as composer, arranger, producer, and de facto leader, they often incorporated classical elements and unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways.

From the beginning of Manson's notoriety, a pop culture arose around him in which he ultimately became an emblem of insanity, violence, and the macabre. After he was charged with the crimes of which he was later convicted, recordings of songs written and performed by Manson were released commercially, starting with Lie: The Love and Terror Cult (1970). Various musicians have covered some of his songs. Manson was originally sentenced to death, but his sentence was commuted to life with the possibility of parole after California invalidated the state's death penalty statute in 1972. He served out his life sentence at California State Prison in Corcoran and died at age 83 in late 2017.

Several recordings by Charles Manson and members of his "Family" have been released since Manson was indicted in late 1969 for the murders of Tate and LaBianca.

<i>Lie: The Love and Terror Cult</i> 1970 studio album by Charles Manson

Lie: The Love and Terror Cult is the debut studio album by American cult leader, convict and singer-songwriter Charles Manson. It was released on vinyl on March 6, 1970 by Phil Kaufman, through a record label branded Awareness Records. Although not a commercial success, it retains a following among those interested in the Manson case, inspiring many cover versions and samples.

California State Prison, Corcoran prison

California State Prison, Corcoran (COR) is a male-only state prison located in the city of Corcoran, in Kings County, California. It is also known as Corcoran State Prison, CSP-C, CSP-COR, CSP-Corcoran, and Corcoran I. The facility is just north of the newer California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison, Corcoran.

Early life

Childhood

Charles Manson was born on November 12, 1934 to 16-year-old Kathleen Manson-Bower-Cavender, [7] née Maddox (1918–1973), [8] in the University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was first named "no name Maddox". [9] :136–7 [10] [11] Within weeks, he was called Charles Milles Maddox. [9] :136–7 [12]

The University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center (AHC) is a collection of health colleges and institutions of the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. It trains health care professionals and provides research and patient care. AHC has strong ties to UC Health, which includes the University of Cincinnati Medical Center and West Chester Hospital.

Cincinnati City in Ohio

Cincinnati is a major city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky. The city is the economic and cultural hub of the Cincinnati metropolitan area, the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output, which had a population of 2,190,209 as of the 2018 census estimates. This makes it Ohio's largest metropolitan area and the nation's 28th-largest. With a city population estimated at 302,605, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States. Cincinnati is also within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace.

Ohio State of the United States of America

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

Manson's biological father appears to have been Colonel Walker Henderson Scott Sr. (1910–1954) [13] of Catlettsburg, Kentucky against whom Kathleen Maddox filed a paternity suit that resulted in an agreed judgment in 1937. Manson may never have known his biological father. [9] :136–7 [11] Scott worked intermittently in local mills, and also had a local reputation as a con artist. He allowed Maddox to believe he was an army colonel, although "Colonel" was merely his given name. When Maddox told Scott she was pregnant, he told her he had been called away on army business; after several months she realized he had no intention of returning. [14]

Catlettsburg, Kentucky City in Kentucky, United States

Catlettsburg is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of Boyd County, Kentucky, United States. The city population was 1,856 at the 2010 census. Catlettsburg is a part of the Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH, Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of 2013, new definitions from the United States Census, the MSA had a population of 361,000.

In August 1934, before Manson's birth, Maddox married William Eugene Manson (1909–1961), whose occupation was listed on Charles's birth certificate as a "laborer" at a dry cleaning business. [15] Maddox went on drinking sprees for days at a time with her brother Luther, leaving Charles with a variety of babysitters. They were divorced on April 30, 1937, when a court accepted Manson's charge of "gross neglect of duty". [15]

On August 1, 1939, Maddox and Luther's girlfriend Julia Vickers spent the evening drinking with Frank Martin, a new acquaintance who appeared to be wealthy. Maddox and Vickers decided to rob him, and Maddox phoned her brother to help. They were incompetent thieves, and were found and arrested within hours. At the trial seven weeks later, Luther was sentenced to ten years in prison, and Kathleen was sentenced to five years. [16] Manson was placed in the home of an aunt and uncle in McMechen, West Virginia. [17] His mother was paroled in 1942. Manson later characterized the first weeks after she returned from prison as the happiest time in his life. [18]

Manson's family moved to Charleston, West Virginia, where Manson continually played truant and his mother spent her evenings drinking. She was arrested for grand larceny, but not convicted. After moving to Indianapolis, Maddox started attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings where she met an alcoholic named Lewis (no first name), whom she married in August 1943. As well as constantly playing truant, Manson began stealing from stores and his home. In 1947, Maddox looked for a temporary foster home for Manson, but she was unable to find a suitable one. She decided to send him to the Gibault School for Boys in Terre Haute, Indiana, a school for male delinquents run by Catholic priests. Manson soon fled home to his mother, but she took him back to the school. He spent Christmas 1947 in McMechen, at his aunt and uncle's house, where he was caught stealing a gun. [19]

First offenses

Manson returned to Gibault but ran away to Indianapolis ten months later. Instead of returning to his mother, he rented a room and supported himself by burgling stores at night. He was eventually caught, and a sympathetic judge sent him to Boys Town, a juvenile facility in Omaha, Nebraska. After four days, he and a student named Blackie Nielson stole a car and somehow obtained a gun. They used it to rob a grocery store and a casino, as they made their way to the home of Nielson's uncle in Peoria, Illinois. [20] [9] :136–146

Neilson's uncle was a professional thief, and when the boys arrived he apparently took them on as apprentices. [21] Manson was arrested two weeks later during a nighttime raid on a Peoria store. In the investigation that followed, he was linked to his two earlier armed robberies. He was sent to the Indiana Boys School, a strict reform school. He later claimed that other students raped him with the encouragement of a staff member. Manson developed a self-defense technique he later called the "insane game". When he was physically unable to defend himself he would screech, grimace and wave his arms to convince aggressors that he was insane. After a number of failed attempts, he escaped with two other boys in February 1951. [22] [9] :137–146

The three escapees were attempting to drive to California in stolen cars when they were arrested in Utah. They had robbed several filling stations along the way. Driving a stolen car across state lines is a federal crime that violates the Dyer Act. Manson was sent to Washington, D.C.'s National Training School for Boys. [9] :137–146 On arrival he was given aptitude tests. He was illiterate, and his IQ was 109 (the national average was 100). His case worker deemed him aggressively antisocial. [22] [9] :137–146

First imprisonment

On a psychiatrist's recommendation, Manson was transferred in October 1951 to Natural Bridge Honor Camp, a minimum security institution. [9] :137–146 His aunt visited him and told administrators she would let him stay at her house and would help him find work. Manson had a parole hearing scheduled for February 1952. However, in January, he was caught raping a boy at knifepoint. Manson was transferred to the Federal Reformatory in Petersburg, Virginia. There he committed a further "eight serious disciplinary offenses, three involving homosexual acts". He was then moved to a maximum security reformatory at Chillicothe, Ohio, where he was expected to remain until his release on his 21st birthday in November 1955. Good behavior led to an early release in May 1954, to live with his aunt and uncle in McMechen. [23]

Booking photo, Federal Correctional Institute Terminal Island, May 2, 1956 Charles Manson mugshot FCI Terminal Island California 1956-05-02 3845-CAL.png
Booking photo, Federal Correctional Institute Terminal Island, May 2, 1956

In January 1955, Manson married a hospital waitress named Rosalie Jean Willis. [24] Around October, about three months after he and his pregnant wife arrived in Los Angeles in a car he had stolen in Ohio, Manson was again charged with a federal crime for taking the vehicle across state lines. After a psychiatric evaluation, he was given five years' probation. Manson's failure to appear at a Los Angeles hearing on an identical charge filed in Florida resulted in his March 1956 arrest in Indianapolis. His probation was revoked; he was sentenced to three years' imprisonment at Terminal Island, San Pedro, California. [9] :137–146

While Manson was in prison, Rosalie gave birth to their son Charles Manson Jr. During his first year at Terminal Island, Manson received visits from Rosalie and his mother, who were now living together in Los Angeles. In March 1957, when the visits from his wife ceased, his mother informed him Rosalie was living with another man. Less than two weeks before a scheduled parole hearing, Manson tried to escape by stealing a car. He was given five years' probation and his parole was denied. [9] :137–146

Second imprisonment

Manson received five years' parole in September 1958, the same year in which Rosalie received a decree of divorce. By November, he was pimping a 16-year-old girl and was receiving additional support from a girl with wealthy parents. In September 1959, he pleaded guilty to a charge of attempting to cash a forged U.S. Treasury check, which he claimed to have stolen from a mailbox; the latter charge was later dropped. He received a 10-year suspended sentence and probation after a young woman named Leona, who had an arrest record for prostitution, made a "tearful plea" before the court that she and Manson were "deeply in love ... and would marry if Charlie were freed". [9] :137–146 Before the year's end, the woman did marry Manson, possibly so she would not be required to testify against him. [9] :137–146

Manson took Leona and another woman to New Mexico for purposes of prostitution, resulting in him being held and questioned for violating the Mann Act. Though he was released, Manson correctly suspected that the investigation had not ended. When he disappeared in violation of his probation, a bench warrant was issued. An indictment for violation of the Mann Act followed in April 1960. [9] :137–146 When one of the women was arrested for prostitution, Manson was arrested in June in Laredo, Texas, and was returned to Los Angeles. For violating his probation on the check-cashing charge, he was ordered to serve his ten year sentence. [9] :137–146

Manson spent a year trying unsuccessfully to appeal the revocation of his probation. In July 1961, he was transferred from the Los Angeles County Jail to the United States Penitentiary at McNeil Island, Washington. There, he took guitar lessons from Barker–Karpis gang leader Alvin "Creepy" Karpis, and obtained from another inmate a contact name of someone at Universal Studios in Hollywood, Phil Kaufman. [25] According to Jeff Guinn's 2013 biography of Manson, his mother moved to Washington State to be closer to him during his McNeil Island incarceration, working nearby as a waitress. [26]

Although the Mann Act charge had been dropped, the attempt to cash the Treasury check was still a federal offense. Manson's September 1961 annual review noted he had a "tremendous drive to call attention to himself", an observation echoed in September 1964. [9] :137–146 In 1963 Leona was granted a divorce. During the process she alleged that she and Manson had a son, Charles Luther. [9] :137–146 According to a popular urban legend, Manson auditioned unsuccessfully for the Monkees in late 1965; this is refuted by the fact that Manson was still incarcerated at McNeil Island at that time. [27]

In June 1966, Manson was sent for the second time to Terminal Island in preparation for early release. By the time of his release day on March 21, 1967, he had spent more than half of his 32 years in prisons and other institutions. This was mainly because he had broken federal laws. Federal sentences were, and remain, much more severe than state sentences for many of the same offenses. [9] :137–146 Telling the authorities that prison had become his home, he requested permission to stay. [9] :137–146

1968–1971: Cult formation, murders, and trial

1969 mug shot Charles-mansonbookingphoto (enlarged) 1971 (cropped).jpg
1969 mug shot

Once discharged from prison, Manson began attracting a group of followers, mostly young women, from around California. They were later dubbed the "Manson Family". The group was involved in the murder of Gary Hinman in July 1969, then gained national notoriety after the murder of actress Sharon Tate and four others in her home on August 8 and 9, 1969, [28] and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca the next day. Tex Watson and three other members of the Family executed the Tate-LaBianca murders, acting under Manson's specific instructions. [29] [30] Family members were also responsible for other assaults, thefts, crimes, and the attempted assassination of United States President Gerald Ford in Sacramento by Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme. [31]

On March 6, 1970 (the day the court vacated Manson's status as his own attorney), [9] :258–269 LIE , an album of Manson music, was released. [32] [33] [34] This included "Cease to Exist", a Manson composition the Beach Boys had recorded with modified lyrics and the title "Never Learn Not to Love". [35] [36] Over the next couple of months only about 300 of the album's 2,000 copies sold. [37]

1971–2017: Third imprisonment

Sentencing

Manson was admitted to state prison from Los Angeles County on April 22, 1971, for seven counts of first-degree murder and one count of conspiracy to commit murder for the deaths of Abigail Ann Folger, Wojciech Frykowski, Steven Earl Parent, Sharon Tate Polanski, Jay Sebring and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. He was sentenced to death. When the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional in 1972, he was resentenced to life with the possibility of parole. His original death sentence was modified to life on February 2, 1977.

On December 13, 1971, Manson was convicted of first-degree murder in Los Angeles County Court for the July 25, 1969 death of musician Gary Hinman. He was also convicted of first-degree murder for the August 1969 death of Donald Jerome "Shorty" Shea. A footnote to the conclusion of California v. Anderson , the 1972 decision that neutralized California's death sentences, stated that, "any prisoner now under a sentence of death ... may file a petition for writ of habeas corpus in the superior court inviting that court to modify its judgment to provide for the appropriate alternative punishment of life imprisonment or life imprisonment without possibility of parole specified by statute for the crime for which he was sentenced to death." [38] This made Manson eligible to apply for parole after seven years' incarceration. [9] :488 Accordingly, his first parole hearing took place on November 16, 1978, at California Medical Facility in Vacaville, and his petition was rejected. [9] :498 [39]

1980s–1990s

Folsom State Prison, one of Manson's lockups FolsomStatePrison.jpg
Folsom State Prison, one of Manson's lockups

In the 1980s, Manson gave four interviews to the mainstream media. The first, recorded at California Medical Facility and aired on June 13, 1981 was by Tom Snyder for NBC's The Tomorrow Show . The second, recorded at San Quentin State Prison and aired on March 7, 1986 was by Charlie Rose for CBS News Nightwatch, and it won the national news Emmy Award for Best Interview in 1987. [40] The third, with Geraldo Rivera in 1988, was part of the journalist's prime-time special on Satanism. [41] At least as early as the Snyder interview, Manson's forehead bore a swastika in the spot where the X carved during his trial had been. [42]

Nikolas Schreck conducted an interview with Manson for his documentary Charles Manson Superstar (1989). Schreck concluded that Manson was not insane but merely acting that way out of frustration. [43] [44]

On September 25, 1984, Manson was imprisoned in the California Medical Facility at Vacaville when inmate Jan Holmstrom poured paint thinner on him and set him on fire, causing second- and third-degree burns on over 20 percent of his body. Holmstrom explained that Manson had objected to his Hare Krishna chants and verbally threatened him. [9] :497

After 1989, Manson was housed in the Protective Housing Unit at California State Prison, Corcoran, in Kings County. The unit houses inmates whose safety would be endangered by general population housing. He had also been housed at San Quentin State Prison, [40] California Medical Facility in Vacaville, [9] :497 Folsom State Prison and Pelican Bay State Prison. [45] [ citation needed ] In June 1997, a prison disciplinary committee found that Manson had been trafficking drugs. [45] That August he was moved from Corcoran State Prison to Pelican Bay State Prison. [45]

2000s–2017

Manson, age 76, June 2011 Manson-June-2011.jpg
Manson, age 76, June 2011

On September 5, 2007, MSNBC aired The Mind of Manson, a complete version of a 1987 interview at California's San Quentin State Prison. The footage of the "unshackled, unapologetic, and unruly" Manson had been considered "so unbelievable" that only seven minutes of it had originally been broadcast on The Today Show , for which it had been recorded. [46]

In March 2009, a photograph of Manson showing a receding hairline, grizzled gray beard and hair, and the swastika tattoo still prominent on his forehead was released to the public by California corrections officials. [47]

In 2010, the Los Angeles Times reported that Manson was caught with a cell phone in 2009 and had contacted people in California, New Jersey, Florida and British Columbia. A spokesperson for the California Department of Corrections stated that it was not known if Manson had used the phone for criminal purposes. [48] Manson also recorded an album of acoustic pop songs with additional production by Henry Rollins, titled Completion. Only five copies were pressed: two belong to Rollins, while the other three are presumed to have been with Manson. The album remains unreleased. [49]

Illness and death

Manson at Corcoran State Prison, August 2017 MansonB33920 8-14-17 (cropped).jpg
Manson at Corcoran State Prison, August 2017

On January 1, 2017, Manson was suffering from gastrointestinal bleeding at California State Prison in Corcoran when he was rushed to Mercy Hospital in downtown Bakersfield. A source told the Los Angeles Times that Manson was seriously ill, [50] and TMZ reported his doctors considered him "too weak" for surgery. [51] He was returned to prison by January 6; whatever treatment he had received was not disclosed. [52]

On November 15, 2017, a source not authorized to speak on behalf of the corrections department confirmed that Manson had returned to a hospital in Bakersfield. [53] In compliance with federal and state medical privacy laws, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation did not confirm this. [54] He died from cardiac arrest resulting from respiratory failure and colon cancer at the hospital four days later on November 19. [55] [56] [57]

Three people stated their intention to claim Manson's estate and body. [58] [59] [60] Manson's grandson, Jason Freeman, stated his intent to take possession of Manson's remains and personal effects. [61] Michael Channels, a pen pal of Manson, has a will, dated February 14, 2002, that leaves Manson's entire estate plus his body to him. [62] [63] A friend of Manson's, Ben Gurecki, has a will dated January 2017. It gives the estate and Manson's body to his alleged son, Matthew Roberts. [58] [59] In 2012, CNN News ran a DNA match to see if Freeman and Roberts were related to each other and found they were not. (Matches between Roberts and Manson were attempted but the results were reportedly "contaminated".) [64] On March 12, 2018, the Kern County Superior Court in California decided in favor of Freeman in regard to Manson's body. Freeman had previously said he would have Manson cremated, and, in fact, did so on March 20, 2018. [65]

Personal life

Religion

In 1974, Manson stated his religion was Scientology, [66] and identified as a Scientologist after studying the religion while incarcerated. [67] [68] [69] Manson completed 150 hours of auditing before declaring Scientology "too crazy". [70]

Relationships and alleged child

In 2009, a Los Angeles disk jockey and songwriter named Matthew Roberts released correspondence and other evidence indicating that he might be Manson's biological son. Roberts' biological mother claims to have been a member of the Manson Family who left in mid-1967 after being raped by Manson; she returned to her parents' home to complete the pregnancy, gave birth on March 22, 1968, and put Roberts up for adoption. Manson himself stated that he "could" be the father, acknowledging the biological mother and a sexual relationship with her during 1967, nearly two years before the Family began its murderous phase. [71] A DNA test between Matthew Roberts, and Manson's known biological grandson Jason Freeman was conducted by CNN in 2012, showing that Roberts and Freeman did not share DNA. [72] Roberts subsequent attempts to establish that Manson is his father have not been successful.

In 2014, it was announced that the imprisoned Manson was engaged to 26-year-old Afton Elaine "Star" Burton and had obtained a marriage license on November 7. [73] Manson personally dubbed Burton with the name "Star". She had been visiting Manson in prison for at least nine years, and maintained several websites that proclaimed his innocence. [74] The wedding license expired on February 5, 2015, without a marriage ceremony taking place. [75] It was later reported, according to journalist Daniel Simone, the wedding was cancelled after it was discovered Burton only wanted to marry Manson so she and a friend, Craig "Gray Wolf" Hammond, could use his corpse as a tourist attraction after his death. [75] [76] According to Simone, Manson believed he would never die, and may simply have used the possibility of marriage as a way to encourage Burton and Hammond to continue visiting him and bringing him gifts. Together with co-author Heidi Jordan Ley, and with the assistance of some of Manson's fellow prisoners, Simone wrote a book about Manson and was seeking a publisher for it. Burton said on her web site that the reason the marriage did not take place is merely logistical. Manson was suffering from an infection and had been in a prison medical facility for two months, and could not receive visitors. She said she still hoped the marriage license would be renewed and the marriage would take place. [75]

Psychology

On April 11, 2012, Manson was denied release at his 12th parole hearing, which he did not attend. After his March 27, 1997 parole hearing, Manson refused to attend any of his later hearings. The panel at that hearing noted that Manson had a "history of controlling behavior" and "mental health issues" including schizophrenia and paranoid delusional disorder, and was too great a danger to be released. [77] The panel also noted that Manson had received 108 rules violation reports, had no indication of remorse, no insight into the causative factors of the crimes, lacked understanding of the magnitude of the crimes, had an exceptional, callous disregard for human suffering and had no parole plans. [78] At the April 11, 2012 parole hearing it was determined that Manson would not be reconsidered for parole for another 15 years, i.e. not before 2027, at which time he would have been 92 years old. [79]

Legacy

Cultural impact

Beginning in January 1970, Manson was embraced by the underground newspapers Los Angeles Free Press and Tuesday's Child , with the latter proclaiming him "Man of the Year". In June 1970, he was the subject of a Rolling Stone cover story, "Charles Manson: The Incredible Story of the Most Dangerous Man Alive". [80] When a Rolling Stone writer visited the Los Angeles District Attorney's office in preparing that story, [81] he was shocked by a photograph of the bloody "Healter [ sic ] Skelter" that would bind Manson to popular culture. [82] Prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi pointed out the dispute in the underground press over whether Manson was "Christ returned" or "a sick symbol of our times"[ where? ] to his Helter Skelter co-author, Curt Gentry.

Bernardine Dohrn, a leader of the Weather Underground, reportedly said of the Tate murders: "Dig it, first they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner in the same room with them, then they even shoved a fork into a victim's stomach. Wild!" [83] Neo-Nazi and Manson follower James Mason founded the Universal Order, a group which has influenced alt-right movements such as the neo-Nazi terrorist Atomwaffen Division. Universal Order's name and logo, a swastika between scales of justice, were remotely designed by Manson.[ citation needed ]

In an afterword composed for the 1994 edition of the non-fiction book Helter Skelter , Bugliosi quoted a BBC employee's assertion that a "neo-Manson cult" existing then in Europe was represented by, among other things, approximately 70 rock bands playing songs by Manson and "songs in support of him". [9] :488–491

Music

There have been several releases of Manson recordings – both musical and spoken. One of these, The Family Jams , includes two compact discs of Manson's songs recorded by the Family in 1970, after Manson and the others had been arrested. Guitar and lead vocals are supplied by Steve Grogan; [9] :125–127 additional vocals are supplied by Lynette Fromme, Sandra Good, Catherine Share, and others. [84] One Mind, an album of music, poetry, and spoken word, new at the time of its release, in April 2005, was put out under a Creative Commons license. [85] [86]

American rock band Guns N' Roses recorded Manson's "Look at Your Game, Girl", included as an unlisted 13th track on their 1993 album "The Spaghetti Incident?" [9] :488–491 [87] [88] "My Monkey", which appears on Portrait of an American Family by the American rock band Marilyn Manson, includes the lyrics "I had a little monkey / I sent him to the country and I fed him on gingerbread / Along came a choo-choo / Knocked my monkey cuckoo / And now my monkey's dead." These lyrics are from Manson's "Mechanical Man", [89] which is heard on LIE . Crispin Glover covered "Never Say 'Never' To Always" on his album The Big Problem ≠ The Solution. The Solution = Let It Be released in 1989.

Musical performers such as Kasabian, [90] Spahn Ranch, [91] and Marilyn Manson [92] derived their names from Manson and his lore.

Documentaries

Fiction inspired by Manson

See also

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California Institution for Women (CIW) is a Women's state prison located in the city of Corona, Riverside County, California, east of Los Angeles.

Lynette Fromme Failed assassin of US President Gerald Ford; Charles Manson follower

Lynette Alice "Squeaky" Fromme is an American criminal best known as a member of the "Manson family". She attempted to assassinate U.S. President Gerald Ford in 1975. She was sentenced to life imprisonment for the attempt, but was released on parole on August 14, 2009, after serving nearly 34 years.

Susan Atkins Convicted murderer and member of the "Manson family"

Susan Denise Atkins was a convicted American murderer who was a member of Charles Manson's "Family". Manson's followers committed a series of nine murders at four locations in California, over a period of five weeks in the summer of 1969. Known within the Manson family as Sadie Mae Glutz or Sexy Sadie, Atkins was convicted for her participation in eight of these killings, including the most notorious, the Tate murders in 1969. She was sentenced to death, which was subsequently commuted to life imprisonment when the California Supreme Court invalidated all death sentences issued prior to 1972. Atkins was later incarcerated until her death in 2009. At the time of her death, she was California's longest-serving female inmate.

Leslie Van Houten Convicted murderer

Leslie Louise Van Houten is an American convicted murderer and former member of the Manson Family. Van Houten was arrested and charged in relation to the 1969 killings of Leno and Rosemary LaBianca. She was convicted and sentenced to death. The California Supreme Court decision on People v. Anderson then ruled in 1972 that the death penalty was unconstitutional, resulting in her sentence being commuted to life in prison. Her conviction was then overturned in a 1976 appellate court decision which granted her a retrial. Her second trial ended with a deadlocked jury and a mistrial. At her third trial in 1978, she was convicted of two counts of murder and one count of conspiracy and sentenced to seven years to life in prison. In relation to her case, high courts, parole boards, and the state governor have said that an inexplicable or racial motive for murder could merit exemplary punishment and outweigh any evidence of subsequent reform.

Helter Skelter (song) original song written and composed by Lennon-McCartney

"Helter Skelter" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1968 double album The Beatles. It was written by Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon–McCartney. The song was a product of McCartney's attempt to create a sound as loud and dirty as possible. The Beatles' recording has been noted for its "proto-metal roar" and is considered by music historians to be a key influence in the early development of heavy metal. In 1976, the song was released as the B-side of "Got to Get You into My Life" in the United States, to promote the Capitol Records compilation Rock 'n' Roll Music.

<i>Helter Skelter</i> (1976 film) 1976 film directed by Tom Gries

Helter Skelter is a 1976 television film based on the 1974 book by prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi and Curt Gentry. In the United States, it aired over two nights. In some countries it was shown in cinemas, with additional footage including nudity, language and more violence.

Tex Watson Manson family member, convicted murderer

Charles Denton Watson Jr., better known as Tex Watson, is an American murderer who was a central member of the "Manson family" led by Charles Manson. On August 9, 1969, Watson and other Manson followers murdered pregnant actress Sharon Tate and four other people at 10050 Cielo Drive in Benedict Canyon, Los Angeles. The next night, Watson traveled to Los Feliz, Los Angeles, and participated in the murders of Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, as part of Manson's "Helter Skelter" vision. Watson was found guilty of murder and imprisoned in 1971.

Ronald W. Hughes was an American attorney who represented Charles Manson.

Sandra Good Follower of Charles Manson

Sandra Collins Good is a long-time member of the Manson Family and a close friend of Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme. Good's Manson Family nickname is "Blue", which was given to her by Charles Manson to represent clean air and water.

Robert Kenneth Beausoleil is an American murderer who was given the death sentence for killing his friend Gary Hinman, a fellow associate of Charles Manson and members of his communal "Family", on July 27, 1969. He was later granted commutation to a life sentence when the Supreme Court of California issued a ruling that invalidated all death sentences issued in California prior to 1972.

Irving Allan Kanarek is a former criminal defense attorney best known for representing Charles Manson and "Onion Field" killer Jimmy Lee Smith.

The Helter Skelter scenario is a theory put forth by Vincent Bugliosi, lead prosecutor in the Tate-LaBianca murder trial, to explain the series of murders committed by the Manson Family. This article summarizes Bugliosi's theory as described at trial and in his book Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders.

Mary Brunner American academic and convicted criminal

Mary Theresa Brunner is an American woman who was a former member of the "Manson Family" who was present during the 1969 murder of Gary Allen Hinman, a California musician and UCLA Ph.D. candidate in sociology. Brunner was subsequently arrested for numerous offenses, including credit card theft and armed robbery, and served a prison sentence at the California Institution for Women.

Paul Alan Watkins was a member of Charles Manson’s "Family." In the period leading up to Manson’s trial for the Tate-LaBianca murders, Watkins provided the prosecution with information that clarified the Helter Skelter motive.

Steve "Clem" Grogan American murder and former member of the Manson Family

Steve Dennis "Clem" Grogan is an American convicted murderer and former member of the Manson Family. He was released on parole from prison in 1985. As of April 2019, he is the only person who has been released from prison after being convicted of murder in the killings committed by the Family.

Philip C. Kaufman is an American record producer, tour manager, and author, best known for stealing the body of country musician Gram Parsons, and burning it in Joshua Tree National Monument. This was later chronicled in the film Grand Theft Parsons. He authored the book Road Mangler Deluxe, an autobiography about his experiences in the music business. He worked with Parsons, The Rolling Stones, Emmylou Harris, Joe Cocker, Frank Zappa, Hank Williams III, Etta James, and many more.

Bruce McGregor Davis is a former member of the Manson Family who has been described as Charles Manson's "right-hand man".

References

Notes

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Bibliography

Further reading