Morristown Historic District

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Morristown Historic District

Morristown Historic District.jpg

Main Street in the district
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Location Church, Main, W. Cross, E. Cross, and Middle Cross Sts., Morristown, Ohio
Coordinates 40°3′49″N81°4′23″W / 40.06361°N 81.07306°W / 40.06361; -81.07306 Coordinates: 40°3′49″N81°4′23″W / 40.06361°N 81.07306°W / 40.06361; -81.07306
Area 42 acres (17 ha)
Architectural style Greek Revival, Gothic Revival
NRHP reference # 80002943 [1]
Added to NRHP March 6, 1980

The Morristown Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district embracing much of the village of Morristown, Ohio, United States. Founded along the National Road, Morristown prospered as long as the road was heavily travelled, but it stagnated after railroads became prominent. Because the community neither died nor prospered, it has retained its mid-nineteenth-century architecture into the present, making it one of the National Road's least-changed settlements.

Historic districts in the United States group of buildings, properties, or sites that have been designated as historically or architecturally significant

Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories, contributing and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few.

Morristown, Ohio Village in Ohio, United States

Morristown is a village in Belmont County, Ohio, United States. It is part of the Wheeling, West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 303 at the 2010 census.

Ohio State of the United States of America

Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.

Settled in the early nineteenth century, Morristown prospered after the National Road became its main street in 1826. In its first decades, the village was heavily dependent on the road; during the village's best years, in the 1850s, more than forty National Road-related businesses lined its streets. However, prosperity departed soon afterward: railroads were built through eastern Ohio in the 1850s, supplanting the National Road as the major mode of transportation, and because no railroad served Morristown, it lost most of its commerce. Buildings continued to be erected into the 1870s, but comparatively little construction occurred in later decades. Nevertheless, the village remained, and benign neglect contributed to Morristown's preservation: no other National Road community in eastern Ohio has experienced so few changes since the road's heyday. Part of its significance derives from construction methods. Most buildings are vernacular structures built of brick in Flemish bond, setting Morristown apart from surrounding communities, which possess few historic brick buildings. [2]

Vernacular architecture category of architecture based on local needs, construction materials and reflecting local traditions

Vernacular architecture encompasses the vast majority of the world's built environment, and thus resists a simple definition. It is perhaps best understood not by what it is, but what it can reveal about the culture of a people or place at any given time. The sheer range of global building types and developments--from Mongolian yurts to Japanese minka to American roadside commercial strips--suggests that vernacular architecture is everywhere, but tends to be disregarded or overlooked in traditional histories of architecture and design. As geographer Amos Rapoport has famously written, vernacular architecture constitutes 95 percent of the world's built environment: that which is not designed by professional architects and engineers. While such an understanding has its limitations, it nonetheless indicates the vastness of the subject and helps us recognize that all aspects of the built environment can impart something about the society and culture of a people or place. If nothing else, vernacular architecture cannot be distilled into a series of easy-to-digest patterns, materials, or elements. Vernacular architecture is not a style.

Brickwork Masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar

Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall.

In early 1980, the Morristown Historic District was declared, with boundaries encompassing 42 acres (17 ha); seventy of the district's eighty-six buildings were rated as contributing properties, as was the village cemetery. [1] Limited destruction and limited new construction has left Morristown with nearly all of its mid-19th century built environment, [2] enabling the district to qualify for the Register both because of its place in area history and because of its historic architecture. [1]

Contributing property key component of a place listed on the National Register of Historic Places

In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state, national, and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts. The first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931.

Built environment environment created by humans

In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis." The "built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings, parks, and transportation systems." In recent years, public health research has expanded the definition of "built environment" to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health, "walkability", and "bikeability".

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References

  1. 1 2 3 National Park Service (2010-07-09). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service.
  2. 1 2 Owen, Lorrie K., ed. Dictionary of Ohio Historic Places. Vol. 1. St. Clair Shores: Somerset, 1999, 63.