Morristown Historic District
Main Street in the district
|Location||Church, Main, W. Cross, E. Cross, and Middle Cross Sts., Morristown, Ohio|
|Area||42 acres (17 ha)|
|Architectural style||Greek Revival, Gothic Revival|
|NRHP reference #||80002943|
|Added to NRHP||March 6, 1980|
The Morristown Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district embracing much of the village of Morristown, Ohio, United States. Founded along the National Road, Morristown prospered as long as the road was heavily travelled, but it stagnated after railroads became prominent. Because the community neither died nor prospered, it has retained its mid-nineteenth-century architecture into the present, making it one of the National Road's least-changed settlements.
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories, contributing and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few.
Morristown is a village in Belmont County, Ohio, United States. It is part of the Wheeling, West Virginia Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 303 at the 2010 census.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, and the tenth most densely populated. The state's capital and largest city is Columbus.
Settled in the early nineteenth century, Morristown prospered after the National Road became its main street in 1826. In its first decades, the village was heavily dependent on the road; during the village's best years, in the 1850s, more than forty National Road-related businesses lined its streets. However, prosperity departed soon afterward: railroads were built through eastern Ohio in the 1850s, supplanting the National Road as the major mode of transportation, and because no railroad served Morristown, it lost most of its commerce. Buildings continued to be erected into the 1870s, but comparatively little construction occurred in later decades. Nevertheless, the village remained, and benign neglect contributed to Morristown's preservation: no other National Road community in eastern Ohio has experienced so few changes since the road's heyday. Part of its significance derives from construction methods. Most buildings are vernacular structures built of brick in Flemish bond, setting Morristown apart from surrounding communities, which possess few historic brick buildings.
Vernacular architecture encompasses the vast majority of the world's built environment, and thus resists a simple definition. It is perhaps best understood not by what it is, but what it can reveal about the culture of a people or place at any given time. The sheer range of global building types and developments--from Mongolian yurts to Japanese minka to American roadside commercial strips--suggests that vernacular architecture is everywhere, but tends to be disregarded or overlooked in traditional histories of architecture and design. As geographer Amos Rapoport has famously written, vernacular architecture constitutes 95 percent of the world's built environment: that which is not designed by professional architects and engineers. While such an understanding has its limitations, it nonetheless indicates the vastness of the subject and helps us recognize that all aspects of the built environment can impart something about the society and culture of a people or place. If nothing else, vernacular architecture cannot be distilled into a series of easy-to-digest patterns, materials, or elements. Vernacular architecture is not a style.
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall.
In early 1980, the Morristown Historic District was declared, with boundaries encompassing 42 acres (17 ha); seventy of the district's eighty-six buildings were rated as contributing properties, as was the village cemetery. Limited destruction and limited new construction has left Morristown with nearly all of its mid-19th century built environment, enabling the district to qualify for the Register both because of its place in area history and because of its historic architecture.
In the law regulating historic districts in the United States, a contributing property or contributing resource is any building, object, or structure which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make the historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Government agencies, at the state, national, and local level in the United States, have differing definitions of what constitutes a contributing property but there are common characteristics. Local laws often regulate the changes that can be made to contributing structures within designated historic districts. The first local ordinances dealing with the alteration of buildings within historic districts was in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931.
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks. It has been defined as "the human-made space in which people live, work, and recreate on a day-to-day basis." The "built environment encompasses places and spaces created or modified by people including buildings, parks, and transportation systems." In recent years, public health research has expanded the definition of "built environment" to include healthy food access, community gardens, mental health, "walkability", and "bikeability".
The Huffman Historic District is a historic neighborhood in eastern Dayton, Ohio, United States. Formed at the end of the nineteenth century primarily by a wealthy businessman, it has long been home to people of many different occupations and numerous places on the social ladder. After seeing very few changes throughout the twentieth century, it was named a historic site in the 1980s.
The Josiah Kirby House is a historic residence in the city of Wyoming, Ohio, United States. Erected in the late nineteenth century, it was originally the home of a prominent Cincinnati-area businessman and politician, and it has been designated a historic site.
The Riddle–Friend House is a historic residence in Wyoming, Ohio. Constructed in the early nineteenth century, it has been home to some of the area's earliest residents, and it has been named a historic site as a rare survivor of the city's earliest years.
Twin Oaks, also known as the "Robert Reily House", is a historically significant residence in the city of Wyoming, located near Cincinnati in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Ohio. Constructed in the middle of the nineteenth century, it was the home of Robert Reily, one of the leading citizens of early Wyoming. Its heavy stone architecture features a mix of two important architectural styles of the period, and it has been named a historic site.
The Alkire House is a historic residence in the Columbus suburb of Westerville, Ohio, United States. Constructed during the middle of the nineteenth century and used both as a residence and as a slave-smuggling safehouse, it retains much of its original fabric, and it has been designated a historic site.
The North Hatfield Historic District encompasses a small rural village in Hatfield, Massachusetts. It consists of a small cluster of buildings along West Street and Depot Road in the vicinity of a former railroad station. It includes a few buildings associated with the railroad, including a depot and freight buildings, as well as commercial and residential structures, most of which postdate the 1848 arrival of the railroad. The village was important in the community as an arrival point for immigrants working in its fields and industry. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.
The Brick Tavern House is a former inn on the National Road west of St. Clairsville, Ohio, United States. One of the oldest National Road taverns still in existence, it was built in the early nineteenth century. Although it fell into dilapidation during the late twentieth century, it was named a historic site in 1995, and extensive restoration was to be performed in the early 2010s but to date, has not been.
St. Patrick's Church is a historic Roman Catholic church in Glynwood, an unincorporated community in Moulton Township, Auglaize County, Ohio, United States. Located north of U.S. Route 33 between St. Marys and Wapakoneta, the church was built in 1883 in the Gothic Revival style. It is one of many large Catholic churches in a region of rural western Ohio known as the "Land of the Cross-Tipped Churches," which was settled by primarily Catholic immigrants during the nineteenth century.
St. Michael's Catholic Church is a historic Catholic church in Mechanicsburg, a village in Champaign County, Ohio, United States. Completed in the 1880s, it served a group of Catholics who had already been meeting together for nearly thirty years. One of several historic churches in the village, it has been designated a historic site because of its well-preserved nineteenth-century architecture.
The Urbana College Historic Buildings are a historic district on the campus of Urbana University in Urbana, Ohio, United States. Composed of three nineteenth-century buildings, the district includes the oldest structures on the university's campus.
The Masonic Temple is a historic Masonic temple in the village of Mechanicsburg, Ohio, United States. Built in the 1900s for a local Masonic lodge that had previously met in a succession of buildings owned by others, it is the last extant Mechanicsburg building constructed for a secret society, whether Masonic or otherwise, and it has been designated a historic site because of its well-preserved American Craftsman architecture.
The Chester Town Hall is a historic governmental building and community meeting place in the village of Chesterville, Ohio, United States. Built in the 1860s by the village and a fraternal society, it has served as home for both entities throughout its history, as well as providing space for Chester Township officials and community gatherings. Along with numerous other buildings in the village, it has been named a historic site.
The Chesterville Methodist Church is a United Methodist congregation in the village of Chesterville, Ohio, United States. Founded in the 1830s, it is Chesterville's only church, and it worships in a landmark 1850s building. Constructed during the village's most prominent years, the building is one of the most significant structures anywhere in the community, and it has been named a historic site as an important part of the village's nineteenth-century built environment.
The Frederick Fabing House is a historic residence in Fremont, Ohio, United States. Built as the home of one of the area's richest men, it has been designated a historic site.
The Yellow Springs Historic District is a large historic district that encompasses the majority of the village of Yellow Springs, Ohio, United States.
The Village Hobby Shop is a historic building in the village of Mechanicsburg, Ohio, United States. Built on Main Street in the late 19th century, it is one of the village's oldest extant commercial buildings, and it has been named a historic site.
The Glenford Bank is a historic bank in the small village of Glenford, Ohio, United States. Built in the early twentieth century, the building has served as a core component of village life for much of its history, and it has been named a historic site because of its distinctive architecture.
The Perry County Courthouse is a historic government building in the city of New Lexington, Ohio, United States. Built near the end of the nineteenth century after the end of a county seat war, it is the fifth courthouse to serve Perry County, and it has been named a historic site because of its imposing architecture.
The Norvall Hunter Farm is a historic farmstead on the edge of the village of Mechanicsburg, Ohio, United States. Established in the middle of the nineteenth century, the farm was once home to one of the village's first professionals, and it has been named a historic site because of its distinctive architecture.
The Silas Ferrell House is a historic residence in the village of Shiloh, Ohio, United States. Built in the closing decades of the nineteenth century as the home of a wealthy businessman, the house exemplifies the economic prosperity of 1880s Shiloh. Its distinctive architecture has qualified it for designation as a historic site.