Peduncle (botany)

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Long, magenta peduncles on an American pokeweed, each supporting a raceme. Pokeberries.png
Long, magenta peduncles on an American pokeweed, each supporting a raceme.
Agave with emergent peduncle. The flowers have not yet emerged from the buds. Note bracts and branches at nodes. Compare with Papyrus Agave with emergent peduncle IMG 5336.JPG
Agave with emergent peduncle. The flowers have not yet emerged from the buds. Note bracts and branches at nodes. Compare with Papyrus
Cyperus scapes. Contrast with peduncle of Agave Cyperus scapes IMG 5322p.JPG
Cyperus scapes. Contrast with peduncle of Agave

In botany, a peduncle is a stalk supporting an inflorescence or a solitary flower, or, after fecundation, an infructescence or a solitary fruit. The peduncle sometimes has bracts (a type of cataphylls) at nodes. The main axis of an inflorescence above the peduncle is the rachis. There are no flowers on the peduncle but there are flowers on the rachis. [1] [2] [3]

When a peduncle arises from the ground level, either from a compressed aerial stem or from a subterranean stem (rhizome, tuber, bulb, corm), with few or no bracts except the part near the rachis or receptacle, it is referred to as a scape. [2]

The acorns of the pedunculate oak are borne on a long peduncle, hence the name of the tree.

See also

Related Research Articles

Hypanthium Structure in angiosperms where basal portions form a cup-shaped tube

In angiosperms, a hypanthium or floral cup is a structure where basal portions of the calyx, the corolla, and the stamens form a cup-shaped tube. It is sometimes called a floral tube, a term that is also used for corolla tube and calyx tube. It often contains the nectaries of the plant. It is present in most flowering species, although varies in structural dimensions and appearance. This differentiation between the hypanthium in particular species is useful for identification. Some geometric forms are obconic shapes as in toyon, whereas some are saucer-shaped as in Mitella caulescens.

Inflorescence Term used in botany to describe a cluster of flowers

An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. One can also define an inflorescence as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern.

Frond Collection of leaflets on a plant

A frond is a large, divided leaf. In both common usage and botanical nomenclature, the leaves of ferns are referred to as fronds and some botanists restrict the term to this group. Other botanists allow the term frond to also apply to the large leaves of cycads, as well as palms (Arecaceae) and various other flowering plants, such as mimosa or sumac. "Frond" is commonly used to identify a large, compound leaf, but if the term is used botanically to refer to the leaves of ferns and algae it may be applied to smaller and undivided leaves.

In botany, an umbel is an inflorescence that consists of a number of short flower stalks which spread from a common point, somewhat like umbrella ribs. The word was coined in botanical usage in the 1590s, from Latin umbella "parasol, sunshade". The arrangement can vary from being flat-topped to almost spherical. Umbels can be simple or compound. The secondary umbels of compound umbels are known as umbellules or umbellets. A small umbel is called an umbellule. The arrangement of the inflorescence in umbels is referred to as umbellate, or occasionally subumbellate.

Multiple fruit

Multiple fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of fruiting flowers, the inflorescence. Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass in which each flower has produced a true fruit. After flowering the mass is called an infructescence. Examples are the fig, pineapple, mulberry, osage-orange, and jackfruit.

Scape (botany) Long non-woody, leafless segment between two leaf-bearing regions of a plant

In botany, a scape is a peduncle arising from a subterranean or very compressed stem, with the lower internodes very long and hence few or no bracts except the part near the rachis or receptacle. Typically it takes the form of a long, leafless flowering stem rising directly from a bulb, rhizome, or similar subterranean or underwater structure.

Pseudanthium Type of inflorescence, clusters of flowers

A pseudanthium is an inflorescence that resembles a flower. The word is sometimes used for other structures that are neither a true flower nor a true inflorescence. Examples of pseudanthia include flower head, composite flower, or capitulum, which are special types of inflorescences in which anything from a small cluster to hundreds or sometimes thousands of flowers are grouped together to form a single flower-like structure. Pseudanthia take various forms. The real flowers are generally small and often greatly reduced, but the pseudanthium itself can sometimes be quite large.

Pedicel (botany) Structure connecting flowers or fruit to the main stem of a plant

A pedicel is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence. Such inflorescences are described as pedicellate.

Pseuduvaria galeata is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is a tree endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. James Sinclair, the Scottish botanist who first formally described the species, named it after the dome formed by inner petals shaped like a helmet.

Pseuduvaria taipingensis is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is a tree endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. James Sinclair, the Scottish botanist who first formally described the species, named it after Taiping a city in Perak, Malaysia where the specimen he examined was collected.

<i>Neonicholsonia</i> Genus of palms

Neonicholsonia is a monotypic genus of flowering plant in the palm family native to Central America. The sole species is Neonicholsonia watsonii. The genus and species names honor George Nicholson, a former curator of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and his successor William Watson.

Plectocomiopsis is a dioecious genus of flowering plant in the palm family found in Indochina, Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Hapaxanthic and armed with spines, they are a climbing rattan, closely related to the Myrialepis palms. The name is Greek for "similar to Plectocomia", another close relative.

<i>Allagoptera caudescens</i> Species of palm

Allagoptera caudescens is a species of flowering plant in the palm family endemic to Brazil, where it is known as buri palm. The name combines the Greek words for "many" and "anther" with the name of another palm genus Cocos, and the epithet is Latin for "bearlike", referring to the hairy tomentum. It was formerly classified as Polyandrococos caudescens, the only species in the genus Polyandrococos.

<i>Sommieria</i> Genus of palms

Sommieria is a monotypic genus of flowering plant in the palm family endemic to New Guinea where they grow in rain forest understory. The sole species is Sommieria leucophylla. They resemble the Asterogyne palms but are most closely related to those members of Heterospathe with short stems and sparsely branched inlforescences. The name honors Stephen Sommier, European botanist.

Sessility (botany) Leaves or flowers that grow directly from the stem or peduncle of a plant

In botany, sessility is a characteristic of plant parts that have no stalk. Plant parts can also be described as subsessile, that is, not completely sessile.

Cataphyll In plant morphology, a reduced, small leaf

In plant morphology, a cataphyll is a reduced, small leaf. Many plants have both "true leaves" (euphylls), which perform most of the photosynthesis, and cataphylls, which are modified to perform other functions.

Pseuduvaria glossopetala is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is native to the Malay Peninsula. Yvonne Chuan Fang Su and Richard M.K. Saunders, the botanists who first formally described the species, named it after the tongue shaped gland on their inner petals.

Pseuduvaria sessilifolia is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is native to New Guinea. James Sinclair, the botanist who first formally described the species, named it after its stalkless leaves which lack petioles.

Pseuduvaria unguiculata is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is endemic to The Philippines. Adolph Daniel Edward Elmer, the American botanist who first formally described the species, named it after its clawed inner petals.

Pseuduvaria villosa is a species of plant in the family Annonaceae. It is endemic to Australia. L.W. Jessup, the botanist who first formally described the species, named it after its leaves and branchlets which are shaggy with long soft hairs.

References

  1. Harris, James G.; Harris, Melinda Woolf (2001). Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary (2nd ed.). Spring Lake, Utah: Spring Lake Publishing. ISBN   978-0-9640221-6-4. OCLC   45951032.
  2. 1 2 Henslow, John Stevens (2009). A Dictionary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-511-70154-2. OCLC   889956193.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  3. Beentje, Henk (2010). The Kew Plant glossary: An Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN   978-1-84246-422-9. OCLC   464589004.