Telugu literature

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Telugu literature is the body of works written in the Telugu language. It consists of poems, short stories, novels, plays, and song lyrics, among others. There is some indication that Telugu literature dates at least to the middle of the first millennium, the first extant works are from the 11th century when the Mahabharata was first translated to Telugu from Sanskrit by Nannaya. The language experienced a golden age under the patronage of the Vijayanagara king-poet Krishnadevaraya.

Contents

Sources

There are various sources available for information on early Telugu writers. Among these are the prologues to their poems, which followed the Sanskrit model by customarily giving a brief description of the writer, a history of the king to whom the book is dedicated, and a chronological list of the books he published. In addition, historical information is available from inscriptions that can be correlated with the poems; there are several grammars, treatises, and anthologies that provide illustrative stanzas; and there is also information available from the lives of the poets and the traditions that they followed. [1]

Subject matter

Early Telugu literature is predominantly religious in subject matter. Poets and scholars drew most of their material from, and spent most of their time translating epics, such as the Ramayana , the Mahabharata , the Bhagavata and the Puranas, all of which are considered to be storehouses of Indian culture. [2]

From the sixteenth century onwards, rarely known episodes from the Puranas would form the basis for the tradition of Telugu-language kavya . Literary works are drawn from episodes of the Puranas under the name Akhyana or Khanda became popular along with depictions of the fortune of a single hero under the title of Charitra, Vijaya, Vilasa and Abhyudaya. Such titles are examples of what would become the most common subject matter of poetry. [2]

In the eighteenth-century, marriages of heroes under the title Parinaya, Kalyana and Vivāha became popular. [2]

Religious literature consisted of biographies of the founders of religion, their teachings ( Sara ) as well as commentaries ( bhashya ). [2]

Traditional Hindu knowledge systems such as astrology, law, grammar, ballets, moral aphorisms, and devotional psalms to deities within the Hindu pantheon are characteristics of more popular works of Telugu literature. [2]

Forms

The various forms of literature found in Telugu are:

Ashtadiggajas have written in all three of the Prabandham genres during the Prabandha yugam. [5]

Telugu literature uses a unique expression in verse called Champu, which mixes prose and poetry. Although it is the dominant literary form, there are exceptions: for example, Tikkana composed Uttara Ramayana entirely in verse. [6]

As Champu Kavyas and Prabandhas were beyond the comprehension of masses, new devices for the dissemination of knowledge among the people were developed in the form of the Dvipada and Sataka styles. Dvipada means two feet (couplet) and Sataka means hundred (a cento of verses). [7] (Popular satakas: Sarveshvara sataka, Kalahastishvara sataka, Dasarathi Sataka)

There are some Satakas which are divided into ten groups of ten verses called Dasaka which is adopted from Prakrit. [8]

Avadhanam is a literary performance popular from the very ancient days in Sanskrit and more so in Telugu and Kannada languages. [4] It requires a good memory and tests a person's capability of performing multiple tasks simultaneously. [4] All the tasks are memory intensive and demand an in-depth knowledge of literature, and prosody. The number of Prucchakas can be 8 (Ashtavadhanam) or 100 (Sataavadhaanam) or even 1000 (Sahasravadhanam). A person who has successfully performed Ashtavadhanam is called as Ashtavadhani, a Satavadhanam is called a Satavadhani and Sahasraavadhaanam is called Sahasravadhani. [4]

Dwipada

A dwipada is a couplet with a specific rhyme scheme. [9] [10] A stanza contains two short lines, each with less than fifteen characters. Longer poems, composed of many dwipada, can be composed with a "highly musical" effect. [9] Much of the extant corpus in this form was written using the common language of the time. The form's musicality and accessibility made the form a natural fit for spreading religious messages. Palkurki Somanatha was the first to write in this form in the 12th or 13th century. [9] His works Basava Puranam and Panditaradhya Charitra were "immensely singable" devotional works to Shiva as Basaveshwara. [9] Influenced by Shaivaite poets' use of dwipada, a Vaishnavite poet wrote the Ranganadha Ramayana, a version of the Ramayana that became incredibly popular for its singability, vernacular diction, and stories not found in Valmiki's version. [9] The form reached its apex with Palnati Vira Charitra, popularly ascribed to the 14th century poet Srinatha. [9] By the end of the Prabandha era, the three most important Sanskrit poems had been translated into Telugu in dwipada: the Mahabharata by Thimmaya, the Ramayana by Ranganadha, and the Bhagavatam by Tekumalla Ranga Sai. [9] The form declined after the dwipada works of the early 17th century king-poet Raghunatha Nayak of Tanjore. Dwipada's accessibility has sometimes meant it was not a prestigious form of Telugu poetry. In the 19th century, scholar Charles Philip Brown noted "the learned despise couplets because the poems thus written are in a flowing easy style which uneducated persons read with enjoyment." [10] Only a few writers today use it out of lingering respect its history. [9]

Padam

Padams are lyric poems usually meant to be sung, with an opening line or lines called a pallavi, followed by three caranam verses, each of which is followed by the pallavi refrain. [11] The padam is thus "a highly integrated, internally resonant syntactic and thematic unit." [11] Annamacharya, the most famous composer of Telugu padams, is said to have composed a padam a day for the god of the Tirupati temple, Venkateshwara. His poems, of which 13,000 survive on copper plates stored in the temple vaults, deal with the "infinite varieties and nuances of the god’s love life" and "his sense of himself as an agonized, turbulent human being in relation to the god he worships". [11]

Chatu

Chatus (meaning "charming utterance") are remembered poems passed on by recitation. [12] In premodern South India, literate people recited chatus to each other as a social pastime. [12] Most of these poems have memorable stories that go along with them that explain and contextualize them. They have passed through a lively oral tradition for hundreds of years, and been anthologized since the 19th century by scholars like Veturi Prabhakara Sastri. [12] Many chatus are attributed to Srinatha, Tenali Ramalingadu, and other famous poets. These attributions, most of which are unverifiable, serve to make both mythologize these poets and judge their relative merit. Once made legends, they're free to interact anachronistically in chatus. Poets from different eras meet, exchange poems, and critique each other. [12] In sum, chatus, "moving from gnomic advice to metalinguistic criticism, through the domains of desire, social commentary, the articulation of cultural values, and critical taste, these interlocking stanzas embody an entire education, an expressive vision of life and poetry." [12]

Satakamu

A satakamu literally means "an anthology of a hundred poems", but the number is usually somewhat higher, often an auspicious number like 108. [13] The anthology is meant to be taken together. A list of notable such anthologies:

Poetics

The Praudha Prabandha or Maha Kavya is considered as highest form of verse. The essentials of such a composition according to the Telugu poetic theory are

  • Drāksha (wine or grape): Draksha is a crystal clear style where everything is seen through a transparent medium. Mostly Nannayya uses this mould. [6]
  • Kadali (plantain): Kadali is complex pāka because the soft skin has to peeled to reach the core of the subject. Mostly Tikkana uses this mould. [6]
  • Narikela (coconut): Narikela is the most difficult mould to employ because one has to break the rind to understand the idea. Vishnu Chittiyam or Krishnadevaraya are cast in this pāka. [3]

History

Early writers

The Pre-Nannayya Period (before 1020 AD)

In the earliest period, Telugu literature existed in the form of inscriptions, precisely from 575 AD on-wards.[ citation needed ]

The 6th or 7th century Sanskrit text Janashrayi-Chhandovichiti (or Janāśraya-chandas) deals with the metres used in Telugu, including some metres that are not found in Sanskrit prosody. This indicates that Telugu poetry existed during or around the 6th century. [14]

.[ citation needed ]

Malliya Rechana (940 CE) [15] [16] [17]

Malliya Rechana composed the first Telugu poetic prosody book Kavijanasrayam (pre-Nannayya chandassu) around 940 AD. This was a popular one and referred by many poets. There seems to be even an earlier prosody book by Rechana's guru Vaadindra Chudamani which is not available.

Veturi Prabhakara Sastry in 1900s mentioned about the existence of Pre-Nannayya Chandassu in Raja Raja Narendra Pattabhisheka Sanchika. [17] Accurate dating of this piece of literature happened after the 1980s discoveries in Karimnagar.

[18] . [15] [19]

The Age of the Puranas (1020–1400 CE)

This is the period of Kavi Trayam or Trinity of Poets. Nannayya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada (or Errana) are known as the Kavi Trayam.

Nannaya Bhattarakudu or Adi Kavi (1022–1063 AD)

Nannaya Bhattarakudu's (Telugu : నన్నయ) Andhra mahabharatam , who lived around the 11th century, is commonly referred to as the first Telugu literary composition (aadi kaavyam).[ citation needed ] Although there is evidence of Telugu literature before Nannaya, he is given the epithet Aadi Kavi ("the first poet"). Nannaya was the first to establish a formal grammar of written Telugu. This grammar followed the patterns which existed in grammatical treatises like Aṣṭādhyāyī and Vālmīkivyākaranam but unlike Pāṇini, Nannayya divided his work into five chapters, covering samjnā, sandhi, ajanta, halanta and kriya. [20] Nannaya completed the first two chapters and a part of the third chapter of the Mahabharata epic, which is rendered in the Champu style.[ citation needed ]

[21]

Tikkanna Somayaji (1205–1288 AD)

Nannaya's Andhra Mahabharatam was almost completed by Tikkanna Somayaji (Telugu : తిక్కన సోమయాజి) (1205–1288) who wrote chapters 4 to 18.[ citation needed ]

Errapragada

Errapragada, (Telugu : ఎర్రాప్రగడ) who lived in the 14th century, finished the epic by completing the third chapter.[ citation needed ] He mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning, slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of Tikkana.[ citation needed ] These three writers – Nannaya, Tikkana and Yerrapragada – are known as the Kavitraya ("three great poets") of Telugu. Other such translations like Marana’s Markandeya Puranam, Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed. Many scientific[ relevant? ] works, like Ganitasarasangrahamu by Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by Eluganti Peddana, were written in the 12th century. [22] [ full citation needed ]

Baddena Bhupala (1220-1280AD)

Sumati Shatakam, which is a neeti ("moral"), is one of the most famous Telugu Shatakams.[ citation needed ] Shatakam is composed of more than a 100 padyalu (poems). According to many literary critics[ who? ]Sumati Shatakam was composed by Baddena Bhupaludu (Telugu : బద్దెన భూపాల) (CE 1220–1280). He was also known as Bhadra Bhupala. He was a Chola prince and a vassal under the Kakatiya empress Rani Rudrama Devi, and a pupil of Tikkana.[ citation needed ] If we assume that the Sumati Shatakam was indeed written by Baddena, it would rank as one of the earliest Shatakams in Telugu along with the Vrushadhipa Satakam of Palkuriki Somanatha and the Sarveswara Satakam of Yathavakkula Annamayya.[ original research? ] The Sumatee Shatakam is also one of the earliest Telugu works to be translated into a European language, as C. P. Brown rendered it in English in the 1840s.[ citation needed ]

The Prabandha Period (1400–1600 AD)

Srinatha

Srinatha (Telugu : శ్రీనాథుడు) (1365–1441) popularised the Prabandha style of composition. [23] He was a minister in the court of Pedakomati Vemareddy of Kondaveedu[ citation needed ] and wrote Salivahana Saptasati, Shivaratri Mahatyam, Harivilasa, Bhimakanda, Kashi khandam, Shringara Naishadham, Palanati Veera charitra, Dhananjaya Vijayam , Sringara Dipika. These works were concerned with history and mythology.[ citation needed ] Srinatha's Srungara Naishadhamu is a well-known example of the form. [23] Srinatha was widely regarded as the Kavi Sarvabhowma ("the emperor among poets").[ citation needed ]

Vemana

Kumaragiri Vema Reddy (Telugu : వేమన), popularly known as Yogi Vemana, was a 14th-century Telugu poet. [24] His poems were written in the popular vernacular of Telugu, and are known for their use of simple language and native idioms.[ citation needed ] His poems discuss the subjects of Yoga, wisdom and morality.[ citation needed ] There is no consensus among scholars about the period in which Vemana lived. C.P. Brown, known for his research on Vemana, estimates the year of birth to be the year 1352 based on some of his verses.[ citation needed ] His poems are four lines in length. The fourth line is, in the majority of the cases, the chorus Vishwadhabhirama Vinura Vema – he thus conveyed his message with three small lines written in a simple vernacular.[ citation needed ] He traveled widely across south India, acquiring popularity as a poet and Yogi.[ citation needed ] So high was the regard for Vemana that a popular Telugu saying goes 'Vemana's word is the word of the Vedas'.[ citation needed ] He is celebrated for his style of Chaatu padyam, a poem with a hidden meaning.[ citation needed ] Many lines of Vemana's poems are now colloquial phrases of the Telugu language.[ citation needed ] They end with the signature line Vishwadhaabhi Raama, Vinura Vema, literally Beloved of Vishwadha, listen Vema. There are many interpretations of what the last line signifies.[ citation needed ]

Bammera Potanaamatya

Bammera Potanaamatya (Telugu : బమ్మెర పోతన) (1450–1510) is best known for his translation of the Bhagavata Purana from Sanskrit to Telugu.[ citation needed ] His work, Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu. He was born into a Brahmin family and was considered to be a Sahaja Kavi ("natural poet") who needed no teacher. He wrote Bhogini Dandakam a poem praising king Singa Bhoopala's consort danseuse, Bhogini, while young. This is the earliest available Telugu Dandaka (a rhapsody which uses the same gana or foot throughout). [25] [ full citation needed ] His second work was Virabhadra Vijayamu which describes the adventures of Virabhadra, son of Shiva.[ citation needed ] As a young man, he was a devotee of Shiva and also Rama and was more interested in salvation, from which came the inspiration to translate the Bhagavata Purana.[ citation needed ]

Annamacharya

Tallapaka Annamacharya (or Annamayya) (Telugu : శ్రీ తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య) (9 May 1408 – 23 February 1503) is known as the Pada-kavita Pitaamaha of the Telugu language. [26] He was born to a Vaidiki Brahmin family and his works are considered to have dominated and influenced the structure of Carnatic music compositions.[ citation needed ] Annamacharya is said to have composed as many as 32,000 sankeertanas (songs) on Bhagwaan Govinda Venkateswara, [27] of which only about 12,000 are available today. His keertana compositions are based on the Vishishtadvaita school of thought.[ citation needed ] Annamayya was educated in this system of Ramanuja by Sri Satagopa Yateendra of the Ahobila matham.[ citation needed ]

Tallapaka Tirumalamma

Tallapaka Tirumalamma (Telugu : తాళ్ళపాక తిరుమలమ్మ) (Annamacharya's wife) [28] wrote Subhadra Kalyanam, and is considered the first female poet in Telugu literature.[ by whom? ] Her main work, Subhadra Kalyanam, which consists of 1170 poems, is about the marriage of Arjuna and Subhadra, who are characters that appear in the Mahabharata. She presented the Telugu nativity and culture in the story taken from Sanskrit epic.[ citation needed ]

Allasani Peddana

Allasani Peddana (Telugu : అల్లసాని పెద్దన) (15th and 16th centuries) was ranked as the foremost of the Ashtadiggajalu the title for the group of eight poets in the court of Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire.[ citation needed ] Peddana was a native of Somandepalli near Anantapur.[ citation needed ] Allasani Peddana wrote the first major Prabandha and for this reason he is revered as Andhra Kavita Pitamaha ("the grand father of Telugu poetry").[ citation needed ] It is believed[ by whom? ] that he was also a minister in the king's court and is hence sometimes referred as Peddanaamaatya (Peddana + Amaatya = Peddana, the minister).[ citation needed ] He wrote Swaarochisha Manu Sambhavam (also known as Manu Charitra), which is a development of an episode in the Markandeya Purana relating to the birth of Svarochishamanu, who is one of the fourteen Manus. Pravarakhya is a pious Brahmin youth who goes to the Himalayas for Tapasya. In the Himalayas Varudhini, a Gandharva girl, falls in love with him, but Pravarakyudu rejects her love. Knowing this a Gandharva youth who was earlier rejected by Varudhini assumes the form of Pravarakhya and succeeds to win her love. To them is born Svarochisha, the father of Svarochishamanu. [25] [ full citation needed ] The theme for his Manu Charitra is a short story from Markandeya Purana. It is about second Manu of fourteen manus (fathers of mankind societies according to Hindu mythology), translated into Telugu from Sanskrit by Marana (1291–1323),[ citation needed ] disciple of Tikkana. The original story was around 150 poems and Peddana extended into six chapters with 600 poems by adding fiction and descriptions.

His work was treated as one of the Pancha Kavyas , the five best works in Telugu. Some of his other famous works such as Harikathaasaaramu are untraceable now.[ citation needed ]

Dhurjati

Dhurjati or Dhoorjati (Telugu : ధూర్జటి) (15th and 16th centuries) was a poet in the court of Krishnadevaraya and was one of the 'Ashtadiggajalu'.[ citation needed ] He was born to Singamma and Narayana in Sri Kalahasti and was the grandson of Jakkayya.[ citation needed ] His works include Sri Kalahasteeshwara Mahatyam (The grace/miracles of Lord Shiva) and Sri Kalahasteeshwara Shatakam (100+ poems in the praise of Lord Shiva). Dhurjati took themes from Puranas and added local stories and myths in his work.[ citation needed ] Unlike contemporaries such as Peddana and Mallana, who chose the stories of kings, he chose devotion as his theme.[ citation needed ] Krishnadevaraya praised Dhurjati, saying "Stuti mati yaina Andhrakavi Dhurjati palkulakelagalgeno yetulita madhuri mahima...." (How is Dhurjati's poetry so immeasurably beautiful). [29] On a personal note, he was known as Pedda Dhurjati ("elder Dhurjati") as there were four other people from the same family line who went by the name of Dhurjati during the same period and after him.[ citation needed ] His grandson Venkataraya Dhurjati, wrote Indumati Parinayam ("marriage of Indumati"), a story from Kalidasa's Raghuvamsam.

Krishnadevaraya

Krishnadevaraya (Telugu : శ్రీ కృష్ణదేవరాయ) was an emperor of Vijayanagara Kingdom. Literary activities flourished during the rule of the Vijayanagara dynasty,[ citation needed ] and the period of Krishnadevaraya's rule in the sixteenth century is considered[ by whom? ] to be the golden age of Telugu literature.[ citation needed ] Krishnadevaraya, a poet himself, introduced the Prabandha to Telugu literature.[ citation needed ]Amukta Malyada. Krishna Deva Raya wrote the book Amuktamalyada in Telugu, describing the pangs of separation suffered by Andal (an incarnation of the goddess Mahalakshmi. He describes Andal's physical beauty in thirty verses; using descriptions of the spring and the monsoon as metaphors.[ citation needed ] As elsewhere in Indian poetry, the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine.[ citation needed ] His court had the Ashtadiggajas ("eight elephants"), who were considered to be the greatest of poets of that time.[ citation needed ] Some critics[ who? ] dismiss the following period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age.[ citation needed ] Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth- to mid-nineteenth century, Kankanti Paparaju’s Uttara Ramayana in campu style, and the play Vishnumayavilasa stand out.[ citation needed ] Other genres bloomed at the same time.[ which? ] Yakshaganas, indigenous dramas of song and prose, were also produced.[ citation needed ]

Tenali Ramakrishna

Garlapati Tenali Ramakrishna (Telugu : గార్లపాటి తెనాలి రామకృష్ణ), popularly known as Tenali Rama and Vikata Kavi, was another sixteenth-century court poet of the Vijayanagara empire and also one of the Ashtadiggajas. His family had originally hailed from Tenali in Guntur District, he was born in a Telugu Niyogi Brahmin family. His famous work Panduranga Mahatyamu is one among the Pancha Kavyas.[ citation needed ] He dedicated that to Viruri Vedadri. [30] This book is about the Pundarika Kshetram on the banks of river Bhaimi and its legend. He also composed Udbhataradhya Charitram on the story of Udbhata, a monk, as well as Ghatikachala Mahatyam about Ghatikachalam, a place of worship for God Narasimha near Vellore. He followed the Prabandha style. He took the theme for Panduranga Mahatyam from the Skanda Purana and enhanced it with many stories about the devotees of God Vitthala (Panduranga). He is noted for brilliance and wit and for mocking other poets and great personalities. He created a celebrated character called Nigama Sarma akka (sister of Nigama Sarma) and a story about her without giving her a name. He also had written many Chatuvu (extempore poems).

The post-Prabandha Period (1600-1850)

Mulugu Papayaradhya

Mulugu Papayaradhya, also known as Mulugu Papayya or Sangameswara Sastry, (1778 - 1852) was a Telugu and Sanskrit scholar, preceptor, translator, and writer, known for his translation of the Devi Bhagavatam from Sanskrit into Telugu and for being the preceptor and court poet of the Raja of Amavarati, Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu. [31] [32] Mulugu Papayaradhya was born to Viranaradhya and Akkamba. [31] He is known to have written more than a hundred works in Telugu and Sanskrit. [31] He was titled as Abhinava Kalidasa. [33] He was a Veera Shaivite acharya (preceptor).

Mulugu Papayaradhya is regarded as the first poet to translate the Devi Bhagavata Purana into Telugu. [34] From the more than hundred works he wrote, Kalyanacampu, Ekadasivratacampu, Aryasati, Sivastotra, and Vedantasarasangraha are among the more prominent works. [35] Papayaradhya also wrote the Ahalya Sankrandana Vilasamu. [36]

Kshetrayya

Kshetrayya or Kshetragna (Telugu : క్షేత్రయ్య) (c.1600–1680 CE) was a prolific poet and composer of Carnatic music. He lived in the area of Andhra Pradesh. He composed a number of padams and keertanas, the prevalent formats of his time. He is credited with more than 4000 compositions, although only a handful have survived. He composed his songs on his favourite deity Krishna (Gopala) in Telugu. He perfected the padam format that is still being used today. His padams are sung in dance (Bharatanatyam and Kuchipudi) and music recitals. A unique feature of his padams is the practice of singing the anupallavi first then the pallavi (second verse followed by first verse). Most of the padams are of the theme of longing for the coming of the lord Krishna. He wrote with Sringara as a main theme in expressing madhurabhakti (devotion to the supreme). Sringara is a motif where the mundane sexual relationship between a Nayaki (woman) and a Nayaka (man) is used as a metaphor, denoting the yearning of jeeva (usually depicted as the Nayaki) to unite with the divine (usually depicted as the man). In most of his compositions, Kshetrayya has used the mudra (signature) "Muvva Gopala" as a reference to himself, which is also a name for Lord Krishna in Kshetrayya's village Muvva, now called as Movva. Kshetrayya's work has played a major role in influencing poetry, dance, music of the South Indian tradition. Kshetrayya was intimately connected with the devadasi women of the temples of south India, who were the subject of many of his compositions. The devadasis were traditionally in possession of the musical/poetic interpretations of his work for a long period of time till the devadasi system was abolished and the compositions became more accepted in the musical community as valuable works of art. The musical community also owes a lot to Veena Dhanammal and T. Brinda, who popularised Kshetrayya's songs with their beautiful musical interpretation. Kshetrayya's padyams now form an integral part of the dance and musical traditions of South India, where his songs are rendered purely as musical works or as accompaniments to dance.

Kaluve Veera Raju

A prose translation by Kaluve Veera Raju which appeared hundred years later (ca 1700) had good success. He was the army chief under Chikka Deva Raya (1672-1704) of the Mysore Kingdom. [37] [38]

Kancherla Gopanna

Kancherla Gopanna (Telugu : కంచెర్ల గోపన్న) (c 1620–1680 CE), popularly known as Bhadradri Ramadasu or Bhadrachala Ramadasu (Telugu : భద్రాచల రామదాసు), was a 17th-century Indian devotee of Rama and a composer of Carnatic music. [39] He is one among the famous vaggeyakaras (same person being the writer and composer of a song) in the Telugu language. His devotional lyrics to Rama are famous in South Indian classical music as Ramadaasu Keertanalu. Even the doyen of South Indian classical music Saint Thyagaraja learned and later improved the style now considered standard kriti form of music composition. He also has written Dasarathi Shatakamu a collection of nearly 100 poems dedicated to the son of Dasaratha (Lord Rama).

Venkamamba

Tarikonda Venkamamba (Telugu:తారికొండ వెంకమాంబ ; alternate spelling: Vengamamba, born 1730) was a poet and staunch devotee of Lord Venkateswara in the 18th century. She wrote numerous poems and songs.

Tyagaraja

Tyagaraja or Tyagabrahmam (Telugu : కాకర్ల త్యాగబ్రహ్మం) (1767–1847) of Tanjore composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the repertoire of Carnatic music. In addition to nearly 600 compositions (kritis), Tyagaraja composed two musical plays in Telugu, the Prahalada Bhakti Vijayam and the Nauka Charitam . Prahlada Bhakti Vijayam is in five acts with 45 kritis set in 28 ragas and 138 verses, in different metres in Telugu. Nauka Charitam is a shorter play in one act with 21 kritis set in 13 ragas and 43 verses. The latter is the most popular of Tyagaraja's operas, and is a creation of the composer's own imagination and has no basis in the Bhagavata Purana. Often overlooked is the fact that Tyagaraja's works are some of the best and most beautiful literary expressions in Telugu language.[ citation needed ] Valmiki composed the Ramayana, the story of Rama, with 24,000 verses and also composed 24,000 kritis in praise of the lord.[ citation needed ]

Paravastu Chinnayasuri

Paravastu Chinnayasuri (Telugu : పరవస్తు చిన్నయ సూరి) (1807–1861) wrote Baala Vyaakaranamu in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra Grammar[ clarification needed ] which is his greatest gift [ peacock term ] to Telugu people. Other notable works of Chinnayasuri include Neeti Chandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola and Neeti Sangrahamu. Chinnayasuri translated Mitra Labham and Mitra Bhedam from the Sanskrit Panchatantra as Neeti Chandrika. Kandukuri Veeresalingam and Kokkonda Venkata Ratnam Pantulu followed his style of prose writing and wrote Vigrahamu and Sandhi in a different pattern.[ clarification needed ]

Modern Period

Modern Telugu Poetry

This started with Gurajada Apparao, who changed the face of Telugu poetry with his Muthayala Saralu, and was perfected by later writers in the Romanticism era including Rayaprolu and Devulapalli Krishna Sastri. Gurajada's attempt to reform Telugu poetry by shedding old rules and styles reached a zenith with Sri Sri. SriSri's famous work "Maha Prastanam" is an instant hit with every corners of society. Many writers followed his style and continue to enrich the literature.

Kandukuri Veeresalingam

Kandukuri Veeresalingam (Telugu: కందుకూరి వీరేశలింగం) (also known as Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu (Telugu: కందుకూరి వీరేశలింగం పంతులు), (16 April 1848 – 27 May 1919) was a social reformer of Andhra Pradesh. He was born in an orthodox Andhra Brahmin family. He is widely considered as the man who first brought about a renaissance in Telugu people and Telugu literature. He was influenced by the ideals of Brahmo Samaj particularly those of Keshub Chunder Sen. Veereshalingam panthulu is popularly called Gadya Tikkana.[ citation needed ] He wrote about 100 books between 1869 and 1919 and introduced the essay, biography, autobiography and the novel into Telugu literature [40] His Satyavati Charitam was the first social novel in Telugu.[ citation needed ] He wrote Rajashekhara Charitamu inspired by Oliver Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefied. To him literature was an instrument to fight social evils.[ citation needed ]

Acharya Rayaprolu Subba Rao

Rayaprolu Subbarao (1892–1984) was among the pioneers of modern Telugu literature.[ citation needed ] He is known as Abhinava Nannaya.[ citation needed ] He was recipient of Sahitya Akademi Award to Telugu Writers for his poetic work Misra Manjari in 1965. He was inspired by the Western literary movement and brought romanticism into Telugu literature by breaking away from the traditional translations of Sanskrit literature. He introduced the concept of "Amalina Shringara Tatvamu" into Telugu literature

His poem "Edesamegina Endukalidina,

Epeetamekkina Evaremanina
Pogadara Neetalli Bhoomi Bharatini,
Nilupara Neejaati Nindu Gauravamu" is very popular.[ citation needed ]

Meaning:

Edesamegina Endukalidina
To whichever country you go, wherever you set foot....
Epeetamekkina Evaremanina
Whichever position you acquire, What-so-ever others say....
Pogadara Neetalli Bhoomi Bharatini
Praise your Motherland Bharati(India)....
Nilupara Neejaati Nindu Gauravamu
Keep up your nation's dignity![ citation needed ]

Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna

Mangalampalli Balamurali Krishna (Telugu : మంగళంపల్లి బాలమురళీకృష్ణ) Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation   (born 6 July 1930) is a Carnatic vocalist, multi-instrumentalist and a playback singer. He is also acclaimed as a poet, composer and respected for his knowledge of Carnatic Music. Balamuralikrishna was born in Sankaraguptam, East Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh state. [41] Dr Balamuralikrishna has composed over 400 compositions in various languages like Telugu and Sanskrit. His compositions range from Devotional to Varnams, Kirtis, Javalis, and Thillans. His greatest achievement is the compositions in all the fundamental 72 melakarta ragas.

Aatreya

Aacharya Aatreya (Telugu : ఆచార్య ఆత్రేయ) or Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation   (7 May 1921 – 13 September 1989) was a playwright, lyrics and story writer of the Telugu film industry. [42] He was born as Kilambi Venkata Narasimhacharyulu on 7 May 1921 in the Mangalampadu village of Sullurpeta Mandalam in the Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh. His pen name is based on their family Gotra. Known for his poetry on the human soul and heart, he was given the title 'Manasu Kavi'(Poet of Heart), which can be rewritten as 'Mana Su Kavi'(Our Good Poet). His poetry is philosophical and intellectually satisfying.[ citation needed ]

Tripuraneni Ramaswamy

Tripuranēni Rāmasvāmi (January 15, 1887 – January 16, 1943) was a lawyer, famous poet, playwright and reformer active among the Telugu-speaking people. Popularly known as Kaviraju, he is considered the first poet to introduce rationalism and humanism into Telugu poetry and literature. Ramaswamy chose literary writing as the vehicle for expressing his rationalist thoughts. His famous work 'Sutaparanam' in four cantos was a fierce attack on the ancient Puranas, he has attained the state of excellence in poetic&literary criticism. His poetic work "Kuppuswamy Satakam" reveals the theme of social revolution and talks about social evils, blind faith, and indignity to man. He was against Congress and its fight against independence. In his other works such as "Sambhukavadha", "Suthashrama geetaalu', 'Dhoorta maanava', 'Khooni', 'Bhagavadgita', 'Rana Pratap' and 'Kondaveeti patanam', he made a rational analysis of dogmas prescribed by ancient classics and the injustice these dogmas did to people belonging to the lower social orders. Moreover, he attacked discriminatory practices and fought against the idea of untouchability. Sambhuka Vadha created a lot of controversies. Sambhuka was a character who did tapas to go heaven with the live body before death. That was considered as adharma and was killed by Lord Rama. This story was interpreted that Brahmins do not like doing tapas by non-Brahmins, which is why Sabhuka was killed.

Political Movements

Paryavarana Kavitodyamam

The Paryavarana Kavitodyamam movement started in 2008. It aims to bring awareness and concern among not only the elite class but also the masses through creative forms of literature. [ vague ] The Jagruthi Kiran Foundation initiated it under the leadership of Narayanam Narasimha Murthy, popularly known as "Vidyavachaspati". The movement has literary activities including Harita Kata. Lot of literature has been produced by various poets, writers on Environment. Magazines such as Malle Teega and Kadhakeli are associated with Jagruthi Kiran Foundation. More than 500 poets and writers are involved in this movement.

Modern platforms

Growing Internet users in India [44] led to the birth of online platforms that bring Telugu writers closer to more readers. Kadachepta, Pratilipi, SuKatha (SuKatha is a hindi story reading platform along with telugu) and Kahaniya are prominent among the new platforms.

Awards

See also

Related Research Articles

Telugu language Dravidian language

Telugu is a Dravidian language spoken by Telugu people predominantly living in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, where it is also the official language. It stands alongside Hindi and Bengali as one of the few languages with primary official language status in more than one Indian state. Telugu is also an official language in the Yanam district of Puducherry and a linguistic minority in the states of Odisha, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Punjab, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of six languages designated a classical language of India by the country's government.

Nannayya

Nannaya Bhattaraka was a Telugu poet and the author of the first Andhra mahabharatam, a Telugu retelling of the Mahabharata. Nannaya is the first of Trinity of poets (Kavitrayam). Nannaya is held in high regard as the person who revived the Telugu language. This work, which is rendered in the Champu style, is chaste and polished and of a high literary merit.

Yerrapragada

Errapragada Erranna was a Telugu poet in the court of King Prolaya Vema Reddy (1325–1353). The surname of Erranna was Yerrapragada or Errapregada, which are epithets of the fair-skinned Lord Skanda in the Telugu language, but became attached to his paternal family due its having notable members with fair or red-skinned complexions. He was honoured with the title Prabandha-paramēśvara and Śambhudāsuḍu.

Srinatha

Srinatha was a well-known 15th-century Telugu poet who popularised the Prabandha style of composition.

Allasani Peddana

Allasani Peddana was a famous Telugu poet and was ranked as the foremost of the Ashtadiggajalu, the title for the group of eight poets in the court of King Krishnadevaraya, a ruler of the Vijayanagara Empire.

Dhurjati was a Telugu poet in the court of the king Krishnadevaraya and was one of the astadiggajalu there.

Ashtadiggajas

Ashtadiggajas is the collective title given to the eight Telugu scholars and poets in the court of Emperor Krishnadevaraya who ruled the Vijayanagara Empire from 1509 until his death in 1529. During his reign, Telugu literature and culture reached its zenith. In his court, eight poets were regarded as the eight pillars of his literary assembly. The age of Ashtadiggajas is called Prabandha Age. All of the Ashtadiggajas had composed at least one Prabandha Kavyamu and it was Ashtadiggajas who gave Prabandha its present form. Most of the Ashtadiggajas are from southern part of present-day Andhra Pradesh state (Rayalaseema) and Ashtadiggajas, Allasani Peddana, Dhurjati, Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana and Ayyalaraju Ramabhadrudu are from the Rayalaseema. Tenali Ramakrishna hailed from the Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. Ramarajabhushanudu was another Ashtadiggaja.

Charles Philip Brown was a British official of the East India Company. He worked in what is now Andhra Pradesh, and became an important scholarly figure in Telugu language literature.

Vijayanagara literature

Vijayanagara literature was produced in the Vijayanagara Empire during a golden age of literature in South India in general. The rulers patronised Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit and Tamil scholars who wrote in the Jain, Virashaiva and Vaishnava traditions. The period produced hundreds of works on all aspects of Indian culture, religion, biographies, Prabhandas (stories), music, grammar, poetics and medicine. An attempt is made in this section to list the various poets and saints and their most famous works.

Suravaram Pratapareddy Historian

Suravaram Pratapa Reddy (1896–1953) was a social historian from the Hyderabad State, India.

Atukuri Molla

Atukuri Molla (1440–1530) was a Telugu poet who authored the Telugu-language Ramayana. Identified by her caste, she was popularly known as Kummara (potter) Molla. Mollamamba or Molla was the daughter of Kesana Setti who was a potter by profession. That they belonged to the bayya community. Earlier historians placed her as a contemporary of Tikkana Somayaji during the times of Kakatiya empire. But, Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu in his ‘Andhra Kavula Charitra’ points out that she was a contemporary of Sri Krishna Deva Raya, disproving the earlier claims that she was the sister of Kummara Gurunatha who was the scribe of Tikkana Somayaji in translating Mahabharata. Her salutations to poets like Srinatha who lived in the periods between the Kakatiya and Vijayanagara empires point out that they predated her.

Nellore Chodas were one of the Telugu Chola families who ruled over parts of Andhra Pradesh in the 11th and 12th centuries. They were chieftains to Kakatiyas and Kalyani Chalukyas and ruled over the Nellore region.

Nanne Choda was a famous Telugu poet and belongs to a family of Telugu Chodas. He holds the titles Tekanadityudu and Kaviraja Sikhamani. He is regarded as the first composer of Prabandha.

Mallampalli Sarabheswara Sarma, popularly known as 'Sarabhayya', was a well-known Indian poet, critic, translator and exponent of classical literature.

Culture of Andhra Pradesh

The culture of Andhra Pradesh state in India has many aspects.

Potuluri Veerabrahmam

Potuluri Veerabrahmam, was an Indian Hindu saint, who lived in Andhra Pradesh region. He is most notable in Andhra for his work Kalagnanam, a book of predictions written in Telugu somewhere around 954 ad. It forecasts many incidents which are proved to be correct by the posterity. His prophetic texts in Kalagnanam are the Govinda Vakyas and Jeevaikya Bodha.

Viswanatha Satyanarayana

Viswanatha Satyanarayana was a 20th-century Telugu writer. His works included poetry, novels, dramatic play, short stories and speeches, covering a wide range of subjects such as analysis of history, philosophy, religion, sociology, political science, linguistics, psychology and consciousness studies, epistemology, aesthetics and spiritualism. He was a student of the illustrious Telugu writer Chellapilla Venkata Sastry, of the Tirupati Venkata Kavulu duo. Viswanatha's wrote in both a modern and classical style, in complex modes. His popular works include Ramayana Kalpa Vrukshamu, Kinnersani Patalu and the novel Veyipadagalu. Among many awards, he was awarded the Jnanpith Award in 1970, the first for a Telugu writer, and Padma Bhushan in 1971.

Vemulawada Bhima alias 'Vemulawada Bheemakavi' was a hugely popular Telugu poet for his style of poetry and is considered to be a demi-god for his powers.

N. Gopi

N. Gopi is an eminent Indian poet, literary critic in Telugu and Sahitya Akademi Award recipient. He has also been in the University system as a professor and Dean since 1974, until retiring in 2008. He has also held the post of the Vice Chancellor of Potti Sreeramulu Telugu University, Hyderabad. A humanist to the core, Gopi exudes nativity and national outlook in his poetry.

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