|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||260.26 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tiazofurin is a drug which acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme IMP dehydrogenase. Tiazofurin and its analogues were under investigation for potential use in the treatment of cancer,though side effects such as pleuropericarditis and a flu-like syndrome precluded further development. They also show antiviral effects and may be reevaluated as potential options in the treatment of newly emerging viral diseases.
Prostaglandin analogues are a class of drugs that bind to a prostaglandin receptor.
Estazolam is a benzodiazepine medication. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Estazolam is an intermediate-acting oral benzodiazepine. It is used for short-term treatment of insomnia.
(–)-18-Methoxycoronaridine (18-MC) is a derivative of ibogaine invented in 1996 by the research team around the pharmacologist Stanley D. Glick from the Albany Medical College and the chemist Martin E. Kuehne from the University of Vermont. In animal studies it has proved to be effective at reducing self-administration of morphine, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and sucrose. 18-MC is a α3β4 nicotinic antagonist and, in contrast to ibogaine, has no affinity at the α4β2 subtype nor at NMDA-channels nor at the serotonin transporter, and has significantly reduced affinity for sodium channels and for the σ receptor, but retains modest affinity for μ-opioid receptors where it acts as an agonist, and κ-opioid receptors. The sites of action in the brain include the medial habenula, interpeduncular nucleus, dorsolateral tegmentum and basolateral amygdala. It has also been shown to produce anorectic effects in obese rats, most likely due to the same actions on the reward system which underlie its anti-addictive effects against drug addiction.
NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). They are commonly used as anesthetics for animals and humans; the state of anesthesia they induce is referred to as dissociative anesthesia.
Fenobam is an imidazole derivative developed by McNeil Laboratories in the late 1970s as a novel anxiolytic drug with an at-the-time-unidentified molecular target in the brain. Subsequently, it was determined that fenobam acts as a potent and selective negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR5, and it has been used as a lead compound for the development of a range of newer mGluR5 antagonists.
(+)-CPCA is a stimulant drug similar in structure to pethidine and to RTI-31, but nocaine is lacking the two-carbon bridge of RTI-31's tropane skeleton. This compound was first developed as a substitute agent for cocaine.
Pegvisomant is a growth hormone receptor antagonist used in the treatment of acromegaly. It is primarily used if the pituitary gland tumor causing the acromegaly cannot be controlled with surgery or radiation, and the use of somatostatin analogues is unsuccessful, but is also effective as a monotherapy. It is delivered as a powder that is mixed with water and injected under the skin.
Taltirelin is a thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analog, which mimics the physiological actions of TRH, but with a much longer half-life and duration of effects, and little development of tolerance following prolonged dosing. It has nootropic, neuroprotective and analgesic effects.
MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) is a drug developed in the 1990s by a team led by David E. Nichols at Purdue University. It acts as a non-neurotoxic and highly selective serotonin releasing agent (SSRA) in vitro and produces entactogen effects in humans.
Dexanabinol is a synthetic cannabinoid derivative in development by e-Therapeutics plc. It is the "unnatural" enantiomer of the potent cannabinoid agonist HU-210. Unlike other cannabinoid derivatives, HU-211 does not act as a cannabinoid receptor agonist, but instead has NMDA antagonist effects. It therefore does not produce cannabis-like effects, but is anticonvulsant and neuroprotective, and is widely used in scientific research as well as currently being studied for applications such as treating head injury, stroke, or cancer. It was shown to be safe in clinical trials and is currently undergoing Phase I trials for the treatment of brain cancer and advanced solid tumors.
AR-R17779 is a drug that acts as a potent and selective full agonist for the α7 subtype of neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has nootropic effects in animal studies, but its effects do not substitute for those of nicotine. It has also recently been studied as a potential novel treatment for arthritis.
3,4-Dichloromethylphenidate is a stimulant drug related to methylphenidate. Dichloromethylphenidate is a potent psychostimulant that acts as both a dopamine reuptake inhibitor and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, meaning it effectively boosts the levels of the norepinephrine and dopamine neurotransmitters in the brain, by binding to, and partially blocking the transporter proteins that normally remove those monoamines from the synaptic cleft.
Rivastigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's. The drug can be administered orally or via a transdermal patch; the latter form reduces the prevalence of side effects, which typically include nausea and vomiting.
8-Carboxamidocyclazocine (8-CAC) is an opioid analgesic drug related to cyclazocine, discovered by medicinal chemist Mark P. Wentland and co-workers in Cogswell Laboratory at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Similarly to cyclazocine, 8-CAC acts as an agonist at both the μ and κ opioid receptors, but has a much longer duration of action than cyclazocine, and does not have μ antagonist activity. Unexpectedly it was discovered that the phenolic hydroxyl group of cyclazocine could be replaced by a carboxamido group with only slight loss of potency at opioid receptors, and this discovery has subsequently been used to develop many novel opioid derivatives where the phenolic hydroxy group has been replaced by either carboxamide or a variety of larger groups. Due to their strong κ-opioid agonist activity, these drugs are not suited for use as analgesics in humans, but have instead been researched as potential drugs for the treatment of cocaine addiction.
UWA-101 is a phenethylamine derivative invented at the University of Western Australia and researched as a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. Its chemical structure is very similar to that of the illegal drug MDMA, the only difference being the replacement of the α-methyl group with an α-cyclopropyl group. MDMA has been found in animal studies and reported in unauthorised human self-experiments to be effective in the short-term relief of Parkinson's disease symptoms, especially when used alongside conventional treatment with L-DOPA. However the illegal status of MDMA and concerns about its potential for recreational use, neurotoxicity and potentially dangerous side effects mean that it is unlikely to be investigated for medical use in this application, and so alternative analogues were investigated.
KM-233 is a synthetic cannabinoid drug which is a structural analog of Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the less active but more stable isomer of the active component of Cannabis. KM-233 differs from Δ8-THC by the pentyl side chain being replaced by a 1,1-dimethylbenzyl group. It has high binding affinity in vitro for both the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with a CB2 affinity of 0.91 nM and 13-fold selectivity over the CB1 receptor. In animal studies, it has been found to be a potential treatment for glioma, a form of brain tumor. Many related analogues are known where the 1,1-dimethylbenzyl group is substituted or replaced by other groups, with a fairly well established structure-activity relationship.
5-Chloro-α-methyltryptamine (5-Chloro-αMT), also known as PAL-542, is a tryptamine derivative related to α-methyltryptamine (αMT) and one of only a few known specific serotonin-dopamine releasing agents (SDRAs). It has been investigated in animals as a potential treatment for cocaine dependence. The EC50 values of 5-chloro-αMT in evoking the in vitro release of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in rat synaptosomes were reported as 16 nM, 54 nM, and 3434 nM, with an NE/DA ratio of 63.6 and a DA/5-HT ratio of 3.38, indicating that it is a highly specific and well-balanced SDRA. However, 5-chloro-αMT has also been found to act as a potent full agonist of the 5-HT2A receptor, with an EC50 value of 6.27 nM and an efficacy of 105%, and almost assuredly acts as a potent agonist of other serotonin receptors as well.
Apalutamide, sold under the brand name Erleada, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) medication which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. It is specifically indicated for use in conjunction with castration in the treatment of non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (NM-CRPC). It is taken by mouth.
Trofinetide (NNZ-2566) is a drug developed by Neuren Pharmaceuticals that acts as an analogue of the neuropeptide (1-3) IGF-1, which is a simple tripeptide with sequence Gly-Pro-Glu formed by enzymatic cleavage of the growth factor IGF-1 within the brain. Trofinetide has anti-inflammatory properties and was originally developed as a potential treatment for stroke, but has subsequently been developed for other applications and is now in Phase II clinical trials against Fragile X syndrome and Rett syndrome.
EICAR is a drug which acts as an inhibitor of the enzyme IMP dehydrogenase. It is a nucleoside derivative which has both anti-cancer and antiviral effects, and was originally developed for the treatment of leukemia, but was unsuccessful in human clinical trials. It has broad spectrum antiviral effects with activity against pox viruses, Semliki forest virus, Junin virus, reovirus, influenza, measles virus and respiratory syncytial virus among others, although it is not active against coronaviridae such as SARS-CoV-1. This useful spectrum of activity means that EICAR and related derivatives continue to be investigated for the treatment of viral diseases.
|This antineoplastic or immunomodulatory drug article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|