Timeline of operating systems

Last updated

This article presents a timeline of events in the history of computer operating systems from 1951 to the current day. For a narrative explaining the overall developments, see the History of operating systems.

Contents

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

Year–month Windows Apple BSD Linux Others
2000–01
2000–02 Windows 2000 [34] Solaris 8
2000–03 FreeBSD 4.0 Red Hat Linux 6.2E AtheOS
BeOS R5
2000–04 Pocket PC 2000
2000–05 MenuetOS
2000–06 Windows CE 3.0 OpenBSD 2.7 Plan 9 Third Edition [35]
2000–07 Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 OS/400 V4R5
2000–08 Debian 2.2 MorphOS 0.1 [36]
2000–09 Windows Millennium Edition [37] Mac OS X Public Beta SUSE Linux 7.0
2000–10 z/OS
z/VM
MorphOS 0.2
2000–11
2000–12 NetBSD 1.5
OpenBSD 2.8
AmigaOS 3.9 [38]
HP-UX 11i
2001–01 Mac OS 9.1
2001–02 MorphOS 0.4 [39]
2001–03 Mac OS X Cheetah (v10.0)
2001–04
2001–05 Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 AIX 5L 5.1
OS/400 V5R1
2001–06 OpenBSD 2.9
2001–07 Mac OS 9.2 eComStation 1.0
2001–08 Haiku [40]
2001–09 Mac OS X Puma (v10.1)
2001–10 Pocket PC 2002
Windows XP [41]
Windows XP 64-bit Edition 2002 [42]
Novell NetWare 6.0
2001–11
2001–12 OpenBSD 3.0 OS/2 4.52
2002–01 Windows CE 4.x JX microkernel for Java
Sanos microkernel [43] for net appliances
K42 microkernel for NUMA machines
2002–02
2002–03 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 AS
2002–04 SUSE Linux 8.0 Plan 9 Fourth Edition [44]
2002–05 OpenBSD 3.1 Solaris 9 (SPARC)
2002–06
2002–07 Debian 3.0 Syllable 0.4.0 [45]
2002–08 Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 Mac OS X Jaguar [46] (v10.2) OS/400 V5R2
2002–09 Windows XP Service Pack 1 NetBSD 1.6 OS2000
2002–10 AIX 5.2
2002–11 OpenBSD 3.2 MorphOS 1.0
2002–12 MorphOS 1.1
2003–01 FreeBSD 5.0 Solaris 9 (x86)
JNode [47] JavaOS successor
2003–02 MorphOS 1.2
ReactOS 0.1.0
2003–03 Windows XP 64-bit Edition 2003 [48] MorphOS 1.3
2003–04 Windows Server 2003 eComStation 1.1
2003–05 OpenBSD 3.3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1 ES
2003–06 Windows 2000 Service Pack 4
Windows Mobile 2003
OpenVMS 8.0
2003–07
2003–08 Novell NetWare 6.5
MorphOS 1.4
2003–09 HP-UX 11i v2
2003–10 Mac OS X Panther (v10.3) Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3
SUSE Linux 9.0
2003–11 OpenBSD 3.4 Fedora Core 1
2003–12 Linux 2.6.0 [49] XTS-400
2004–01 Linux 2.6.1 ReactOS 0.2.0
2004–02 Linux 2.6.2, 2.6.3
2004–03 Linux 2.6.4 ReactOS 0.2.1
2004–04 Linux 2.6.5 ReactOS 0.2.2
2004–05 OpenBSD 3.5 Linux 2.6.6
Fedora Core 2
2004–06 i5/OS V5R3
ReactOS 0.2.3
2004–07 DragonFly BSD 1.0
2004–08 Windows CE 5.x
Windows XP Service Pack 2
Linux 2.6.8 AIX 5.3
eComStation 1.2
2004–09 ReactOS 0.2.4
2004–10 Linux 2.6.9
Ubuntu 4.10
2004–11 OpenBSD 3.6 Fedora Core 3
2004–12 NetBSD 2.0 Linux 2.6.10
2005–01 Solaris 10
ReactOS 0.2.5
2005–02 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 OpenVMS 8.2
z/VSE
2005–03 Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
Linux 2.6.11
Novell Open Enterprise Server
MorphOS 1.4.4
2005–04 Mac OS X Tiger (v10.4) DragonFly BSD 1.2 Ubuntu 5.04 ReactOS 0.2.6
MorphOS 1.4.5
2005–05 Windows Mobile 5.0 OpenBSD 3.7
2005–06 Linux 2.6.12
Fedora Core 4
Debian 3.1
2005–07
2005–08 Linux 2.6.13 ReactOS 0.2.7
MorphOS 1.4.5 Classic
2005–09
2005–10 Linux 2.6.14
Ubuntu 5.10
SUSE Linux 10.0
ReactOS 0.2.8
2005–11 FreeBSD 6.0
OpenBSD 3.8
2005–12 NetBSD 3.0 ReactOS 0.2.9
2006–01 DragonFly BSD 1.4 Linux 2.6.15 i5/OS V5R4
Solaris 10 1/06
2006–02
2006–03 Windows Server 2003 R2 Linux 2.6.16
Fedora Core 5
2006–04
2006–05 OpenBSD 3.9 SymbOS
MINIX 3.1.2
2006–06 Linux 2.6.17
Ubuntu 6.06 (LTS)
Solaris 10 6/06
2006–07 DragonFly BSD 1.6
2006–08 BS2000/OSD v7.0 [50]
ReactOS 0.3.0
2006–09 Windows CE 6.0 Linux 2.6.18 FreeDOS 1.0
OpenVMS 8.3
2006–10 Fedora Core 6
Ubuntu 6.10
Slackware 11.0
2006–11 OpenBSD 4.0 Linux 2.6.19 AmigaOS 4.0
Solaris 10 11/06
2006–12
2007–01 Windows Vista DragonFly BSD 1.8 Bharat Operating System Solutions
2007–02 Windows Mobile 6.0 Linux 2.6.20 Inferno Fourth Edition
2007–03 Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 2 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 ReactOS 0.3.1
2007–04 Linux 2.6.21
Ubuntu 7.04
Debian 4.0
2007–05 iPhone OS 1 OpenBSD 4.1 Fedora Linux 7
2007–06
2007–07 Linux 2.6.22
Slackware 12.0
2007–08 DragonFly BSD 1.10 Solaris 10 8/07
2007–09 iPhone OS 1.1 HP-UX 11i v3
ReactOS 0.3.3
2007–10 Mac OS X Leopard (v10.5) Linux 2.6.23
Ubuntu 7.10
OpenVMS 8.3-1H1
2007–11 Windows Home Server OpenBSD 4.2 Fedora Linux 8
gOS
AIX 6.1,
2007–12 NetBSD 4.0
2008–01 Linux 2.6.24 ReactOS 0.3.4
2008–02 Windows Vista Service Pack 1
Windows Server 2008
DragonFly BSD 1.12
FreeBSD 7.0
2008–03 IBM i 6.1
Singularity 1.1
2008–04 Windows Mobile 6.1
Windows XP Service Pack 3
Linux 2.6.25
Ubuntu 8.04 (LTS)
2008–05 OpenBSD 4.3 Fedora Linux 9
Slackware 12.1
Solaris 10 5/08
OpenSolaris 2008.05
BS2000/OSD v8.0A
2008–06 SUSE Linux 11.0 MorphOS 2.0
ReactOS 0.3.5
2008–07 iPhone OS 2 DragonFly BSD 2.0 Linux 2.6.26
2008–08 STOP 6.5
ReactOS 0.3.6
2008–09 iPhone OS 2.1 AmigaOS 4.1
z/OS V1R10
MorphOS 2.1
2008–10 Linux 2.6.27
Ubuntu 8.10
Android 1.0
Solaris 10 10/08
OKL4 3.0
2008–11 iPhone OS 2.2 OpenBSD 4.4 Fedora Linux 10 Singularity 2.0
ReactOS 0.3.7
Genode 8.11 [51]
2008–12 Linux 2.6.28
Slackware 12.2
MorphOS 2.2
OpenSolaris 2008.11
2009–01
2009–02 DragonFly BSD 2.2 Debian 5.0
Android 1.1
ReactOS 0.3.8
2009–03 Linux 2.6.29
2009–04 NetBSD 5.0 Ubuntu 9.04
Android 1.5
ReactOS 0.3.9
2009–05 Windows Mobile 6.5
Windows Vista Service Pack 2
OpenBSD 4.5 Solaris 10 5/09
2009–06 iPhone OS 3 Linux 2.6.30
Fedora Linux 11
Palm webOS 1
AmigaOS 4.1
OpenSolaris 2009.06
2009–07 ReactOS 0.3.10
2009–08 Mac OS X Snow Leopard (v10.6) Slackware 13.0 MorphOS 2.3
2009–09 iPhone OS 3.1 DragonFly BSD 2.4 Linux 2.6.31
Android 1.6
2009–10 Windows 7
Windows Server 2008 R2
OpenBSD 4.6 Ubuntu 9.10
Android 2.0
Solaris 10 10/09
MorphOS 2.4
2009–11 FreeBSD 8.0 Fedora Linux 12
openSUSE 11.2
2009–12 Linux 2.6.32 ReactOS 0.3.11

2010s

Year–month Windows Apple BSD Linux Others
2010–01 Android 2.1 AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 1
2010–02 Linux 2.6.33
2010–03
2010–04 iPhone OS 3.2 DragonFly BSD 2.6 Ubuntu 10.04 (LTS) AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 2
IBM i 7.1
2010–05 OpenBSD 4.7 Linux 2.6.34
Fedora Linux 13
Android 2.2
eComStation 2.0
2010–06 iOS 4 MorphOS 2.5
OpenVMS 8.4
2010–07 openSUSE 11.3
2010–08 Linux 2.6.35
2010–09 iOS 4.1 Solaris 10 9/10
AIX 7.1
2010–10 Windows Phone 7 DragonFly BSD 2.8 Linux 2.6.36
Fedora Linux 14
Ubuntu 10.10
MorphOS 2.6
ReactOS 0.3.12
2010–11 iOS 4.2 NetBSD 5.1
OpenBSD 4.8
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6
2010–12 Android 2.3 MorphOS 2.7
2011–01 Linux 2.6.37
2011–02 Windows 7 Service Pack 1 Debian 6.0
Android 3.0
2011–03 Windows CE 7.0 iOS 4.3 Linux 2.6.38
openSUSE 11.4
ReactOS 0.3.13
2011–04 Windows Home Server 2011 DragonFly BSD 2.10 Ubuntu 11.04
Slackware 13.37
2011–05 OpenBSD 4.9 Linux 2.6.39
Fedora Linux 15
Android 3.1
AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 1 (for Classic)
eComStation 2.1
2011–06 iOS 5 ChromeOS (first shipped) 9front
2011–07 Mac OS X Lion (v10.7) Linux 3.0
Android 3.2
HP webOS 3
AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 3
2011–08
2011–09 Windows Phone 7.5
2011–10 Linux 3.1
Ubuntu 11.10
Android 4.0
2011–11 OpenBSD 5.0 Fedora Linux 16
openSUSE 12.1
Solaris 11 11/11
2011–12 AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 4
2012–01 FreeBSD 9.0 Linux 3.2 FreeDOS 1.1
2012–02 DragonFly BSD 3.0 ReactOS 0.3.14
Minix 3.2
2012–03 iOS 5.1 Linux 3.3
Android 4.0.4
2012–04 Ubuntu 12.04 (LTS)
2012–05 OpenBSD 5.1 Linux 3.4
Fedora Linux 17
DexOS
2012–06 BS2000/OSD 9.0
MorphOS 3.0
2012–07 OS X Mountain Lion (v10.8) Linux 3.5
Android 4.1
openSUSE 12.2
MorphOS 3.1
AmigaOS 4.1 Upd. 5
2012–08
2012–09 Windows Server 2012 iOS 6 Linux 3.6
Slackware 14.0
Qubes OS
2012–10 Windows 8
Windows Phone 8
NetBSD 6.0
OpenBSD 5.2
Ubuntu 12.10 Solaris 11.1
2012–11 DragonFly BSD 3.2 Android 4.2 Haiku R1 Alpha 4
2012–12 FreeBSD 9.1
2013–01 iOS 6.1 Fedora Linux 18 BlackBerry 10
Solaris 10 1/13
2013–02 Windows Phone 7.8
2013–03 openSUSE 12.3
2013–04 DragonFly BSD 3.4 Linux 3.9
Ubuntu 13.04
2013–05 NetBSD 6.1
OpenBSD 5.3
Debian 7.0 ReactOS 0.3.15
MorphOS 3.2
2013–06 Windows CE 8.0 (2013) Linux 3.10
2013–07 Fedora Linux 19
Android 4.3
2013–08
2013–09 iOS 7 FreeBSD 9.2 Linux 3.11 MorphOS 3.3
z/OS Version 2.1
2013–10 Windows 8.1
Windows Server 2012 R2
OS X Mavericks (v10.9) Ubuntu 13.10
2013–11 DragonFly BSD 3.6
OpenBSD 5.4
Slackware 14.1
openSUSE 13.1
Android 4.4
Linux 3.12
2013–12 Fedora Linux 20 MorphOS 3.4
Muen [52] separation kernel
2014–01 FreeBSD 10.0 Linux 3.13
2014–02 ReactOS 0.3.16
MorphOS 3.5
2014–03 iOS 7.1 Linux 3.14
2014–04 Windows Phone 8.1 Ubuntu 14.04 (LTS) Solaris 11.2
2014–05 OpenBSD 5.5
2014–06 DragonFly BSD 3.8 Linux 3.15
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7
MorphOS 3.6
2014–07
2014–08 Linux 3.16 MorphOS 3.7
2014–09 iOS 8 Minix 3.3
2014–10 OS X Yosemite (v10.10)
iOS 8.1
Ubuntu 14.10
Linux 3.17
2014–11 OpenBSD 5.6
FreeBSD 10.1
DragonFly BSD 4.0
openSUSE 13.2
Android 5.0
IBM i 7.2
ReactOS 0.3.17
2014–12 Linux 3.18
Fedora Linux 21
2015–01
2015–02 Linux 3.19
2015–03 iOS 8.2
2015–04 iOS 8.3
watchOS 1
Linux 4.0
Debian 8.0
Ubuntu 15.04
Redox OS
2015–05 Fedora Linux 22 BS2000/OSD 10.0
2015–06 iOS 8.4 Linux 4.1 MorphOS 3.9
2015–07 Windows 10 (1507)
2015–08 FreeBSD 10.2 Linux 4.2
2015–09 OS X El Capitan (v10.11)
iOS 9
watchOS 2
NetBSD 7.0 z/OS Version 2.2 [53]
2015–10 iOS 9.1
tvOS9
Android 6.0
Ubuntu 15.10
AIX 7.2 [54]
Solaris 11.3 [55]
2015–11 Windows 10 November Update (1511)
Windows 10 Mobile (1511)
tvOS9.1 Linux 4.3
Fedora Linux 23
openSUSE Leap 42.1
2015–12 iOS 9.2
watchOS 2.1
tvOS9.2
2016–01 Linux 4.4 Minix 3.4
2016–02 ReactOS 0.4
2016–03 iOS 9.3
watchOS 2.2
tvOS9.3
OpenBSD 5.9
FreeBSD 10.3
Linux 4.5
2016–04 Ubuntu 16.04 IBM i 7.3
ReactOS 0.4.1
2016–05 Linux 4.6
2016–06 Slackware 14.2
Fedora Linux 24
Linux Mint 18
2016–07 Linux 4.7
2016–08 Windows 10 Anniversary Update (1607)
Windows 10 Mobile Anniversary Update (1607)
DragonFly BSD 4.6 Android 7.0 ReactOS 0.4.2
2016–09 Windows Server 2016 (1607) macOS Sierra (v10.12)
iOS 10
watchOS 3
tvOS10
OpenBSD 6.0 Linux 4.8
2016–10 iOS 10.1
watchOS 3.1
NetBSD 7.0.2
FreeBSD 11.0
Android 7.1
Ubuntu 16.10
2016–11 Oracle Linux 7.3
Fedora Linux 25
openSUSE Leap 42.2
ReactOS 0.4.3
2016–12 iOS 10.2
tvOS10.1
Linux 4.9
Linux Mint 18.1
FreeDOS 1.2
2017–01
2017–02 Linux 4.10 ReactOS 0.4.4
2017–03 iOS 10.3
watchOS 3.2
tvOS10.2
DragonFly BSD 4.8
NetBSD 7.1
2017–04 Windows 10 Creators Update (1703)
Windows 10 Mobile Creators Update (1703)
OpenBSD 6.1 Linux 4.11
Ubuntu 17.04
2017–05 ReactOS 0.4.5
ArcaOS 5.0.0
2017–06 Debian 9.0
Fedora Linux 26
2017–07 Linux 4.12
openSUSE Leap 42.3
BS2000/OSD 11.0
ArcaOS 5.0.1
2017–08 Android 8.0
2017–09 macOS High Sierra (v10.13)
iOS 11
watchOS 4
tvOS11
Linux 4.13 ReactOS 0.4.6
2017–10 Windows 10 Fall Creators Update (1709)
Windows 10 Mobile Fall Creators Update (1709)
Windows Server 2016 Fall Creators Update (1709)
iOS 11.1
watchOS 4.1
tvOS11.1
OpenBSD 6.2
DragonFly BSD 5.0
Ubuntu 17.10
2017–11 Linux 4.14
Fedora Linux 27
BareMetal 1.0.0
2017–12 iOS 11.2
watchOS 4.2
tvOS11.2
Android 8.1 ReactOS 0.4.7
2018–01 Linux 4.15
2018–02 ArcaOS 5.0.2
2018–03 iOS 11.3
watchOS 4.3
tvOS11.3
NetBSD 7.1.2 Genode Sculpt EA
2018–04 Windows 10 April 2018 Update (1803) OpenBSD 6.3
DragonFly BSD 5.2
Linux 4.16
Ubuntu 18.04 (LTS)
ReactOS 0.4.8
2018–05 iOS 11.4
tvOS11.4
Fedora Linux 28
openSUSE Leap 15.0
2018–06 Linux 4.17 Genode Sculpt TC
2018–07 NetBSD 8.0 SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 ReactOS 0.4.9
2018–08 NetBSD 7.2 Linux 4.18
Android 9.0
ArcaOS 5.0.3
Solaris 11.4
2018–09 macOS Mojave (v10.14)
iOS 12
watchOS 5
tvOS12
Genode Sculpt VC [56]
2018–10 Windows 10 October 2018 Update (1809)
Windows Server 2019 (1809)
iOS 12.1
watchOS 5.1
tvOS12.1
OpenBSD 6.4 Linux 4.19
Ubuntu 18.10
Fedora Linux 29
SerenityOS
2018–11 ReactOS 0.4.10
2018–12 DragonFly BSD 5.4
FreeBSD 12.0
Linux 4.20
2019–01
2019–02
2019–03 iOS 12.2
watchOS 5.2
tvOS12.2
Linux 5.0 ReactOS 0.4.11
2019–04 Ubuntu 19.04
Fedora Linux 30
2019–05 Windows 10 May 2019 Update (1903) iOS 12.3
tvOS12.3
OpenBSD 6.5

NetBSD 8.1

Linux 5.1
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8
openSUSE Leap 15.1
2019–06 DragonFly BSD 5.6 SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 SP1 IBM i 7.4
2019–07 iOS 12.4
watchOS 5.3
tvOS12.4
Debian 10.0
Linux 5.2
ArcaOS 5.0.4
2019–08
2019–09 iOS 13
iOS 13.1
iPadOS 13.1
watchOS 6
tvOS13
Linux 5.3
Android 10.0
ReactOS 0.4.12
2019–10 iOS 13.2
iPadOS 13.2
watchOS 6.1
macOS Catalina (v10.15)
OpenBSD 6.6 Ubuntu 19.10
Fedora Linux 31
2019–11 Windows 10 November 2019 Update (1909) FreeBSD 12.1 Linux 5.4
2019–12 iOS 13.3
iPadOS 13.3

2020s

Year–month Windows Apple BSD Linux Others
2020–01 Linux 5.5
2020–02 NetBSD 9.0
2020–03 iOS 13.4
iPadOS 13.4
watchOS 6.2
tvOS13.4
DragonFly BSD 5.8 Linux 5.6
2020–04 Ubuntu 20.04
Fedora Linux 32
ReactOS 0.4.13
2020–05 Windows 10 May 2020 Update (2004) iOS 13.5
iPadOS 13.5
OpenBSD 6.7 OpenVMS 9.0
2020–06 Linux 5.7 ArcaOS 5.0.5
Haiku R1/beta2
2020–07 iOS 13.6
iPadOS 13.6
2020–08 Linux 5.8 ArcaOS 5.0.6
2020–09 iOS 13.7
iPadOS 13.7
iOS 14
iPadOS 14.0
watchOS 7.0
tvOS14.0
Android 11
2020–10 Windows 10 October 2020 Update (20H2) iOS 14.1
iPadOS 14.1
NetBSD 9.1
OpenBSD 6.8
FreeBSD 12.2
Linux 5.9
Fedora Linux 33
Ubuntu 20.10
2020–11 macOS Big Sur (v11.0)
iOS 14.2
iPadOS 14.2
watchOS 7.1
tvOS14.2
2020–12 macOS Big Sur (v11.1)
iOS 12.5
iOS 14.3
iPadOS 14.3
watchOS 6.3
watchOS 7.2
tvOS14.3
Linux 5.10
2021–01 iOS 14.4
iPadOS 14.4
watchOS 7.3
tvOS14.4
2021–02 macOS Big Sur (v11.2)
2021–03
2021–04 macOS Big Sur (v11.3)
iOS 14.5
iPadOS 14.5
watchOS 7.4
tvOS14.5
FreeBSD 13.0 Fedora Linux 34
2021-05 Windows 10 May 2021 Update (21H1) macOS Big Sur (v11.4)
iOS 14.6
iPadOS 14.6
watchOS 7.5
tvOS14.6
OpenBSD 6.9
DragonFly BSD 6.0
NetBSD 9.2
Linux 5.12
Ubuntu 21.04
2021-06 Rocky Linux 8
Linux 5.13
2021-07 macOS Big Sur (v11.5)
iOS 14.7
iPadOS 14.7
watchOS 7.6
tvOS14.7
Haiku R1/beta3
2021-08 Windows Server 2022 Linux 5.14
Debian 11.0
2021-09 macOS Big Sur (v11.6)
iOS 14.8
iPadOS 14.8
iOS 15
iPadOS 15.0
watchOS 8.0
tvOS15.0
2021-10 Windows 11 macOS Monterey (v12.0)
iOS 15.1
iPadOS 15.1
watchOS 8.1
tvOS15.1
OpenBSD 7.0 Android 12
Ubuntu 21.10
2021-11 Windows 10 November 2021 Update (21H2)
2021-12 macOS Monterey (v12.2)
iOS 15.2
iPadOS 15.2
watchOS 8.3
tvOS15.2
ArcaOS 5.0.7
ReactOS 0.4.14
2022-01 iOS 15.3
iPadOS 15.3
watchOS 8.4
tvOS15.3
2022-02 Slackware 15.0
2022-03 macOS Monterey (v12.3)
iOS 15.4
iPadOS 15.4
watchOS 8.5
tvOS15.4
Android 12L
2022-04 OpenBSD 7.1 Ubuntu 22.04
2022-05 macOS Monterey (v12.4)
iOS 15.5
iPadOS 15.5
watchOS 8.6
tvOS15.5
IBM i 7.5
2022-06
2022-07 macOS Monterey (v12.5)
iOS 15.6
iPadOS 15.6
watchOS 8.7
tvOS15.6
2022-08 Android 13
2022-09 Windows 11 2022 Update (22H2) macOS Big Sur (v11.7)
macOS Monterey (v12.6)
iOS 15.7
iPadOS 15.7
iOS 16
watchOS 9.0
tvOS16.0
2022-10 macOS Ventura (13.0)
iOS 16.1
iPadOS 16.0
OpenBSD 7.2 Ubuntu 22.10
2022-11 macOS Ventura (13.0.1)
iOS 16.1.1
2022-12 iOS 16.2
2023-01
2023-02
2023-03
2023-04
2023-05
2023-06
2023-07
2023-08 Linux 6.5 ArcaOS 5.1.0
2023-09 macOS Sonoma (14.0)
iOS 17.0
iPadOS 17.0
2023-10 Android 14
2023-11
2023-12

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">IBM AIX</span> Series of Unix operating systems from IBM

AIX, is a series of proprietary Unix operating systems developed and sold by IBM for several of its computer platforms.

A disk operating system (DOS) is a computer operating system that resides on and can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc. A disk operating system provides a file system for organizing, reading, and writing files on the storage disk, and a means for loading and running programs stored on that disk. Strictly, this definition does not include any other functionality, so it does not apply to more complex OSes, such as Microsoft Windows, and is more appropriately used only for older generations of operating systems.

IBM mainframes are large computer systems produced by IBM since 1952. During the 1960s and 1970s, IBM dominated the computer market with the 7000 series and the later System/360, followed by the System/370. Current mainframe computers in IBM's line of business computers are developments of the basic design of the System/360.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">MVS</span> Operating system for IBM mainframes

Multiple Virtual Storage, more commonly called MVS, is the most commonly used operating system on the System/370, System/390 and IBM Z IBM mainframe computers. IBM developed MVS, along with OS/VS1 and SVS, as a successor to OS/360. It is unrelated to IBM's other mainframe operating system lines, e.g., VSE, VM, TPF.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Operating system</span> Software that manages computer hardware resources

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">VSE (operating system)</span>

VSEn is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers, the latest one in the DOS/360 lineage, which originated in 1965. It is less common than z/OS and is mostly used on smaller machines.

In computing, a core dump, memory dump, crash dump, storage dump, system dump, or ABEND dump consists of the recorded state of the working memory of a computer program at a specific time, generally when the program has crashed or otherwise terminated abnormally. In practice, other key pieces of program state are usually dumped at the same time, including the processor registers, which may include the program counter and stack pointer, memory management information, and other processor and operating system flags and information. A snapshot dump is a memory dump requested by the computer operator or by the running program, after which the program is able to continue. Core dumps are often used to assist in diagnosing and debugging errors in computer programs.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of operating systems</span> Aspect of computing history

Computer operating systems (OSes) provide a set of functions needed and used by most application programs on a computer, and the links needed to control and synchronize computer hardware. On the first computers, with no operating system, every program needed the full hardware specification to run correctly and perform standard tasks, and its own drivers for peripheral devices like printers and punched paper card readers. The growing complexity of hardware and application programs eventually made operating systems a necessity for everyday use.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Xenix</span> Discontinued Unix version published by Microsoft

Xenix is a discontinued version of the Unix operating system for various microcomputer platforms, licensed by Microsoft from AT&T Corporation in the late 1970s. The Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) later acquired exclusive rights to the software, and eventually replaced it with SCO UNIX.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">System call</span> Way for programs to access kernel services

In computing, a system call is the programmatic way in which a computer program requests a service from the operating system on which it is executed. This may include hardware-related services, creation and execution of new processes, and communication with integral kernel services such as process scheduling. System calls provide an essential interface between a process and the operating system.

In computing, Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF) is a software product for many historic IBM mainframe operating systems and currently the z/OS and z/VM operating systems that run on IBM mainframes. It includes a screen editor, the user interface of which was emulated by some microcomputer editors sold commercially starting in the late 1980s, including SPF/PC.

In some operating systems, the null device is a device file that discards all data written to it but reports that the write operation succeeded. This device is called /dev/null on Unix and Unix-like systems, NUL: or NUL on CP/M and DOS, nul on OS/2 and newer Windows systems, NIL: on Amiga operating systems, and NL: on OpenVMS. In Windows Powershell, the equivalent is $null. It provides no data to any process that reads from it, yielding EOF immediately. In IBM operating systems DOS/360 and successors and also in OS/360 and successors such files would be assigned in JCL to DD DUMMY.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">VM (operating system)</span> Family of IBM operating systems

VM is a family of IBM virtual machine operating systems used on IBM mainframes System/370, System/390, zSeries, System z and compatible systems, including the Hercules emulator for personal computers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">CP/CMS</span> IBM operating system specializing in virtualization

CP/CMS is a discontinued time-sharing operating system of the late 1960s and early 1970s. It is known for its excellent performance and advanced features. Among its three versions, CP-40/CMS was an important 'one-off' research system that established the CP/CMS virtual machine architecture. It was followed by CP-67/CMS, a reimplementation of CP-40/CMS for the IBM System/360-67, and the primary focus of this article. Finally, CP-370/CMS was a reimplementation of CP-67/CMS for the System/370. While it was never released as such, it became the foundation of IBM's VM/370 operating system, announced in 1972.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Windows NT 3.1</span> First major release of Windows NT, released in 1993

Windows NT 3.1 is the first major release of the Windows NT operating system developed by Microsoft, released on July 27, 1993.

A hypervisor, also known as a virtual machine monitor (VMM) or virtualizer, is a type of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines. A computer on which a hypervisor runs one or more virtual machines is called a host machine, and each virtual machine is called a guest machine. The hypervisor presents the guest operating systems with a virtual operating platform and manages the execution of the guest operating systems. Unlike an emulator, the guest executes most instructions on the native hardware. Multiple instances of a variety of operating systems may share the virtualized hardware resources: for example, Linux, Windows, and macOS instances can all run on a single physical x86 machine. This contrasts with operating-system–level virtualization, where all instances must share a single kernel, though the guest operating systems can differ in user space, such as different Linux distributions with the same kernel.

The following is a timeline of virtualization development. In computing, virtualization is the use of a computer to simulate another computer. Through virtualization, a host simulates a guest by exposing virtual hardware devices, which may be done through software or by allowing access to a physical device connected to the machine.

The history of IBM mainframe operating systems is significant within the history of mainframe operating systems, because of IBM's long-standing position as the world's largest hardware supplier of mainframe computers. IBM mainframes run operating systems supplied by IBM and by third parties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Berkeley Software Distribution</span> Unix operating system

The Berkeley Software Distribution or Berkeley Standard Distribution (BSD) is a discontinued operating system based on Research Unix, developed and distributed by the Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG) at the University of California, Berkeley. The term "BSD" commonly refers to its open-source descendants, including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD, and DragonFly BSD.

References

  1. Not Panicking Ltd (January 7, 2012). "h2g2 - Early Electronic Computers - Edited Entry" . Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  2. "LCS/AI Lab Timeline". Archived from the original on September 23, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  3. Douglas Ross. 1986. A personal view of the personal work station: some firsts in the Fifties. In Proceedings of the ACM Conference on The history of personal workstations (HPW '86), John R White and Kathi Anderson (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 19–48. DOI=10.1145/12178.12180
  4. "Early Operating Systems". Archived from the original on April 10, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  5. "Michigan Terminal System: Time Line". Clock.org. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  6. "Multics History" . Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  7. "Digital Research home page" . Retrieved September 27, 2021.
  8. Wulf, W.; Cohen, E.; Corwin, W.; Jones, A.; Levin, R.; Pierson, C.; Pollack, F. (June 1974). "HYDRA:The Kernel of a Multiprocessor Operating System" (PDF). Communications of the ACM . 17 (6). doi:10.1145/355616.364017. S2CID   8011765. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  9. "Time-Sharing Uses Emphasized For DEC Datasystem 350 Series". Computerworld. Computerworld, Inc. July 30, 1975. Retrieved March 7, 2023.
  10. Wilkes, M. V.; Needham, R. M. (January 1, 1979). Denning, Peter J. (ed.). The Cambridge CAP Computer and Its Operating System. Operating and Programming Systems Series. North Holland . Retrieved March 26, 2023 via www.microsoft.com.
  11. Ian P. Blythe. "FLEX User Group - History" . Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  12. "SECURE MINICOMPUTER OPERATING SYSTEM (KSOS)" (PDF). csrc.nist.gov. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  13. Gold, B. D.; Linde, R. R; Cudney, P. F. "KVM/370 IN RETROSPECT" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
  14. Stan Sokolow (ed.). "SOLUS NEWS" (PDF). Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  15. "CSDL | IEEE Computer Society". www.computer.org.
  16. Archived August 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  17. "Apollo/DOMAIN Computers" . Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  18. "Archived copy". ftp.stratus.com:80. Archived from the original on June 12, 2003. Retrieved January 13, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. [ dead link ]
  20. "FINAL EVALUATION REPORTM OFN SCOMP" (PDF). www.dtic.mil. 1965. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  21. "NEW VSE SYSTEM IPO/E 1.4.0 AND VSE/SYSTEM PACKAGE 1.1.0". Announcement Letters. IBM. July 19, 1983. LTR 283-217. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  22. Vinter, S. T. and Schantz, R. E. 1986. The Cronus distributed operating system. In Proceedings of the 2nd Workshop on Making Distributed Systems Work (Amsterdam, Netherlands, September 8–10, 1986). EW 2. ACM, New York, NY, 1-3.
  23. "Final evaluation report" (PDF). www.aesec.com. June 28, 1995. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  24. [ permanent dead link ]
  25. Paul A. Karger; Mary Ellen Zurko; Douglass W. Bonin; Andrew H. Mason; Clifford E. Kahn (November 1991). "A Retrospective on the VAX VMM Security Kernel" (PDF). IEEE Journal of Software Engineering. 17 (11): 1147–1165. doi:10.1109/32.106971. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 12, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
  26. Quarterly Status Report - Report #1 (PDF). Advance Computing Systems: An Advanced Reasoning-Based Paradigm for Ada Trusted Systems and its Application to MACH (Report). TRW - Federal Systems Group - Systems Division. March 15, 1989. AD-A206 308. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 2, 2021 via Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC).
  27. "LOCK-An Historical Perspective" (PDF). Cyberdefenseagency.com. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  28. "IBM VSE/ENTERPRISE SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE VERSION 1 RELEASE 1". Announcement Letters. IBM. December 18, 1990. LTR 290-785. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
  29. "A Brief History of RISC OS", Wakefield RISC OS Computer Club, retrieved November 19, 2011
  30. "EPL Entry CSC-EPL-92/001" . Retrieved March 15, 2015.
  31. "JN: An Operating System for an Embedded Java Network Computer UCSC-CRL-96-29". Archived from the original on August 24, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  32. various 1997 publications listed on the Nemesis website, retrieved 2013-08-13
  33. "Inferno Downloads", Vita Nuova Holdings , retrieved November 19, 2011
  34. "Microsoft Releases Windows 2000 to Manufacturing", Microsoft News Center, December 15, 1999, retrieved November 19, 2011
  35. "Plan 9 from Bell Labs Overview", Bell Labs , retrieved November 19, 2011
  36. Balaban, Alexandre (2000), Test de MorphOS 0.1 (in French), retrieved November 19, 2011
  37. "Microsoft Announces Immediate Availability Of Windows Millennium Edition (Windows Me)", Microsoft News Center, September 14, 2000, retrieved November 19, 2011
  38. "AmigaOS 3.9 release", Amiga History (UK), December 4, 2000, retrieved July 22, 2012
  39. Schmidt, Ralph (February 15, 2001), New MorphOS 0.4 Release , retrieved November 19, 2011
  40. Project History , retrieved November 19, 2011
  41. "Windows XP to Take the PC to New Heights", Microsoft News Center, August 24, 2001, retrieved November 19, 2011
  42. "Microsoft Unveils Plans for 64-Bit Windows Platform". Microsoft .
  43. "Sanos". Jbox.dk. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  44. "Plan 9 From Bell Labs Fourth Release Notes", Bell Labs , April 2002, retrieved November 19, 2011
  45. "What is the history of Syllable?", Frequently Asked Questions, archived from the original on January 7, 2011, retrieved November 19, 2011
  46. "Jaguar "Unleashed" at 10:20 p.m. Tonight", Apple Inc. , August 23, 2002, archived from the original on October 8, 2003, retrieved November 19, 2011
  47. "Node, an operating system based on Java" (PDF). 2010.rmll.info. 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2020.
  48. "Windows XP 64-bit Edition for Itanium systems, Version 2003 Press release", Microsoft News Center, March 28, 2003, retrieved November 19, 2011
  49. Kernel.org archive , retrieved November 19, 2011
  50. News digest August 2006, August 2006, retrieved November 19, 2011
  51. "Genode - Release notes for the Genode OS Framework 8.11". genode.org.
  52. Muen SK. "Muen | SK for x86/64". Muen.codelabs.ch. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  53. "IBM z/OS Version 2 Release 2 Announcement Letter". July 28, 2015. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  54. "IBM AIX 7.2 delivers the reliability, availability, performance, and security needed to be successful in the new global economy". 01.ibm.com. October 5, 2015. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  55. "What's New in Oracle® Solaris 11.3". Docs.oracle.com. October 3, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
  56. "Genode - Genode News". genode.org.