Vice President of Indonesia

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Vice President of the
Republic of Indonesia
Indonesian Vice Presidential Seal gold.svg
Vice Presidential Seal
Jusuf Kalla Vice President Portrait 2014.jpg
Incumbent
Jusuf Kalla

since 20 October 2014
Style His Excellency
Residence Vice-Presidential Palace, Jakarta
Appointer Direct popular election
Term length Five years
Renewable once
Inaugural holder Mohammad Hatta
Formation Constitution of Indonesia
18 August 1945
Salary Rp 42,160,000 per month [1]
Website Official Website
Coat of Arms of Indonesia Garuda Pancasila.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Indonesia
Pancasila(national philosophy)
Constitution
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Mohammad Hatta, the first Vice-President of Indonesia Mohammad Hatta 1950.jpg
Mohammad Hatta, the first Vice-President of Indonesia

The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian : Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia.

Indonesian language official language of Indonesia

Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized register of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Contents

History of the office

The Indonesian Vice Presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 constitution by the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPKI). The office was first filled on 18 August 1945 when Mohammad Hatta was elected by acclamation. [2] The election was conducted by the Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) because the body responsible for the Vice-Presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), had not been formed yet. In the early days of the Republic, the office of Vice-President showed how important it can be. On 16 October 1945, Hatta announced a Vice-Presidential decree which turned the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) equal status with that of the President. [3] As a result of this decree, the KNIP was able to separate the role of Head of State and Head of Government on 11 November 1945. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto Parliamentary Democracy.

The Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence, sometimes referred to as the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence, was an organization set up in March 1945 by the Japanese military authority in Java during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia as the initial stage of the establishment of independence for the area under the control of the Japanese 16th Army. The BPUPK held two plenary meetings; the first was from 29 May to 1 June 1945 and the second was between 10 and 17 July 1945.

Mohammad Hatta first Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia

Mohammad Hatta was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's prime minister. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of Indonesia from the Dutch. Hatta was born in Fort De Kock, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies. After his early education, he studied in Dutch schools in the Dutch East Indies and studied in the Netherlands from 1921 until 1932.

Peoples Consultative Assembly legislative branch in Indonesias political system

The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system. It is composed of the members of the People's Representative Council (DPR) and the Regional Representative Council (DPD). Before 2004, and the amendments to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR was the highest governing body in Indonesia.

During the Indonesian National Revolution, both Hatta and Sukarno were captured by the Dutch in Yogyakarta on 18 December 1948. Together with Sukarno, Hatta gave mandate for Syafruddin Prawiranegara to form an emergency Government. [4] This was done and the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) was formed in Sumatra with Prawiranegara as Chairman. Prawiranegara handed back his mandate to Sukarno and consequently, to Hatta on 13 July 1949. [5]

Indonesian National Revolution armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between Indonesia and the Dutch Empire

The Indonesian National Revolution, or Indonesian War of Independence, was an armed conflict and diplomatic struggle between the Republic of Indonesia and the Dutch Empire and an internal social revolution during postwar and postcolonial Indonesia. It took place between Indonesia's declaration of independence in 1945 and the Netherlands' recognition of Indonesia's independence at the end of 1949.

Yogyakarta City in Java, Indonesia

Yogyakarta is a city on the island of Java in Indonesia. As the only Indonesian royal city still ruled by a monarchy, Yogyakarta is regarded as an important centre for classical Javanese fine arts and culture such as ballet, batik textiles, drama, literature, music, poetry, silversmithing, visual arts, and wayang puppetry. Renowned as a centre of Indonesian education, Yogyakarta is home to a large student population and dozens of schools and universities, including Gadjah Mada University, the country's largest institute of higher education and one of its most prestigious.

Now officially an independent nation, Indonesia adopted the Provisional Constitution, a document which defined the President's role as a ceremonial Head of State whose role was to appoint a Prime Minister on the advice of formateurs. [6] Although the Vice Presidency continued to exist, the form of Government was now officially a Parliamentary Democracy and there was not a significant role for the Vice-President to play. On 1 December 1956, partly because of his differences with Sukarno, Hatta resigned from the Vice Presidency. [7]

For the next 17 years, the Vice Presidency remain vacant. In December 1965, there were calls for a Vice-President to be named to assist President Sukarno during the times of uncertainty. [8] The idea did not gain momentum and the Vice Presidency continued to remain vacant as the Presidency passed over from Sukarno to General Suharto.

Suharto 2nd President of the Republic of Indonesia

Suharto was an Indonesian military leader and politician who served as the second President of Indonesia, holding the office for 31 years, from the ousting of Sukarno in 1967 until his resignation in 1998. He was widely regarded by foreign commentators as a dictator. However, his legacy is still debated at home and abroad.

In March 1973, the Vice Presidency vacancy was filled by Hamengkubuwono IX when he was elected by the MPR. After Hamengkubuwono IX and throughout the New Order, the Vice Presidency were successively held by Adam Malik, Umar Wirahadikusumah, Sudharmono, Try Sutrisno, and BJ Habibie. During his time as President, Suharto would reduce the Vice Presidency to a sinecure. A Vice-President was reduced to making sure that Government policy was being implemented and attending ceremonies. [9] The Vice-President did not even take on Presidential duties when Suharto was either out of the country or ill. [10] The office would derogatorily be known as Ban Serep (Spare Tire). Despite being a largely figurehead role, the Vice Presidency twice became a source of controversy with Sudharmono having to face various obstacles en route to being Vice-President in 1988 and Try being preemptively nominated in 1993.

Hamengkubuwono IX Second Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia; Sultan of Yogyakarta, 1940-1988

Hamengkubuwono IX or HB IX; 12 April 1912 – 2 October 1988) was the first Governor of the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the second Vice President of Indonesia and the ninth Sultan of Yogyakarta during the rule of Suharto.

The New Order is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterise his regime as he came to power in 1966. Suharto used this term to contrast his rule with that of his predecessor, Sukarno. The term "New Order" in more recent times has become synonymous with the Suharto years (1966–1998).

Adam Malik The third Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia

Adam Malik Batubara was Indonesia's third vice president, a senior diplomat, former foreign minister, and one of the pioneers of Indonesian journalism.

With Suharto's fall in May 1998 and Habibie's accession to the Presidency, the Vice Presidency once again became vacant. In October 1999, Megawati Sukarnoputri was elected as Vice-President and the office began to gain significance. Megawati was delegated genuine tasks to do [11] and in 2000, she even became responsible for the day-to-day running of the Government. [11]

During the 2001 MPR Annual Session, it was finally decided that from 2004 onwards, the Vice-President, together with the President, will directly be elected by the people. [12] The substantial role that the Vice Presidency is now going to have was evident in the way in which the 2004 Presidential Candidates chose their running mates. At the end, Jusuf Kalla became Indonesia's first directly elected Vice-President.

The Vice Presidency

The Requirements to Run for Office

The 1945 Constitution: The Vice-Presidential candidate has to be of Indonesian origins.

The Provisional Constitution: The Vice-Presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen aged at least 30 years old. He cannot be someone who is deemed to be undesirable or has had his right to take part in elections stripped. He is also required to not be involved with any private corporations.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The Vice-Presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen since his/her birth, who has not willingly become a citizen in another nation, has not betrayed the nation, and is physically and mentally capable of performing the duties. Amended Constitution also states that further criteria will be determined by laws. The Vice-President is also required to be nominated by a Political Party or a coalition of Political Parties.

2008 Law No. 42 about Presidential and Vice-Presidential Election: The Vice-Presidential candidate must be:

2nd Resolution of 1973 MPR: The Vice-Presidential candidate has to make a statement in writing which declares that he is able to work together with the President.

Election, Oath/Promise/Statement of Office, Term of Office, Constitutional Requirement

The 1945 Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice-President is elected by the MPR with the largest number of votes. The Vice-President-elect is also required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming Vice-President. The term of office is Five years and after that the Vice-President can be re-elected again.

The Provisional Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice-President is elected according to rules specified by laws. The Vice-President-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise or a statement of office before officially becoming Vice-President. The Vice-President is constitutionally required to live where the seat of Government is.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: Together with the President, the Vice-President is elected directly by the people on a ticket. Further election rules are determined by laws passed by the DPR. The Vice-President-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming Vice-President. The term of office is Five years and after that the Vice-President can be re-elected for only one more term.

Oath of Office of the Vice-President of the Republic of Indonesia : "I swear by Allah to fulfill the duties of President (Vice President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Pledge of Office of the Vice-President of the Republic of Indonesia : "I solemnly pledge to fulfill the duties of President (Vice President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Powers

None specified by all constitutions. The convention has been for the President to delegate a task for the Vice-President to do.

Line of Succession and Impeachment

The 1945 Constitution: The Vice-President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason.

The Provisional Constitution: The Vice-President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The Vice-President replaces the President in the event that the President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason. If the President and the Vice-President dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason, the government will be taken over together by Minister of Foreign Affairs, Minister of Internal Affairs and Minister of Defence. Then the MPR will elect a new president from the two candidates nominated by the political parties whose candidates are the winner and the runner-up in the past presidential election. If the Vice Presidency becomes vacant with the President still holding office, the President nominates two candidates and the MPR has to elect a new Vice-President out of the candidates within 60 days. [13] Under the amended constitution, the Vice-President can now be impeached and removed from office. If the Vice-President is viewed to be unfit to perform his duties and has committed crimes such as corruption and betraying the Nation, the DPR can appeal to the Supreme Court to try the Vice-President. Furthermore, the DPR can ask the Constitutional Court to look into the matter, during which it has 90 days to make a decision. With the decision made, the DPR can motion for the MPR to convene. The Vice-President would then be given one last chance to defend himself before the MPR makes the decision whether or not the Vice-President should be impeached.

Post-Vice Presidency

Law 7 of 1978 [14] stipulates that former Vice-Presidents are entitled to a pension. Former Presidents are also entitled to a house with electricity, water, and telephone bills covered by the Government. In addition to that Former Vice-Presidents will have free healthcare for his family and a car with chauffeur.

List of Vice-Presidents

See also

Notes

  1. "Megawati Digaji Rp 112 Juta, Lebih Besar dari Gaji Presiden". KOMPAS (in Indonesian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  2. [EMAIL PROTECTED] Dr. Muhammad Hatta
  3. "Usulan MTI tentang Amandemen UUD 1945". Archived from the original on 1 June 2007. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  4. [Urangawak] Peran PDRI Akhirnya Diakui Archived 11 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  6. http://www.sjdih.depkeu.go.id/fulltext/1950/UUDSTAHUN~1950UUDS.HTM
  7. [EMAIL PROTECTED] Mengenang Mundurnya Bung Hatta
  8. Hughes, John (2002) [1967]. The End of Sukarno: A Coup That Misfired: A Purge That Ran Wild (3rd ed.). Singapore: Archipelago Press. p. 215. ISBN   981-4068-65-9.
  9. [INDONESIA-NEWS] KMP - Asal-Usul dengan Bondan Winar
  10. [INDONESIA-L] TI - Wapres Hanya Ban Archived 17 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  11. 1 2 Fighting in the Malukus heightens tensions across Indonesia and within the Wahid cabinet
  12. MPR Dan Pemilihan Presiden Langsung - 2001-11-06 Archived 25 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  13. http://news.detik.com/read/2010/01/22/184420/1284302/10/wapres-bisa-jadi-presiden-kemudian-memilih-wakilnya?nd771108bcj
  14. http://kambing.vlsm.org/bebas/v01/RI/uu/1978/uu-1978-007.txt

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