The archaeology of Iowa is the study of the buried remains of human culture within the U.S. state of Iowa from the earliest prehistoric through the late historic periods. When the American Indians first arrived in what is now Iowa more than 13,000 years ago, they were hunters and gatherers living in a Pleistocene glacial landscape. By the time European explorers visited Iowa, American Indians were largely settled farmers with complex economic, social, and political systems. This transformation happened gradually. During the Archaic period (10,500–2,800 years ago) American Indians adapted to local environments and ecosystems, slowly becoming more sedentary as populations increased. More than 3,000 years ago, during the Late Archaic period, American Indians in Iowa began utilizing domesticated plants. The subsequent Woodland period saw an increase on the reliance on agriculture and social complexity, with increased use of mounds, ceramics, and specialized subsistence. During the Late Prehistoric period (beginning about AD 900) increased use of maize and social changes led to social flourishing and nucleated settlements. The arrival of European trade goods and diseases in the Protohistoric period led to dramatic population shifts and economic and social upheaval, with the arrival of new tribes and early European explorers and traders. During the Historical period European traders and American Indians in Iowa gave way to American settlers and Iowa was transformed into an agricultural state.
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; these include expressive forms like art, music, dance, ritual, religion, and technologies like tool usage, cooking, shelter, and clothing. The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, mythology, philosophy, literature, and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society.
In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.
Archaeologists have studied the prehistory of Iowa since the mid-19th century, when large American Indian mounds were first observed along the Mississippi. Early archaeologists such as S.V. Proudfit and Theodore Lewis documented large sites such as earthworks, mounds, and earthlodges.Truly systematic recording of Iowa sites began with Charles R. Keyes and Ellison Orr’s surveys and excavations beginning in the 1920s. Documenting hundreds of sites, often just before they disappeared under the plow, Keyes’ and Orr’s work led to the formation of the Iowa Archaeological Survey, the Iowa Archeological Society, and the designation of Effigy Mounds National Monument. After their deaths in 1951, the Survey was disbanded, and their efforts were continued by the University of Iowa’s Department of Sociology and Anthropology, which formed the Office of the State Archaeologist (OSA) in 1959. The OSA maintains an extensive list of more than 23,000 recorded archaeological sites in Iowa, and conducts survey and excavation across the state. Other institutions conducting archaeological research in Iowa include the State Historical Society of Iowa, the Iowa Archeological Society, the University of Iowa, Iowa State University, Grinnell College, Luther College, and private archaeological firms. Professional archaeologists in Iowa are represented by the Association of Iowa Archaeologists. Iowa archaeology grew dramatically beginning in the 1960s with the introduction of Cultural Resources Management legislation that required archaeological survey and excavation at many federal projects in Iowa.
Charles Reuben Keyes was a pioneering American archaeologist and linguist based in Iowa, known as the founder of modern Iowa archaeology. He is, with Ellison Orr (1857-1951), considered a key person to gaining protection for the Effigy Mounds National Monument, established by Congress in 1949 to protect hundreds of prehistoric earthworks built by indigenous Native American cultures.
The Iowa Archeological Society (IAS) is an organization of academic, professional, and amateur archaeologists. The IAS promotes education about Iowa’s cultural past, conducts excavations, and encourages ethical collection and recording of archaeological sites. It publishes the academic Journal of the Iowa Archeological Society and the IAS Newsletter.
Effigy Mounds National Monument preserves more than 200 prehistoric mounds built by Native Americans. Numerous effigy mounds are shaped like animals, including bears and birds. These were built mostly in the first millennium, by peoples of the Woodland Culture. In 2017, they were featured in the America the Beautiful Quarters Program.
Paleoindian hunters and gatherers were the first occupants of Iowa, entering the state at the end of the Pleistocene glacial period. At the time the state was covered by tundra, conifer forests, and deciduous forests. Areas immediately north of Des Moines extending to Minnesota were covered by the receding Des Moines Lobe, a large glacier system. Highly mobile, their sites are scattered across Iowa and are noted for their large stone points. While Paleoindians were traditionally viewed as big game hunters, more recent research suggests much of their subsistence was derived from small game and wild plants. Paleoindian points are found throughout Iowa, but almost no intact Paleoindian sites have been excavated, probably because they were ephemeral and are now either destroyed by plowing or are very deeply buried in river valleys.
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology.
The oldest artifacts found in Iowa are Clovis points, large lanceolate points found occasionally in all parts of the state except for the Des Moines Lobe. Possible sources of game were giant Pleistocene megafauna, including mammoth, mastodon, and giant forms of bison, all of which are now extinct. While widespread, only two Clovis sites have been excavated in Iowa. The Rummells-Maske site is a Clovis site in Cedar County; unfortunately, this site was damaged by plowing, although 20 points and point fragments were recovered.The Carlisle Clovis Cache Site in Warren County contained 38 unfinished stone tools that appear to date to the Clovis period, but these results have not yet been published.
The Clovis culture is a prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture, named for distinct stone tools found in close association with Pleistocene fauna at Blackwater Locality No. 1 near Clovis, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. It appears around 11,500–11,000 uncalibrated radiocarbon years before present at the end of the last glacial period, and is characterized by the manufacture of "Clovis points" and distinctive bone and ivory tools. Archaeologists' most precise determinations at present suggest this radiocarbon age is equal to roughly 13,200 to 12,900 calendar years ago. Clovis people are considered to be the ancestors of most of the indigenous cultures of the Americas.
Warren County is a county located in the U.S. state of Iowa. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,225. The county seat is Indianola.
Other Iowa Early Paleoindian points include Gainey, a point that appears to be intermediate between Clovis and Folsom. Gainey points were also recovered at Rummells-Maske. While Folsom points are found throughout Iowa, especially western Iowa, none have been excavated in a well-preserved site.
Folsom points are a distinct form of knapped stone projectile points associated with the Folsom tradition of North America. The style of tool-making was named after the Folsom Site located in Folsom, New Mexico, where the first sample was found by George McJunkin within the bone structure of a bison in 1908. The Folsom point was identified as a unique style of projectile point in 1926.
At the beginning of the glacial-free Holocene Epoch, humans in Iowa utilized projectile point found throughout the mid-continent, including Dalton, Fayette, Agate Basin, and Hell Gap. Humans were still highly mobile, and by this time most of the Pleistocene megafauna had gone extinct. As with the Early Paleoindian period, no intact Late Paleoindian sites have been excavated in Iowa.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch. It began approximately 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat. The Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period. The Holocene has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1. It is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch.
Hell Gap complex is a Plano culture from 10,060 to 9,600 before present. It is named after the Hell Gap archaeological site, in Goshen County, Wyoming.
The Archaic is the longest period of Iowa prehistory, lasting about 8,000 years. Overall, populations appear to have increased in Iowa during the Archaic, despite a changing climate. During this time American Indians transitioned from highly mobile hunters and gatherers with large ranges towards a focus on local resources and ecosystems. Domesticated plants appeared in Iowa towards the end of the Archaic.
During the Early Archaic period regional variation in point forms is seen in Iowa, and Indians adapted to more localized forms of hunting and gathering while probably maintaining seasonal movements from camp to camp.Common stone tool types are Corner-notched St. Charles points and Thebes Knives. Soon Hardin and Kirk points appear in Iowa as well. Excavated Early Archaic sites in Iowa include the Soldow Site, Horizons IIIa and II of the Cherokee Sewer Site, and the Simonsen Site.
Temperatures rose in the mid-continent during the Middle Archaic, a warming trend known as the Hypsithermal. Grasslands expanded east, forests became less common, and many Iowa lakes shrank or disappeared. Humans responded by diversifying their subsistence strategy: eastern Iowa saw a shift towards river resources, and western Iowa towards Plains resources. Excavated sites in eastern and central Iowa include the Brash Site,the Gast Spring Site, and the Ed’s Meadow Site. Western Iowa sites include the Turin Site, Horizon I of the Cherokee Sewer Site, and the Pony Creek Site.
In the Late Archaic the climate became more similar to modern with the end of the Hypsithermal. The number of Late Archaic Sites increased in Iowa, perhaps reflective of increased populations allowed by climate change and new subsistence strategies. The Late Archaic sees the first indication of mound building in Iowa, as well as direct evidence of domesticated plants, and large, long-term settlements. The Red Ocher Culture appeared in northeast Iowa, associated with copper artifacts and mound building. Numerous Late Archaic sites have been excavated in eastern Iowa, some showing the gradual adaptation of cultigens, including squash, little barley, marsh elder, and barnyard grass.Sites with evidence for early cultigens in Iowa include the Edgewater Park Site in Coralville, the Gast Spring Site, and the Sand Run Slough West Site. In western Iowa, Late Archaic sites are common, however large bison killing or processing sites are less common than before, and there is little evidence for the use of domesticated plants.
During the Woodland period, many American Indians in Iowa shifted away from hunting and gathering and used more domesticated plants, although wild food was still important. Ceramics, the bow and arrow, burial mounds, and evidence of political and social hierarchy became common at Woodland sites in Iowa.
The Early Woodland period saw the introduction of ceramics to Iowa, including Marion Thick and Black Sand types. Marion Thick may have originated with the nucleated Late Archaic cultures of the Upper Midwest, and was widespread in distribution.Early Woodland Indians in eastern Iowa built large burial mounds in the Mississippi River region, and participated in long-distance trade of exotic raw material. This long-distance trade may have been the forerunner of the later Havanna-Hopewell trading sphere. In north-central Iowa, Early Woodland peoples appear to have interacted more directly with the Prairie Lakes region of Minnesota. Numerous Early Woodland sites have been excavated in Iowa, including the Gast Spring Site, and many sites which have not been formally published.
The Middle Woodland Indians of eastern Iowa participated at the edge of the Havana and Hopewell interaction networks. This cultural connection to the East is seen in the construction of large mounds, earthworks, and the trade of exotic goods over very long distances. There were several large earthwork enclosures in Iowa along the Mississippi that date to the Middle Woodland period, but none in the interior of the state, indicating Iowa is the western edge of Havana-Hopewell influence.The Toolesboro Mound Group in Louisa County included a large octagonal earthen enclosure that covered several acres; earthworks of this style are indicative of the monumental construction once seen in Havana, Illinois along the Illinois River and sites in the Ohio River drainage including Chillicothe and Newark, Ohio. Hopewell trading networks were quite extensive, with obsidian from the Yellowstone area, copper from Lake Superior, and shells from the Gulf Coast appearing in Middle Woodland Iowa sites. Sites in eastern Iowa appeared to nucleate, vacating much of the hinterlands. Western Iowa appears to have been not directly involved in this exchange network, and the Havana-Hopewell flourishing did not extend much above the Kansas City area of the Missouri River.
The Late Woodland Period was once considered to be relatively unimportant and uninteresting compared to earlier and later periods, but recent research shows unexpected cultural complexity.Late Woodland sites are more dispersed than Middle Woodland sites, but they are apparently more numerous. Gone are the complex earthworks and long-distance trade networks, but this does not appear to be a cultural collapse, since Late Woodland sites and artifact types overlap with and transition from Middle Woodland sites. Technical changes of the Late Woodland include the use of true arrow heads, thinner and larger ceramics with less elaborate decorations, and the adaptation of new crops, including maize. Numerous regional variations and phases have been defined in Iowa, based in large extent on differences of ceramic form and decoration. Excavations at Late Woodland sites are common, some of these sites showing surprising complexity. The Gast Farm Site excavations revealed a complex settlement associated with a midden of refuse 100 m in diameter. Large storage and food processing pits, trash middens, and other features were excavated. Occupants utilized acorns, other nuts and fruits, goosefoot, little barley, maygrass, sunflower, fish, birds, deer, muskrat, and turtle. There was little evidence of long-distance trade. The Rainbow and M.A.D. sites provide a glimpse into the Late Archaic of western Iowa. At Rainbow, a large house was excavated, showing evidence of reuse and possible joint occupation by two families. Mound building became more common during the Late Woodland Period, large groups of mounds appeared including the Slinde Mound Group, and the Fish Farm Mound Group.
The Late Woodland in Iowa is perhaps best known for effigy mounds, large, low mounds shaped like animals such as birds and bears. Effigy mounds are distributed across southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northeast Iowa. A large concentration of mounds in several groups is preserved at Effigy Mounds National Monument. Like most mounds in Iowa, excavation reveals that these mounds were commonly used as sacred burial locations but contain few artifacts.Recent ground-penetrating radar survey of selected mounds at Effigy Mounds National Monument reveal that many are badly disturbed, but others appear to be comparatively intact. The Folkert Mound Group in central Iowa contains an enigmatic cruciform mound that may or may not be astronomically aligned.
Maize appears to have been the catalyst for change in the Late Prehistoric period in Iowa. While maize had been a minor crop in the Woodland Period, many archaeologists believe new varieties of maize were introduced to the region that produced higher yields, allowing for a population boom. This increase in population, combined with the potential for surplus and growing tensions over control of territory, appears to have led to large nucleated settlements throughout the eastern U.S.Although this manifested itself earliest along the Mississippi south of Iowa, the earliest Late Prehistoric cultures appeared in the western part of the state.
Great Oasis sites appeared in the Missouri River drainage, and have attributes of both Late Woodland and Late Prehistoric cultures. Great Oasis cultures extended through the eastern Plains from Iowa to South Dakota. Developing independently from the eastern Mississippian cultures, Great Oasis sites display large sites along major stream terraces, increased reliance on agriculture combined with hunting and gathering, substantial pit earth lodges, and a transition from Late Woodland to Late Prehistoric ceramic forms. Overall, Great Oasis appears to have been a regional adaptation of new forms of farming and settlement patterns, including seasonal occupation of different ecological zones, that includes aspects of Late Woodland and the subsequent Middle Missouri Tradition.
In northwestern Iowa, Great Oasis underwent dramatic changes as Mill Creek sites appeared. While Mill Creek has many stylistic similarities with Great Oasis and some Mill Creek sites contain Great Oasis ceramic forms, Mill Creek sites are substantially different. Mill Creek sites became nucleated, often fortified, had a much higher dependence on maize and bison hunting, show substantial evidence of long-distance trade, and appear to have been occupied year-round. The Phipps and Chan-Ya-Ta sites are classic examples. Glenwood culture sites in southwest Iowa near the Missouri River appear to be unrelated to the earlier Great Oasis sites, and are notable for their large earthlodge sites. Glenwood sites appear to have been more oriented in lifeways and trade with the Central Plains Tradition cultures to the west than with the Mississippian cultures to the southeast. Around 1300 AD Mill Creek and Glenwood sites in Iowa disappeared, replaced by the rapidly spreading Oneota cultures.
Very large Mississippian centers appeared around AD 1000, with enormous earthen pyramids, palisades, and extreme social hierarchy. The earliest large Mississippian center was Cahokia, east of St. Louis. Cahokia appears to have dominated trade in the upper Mississippi, with satellite or closely aligned settlements as far as Aztalan in Wisconsin.In Iowa, there is little evidence of Mississippian occupation, and the Late Woodland lasts longer in the east than in the west. This is puzzling, given the proximity to Mississippian cultures; it is possible that the nearby presence of the large, hierarchal Mississippian trading network inhibited local development. After the decline of the Cahokia network after AD 1250 the local Late Woodland populations expanded in complexity, developing large nucleated villages and their own trading network, known as Oneota. Oneota, named by Charles Keyes for a river in northeast Iowa, was a large cultural manifestation that covered the Upper Midwest at the edge of the Mississippian cultures. Oneota sites are easily identifiable by the globular, shell tempered pots, which typically have strap handles and incised designs. Pots of this kind were well designed for the cooking of porridge and foods made from the various cultivated foods of the area. Important Oneota sites in Iowa include Kingston, Mckinney, Christenson, Blood Run, Hartley Fort, the Lane Enclosure, three sites in downtown Des Moines, and sites along the Upper Iowa River, including several large earthwork enclosures. After the decline of the Mill Creek and Glenwood cultures in western Iowa, Oneota cultures appeared across the state. It is widely accepted that the Oneota were the ancestors of modern American Indian tribes associated with Iowa, including the Ioway, Ho-Chunk (Winnebago), Otoe, Missouria, and Omaha.
Protohistoric refers to the period when American Indians were exposed to European trade items and large population shifts occurred because of introduced European diseases and warfare, but there is very little direct written documentation. Explorers such as Marquette and Joliet occasionally documented American Indians along the Mississippi in Iowa, but it was not until the early 19th century that regular written accounts of American Indians in Iowa became common. American Indians in the early Protohistoric period continued many aspects of Oneota culture, but soon almost all indigenous technology disappeared, including ceramics and stone tool production.It was during this period that the Meskwaki (Fox) and Sauk appeared in eastern Iowa, displaced from their homelands in the east. Important protohistoric sites include Milford; Blood Run; Gillett Grove; and Iowaville.
The earliest European forts and settlements were established by traders beginning in the 1680s. Almost none of these ephemeral early historical sites have been located archaeologically. Julien Dubuque’s Mines of Spain settlement and adjacent Meskwaki village occupied in the late 18th century and early 19th century, has been the subject of numerous archaeological surveys.Fort Madison (1808–1813), the first American settlement and the first American fort in Iowa, was partially excavated in 1965. American settlement began in earnest in the 1830s, and the official removal of American Indians from Iowa was completed by 1852. Several of these historical sites have been excavated, including Gilbert’s Trading Post. and Fort Atkinson. Archaeologists have also studied historical American settlements, including excavations at the Plum Grove Historic House, the Buxton African-American community, and the Bowen’s Prairie community.
The Great Serpent Mound is a 1,348-foot (411 m)-long, three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by Ohio History Connection, it has been designated a National Historic Landmark by the United States Department of Interior. The Serpent Mound of Ohio was first reported from surveys by Ephraim Squire and Edwin Davis in their historic volume Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, published in 1848 by the newly founded Smithsonian Museum.
The various cultures collectively termed "Mound Builders" were inhabitants of North America who, during a circa 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial, and elite residential purposes. These included the pre-Columbian cultures of the Archaic period, Woodland period, and Mississippian period; dating from roughly 3500 BCE to the 16th century CE, and living in regions of the Great Lakes, the Ohio River Valley, and the Mississippi River valley and its tributary waters.
Oneota is a designation archaeologists use to refer to a cultural complex that existed in the eastern plains and Great Lakes area of what is now the United States from around AD 900 to around 1650 or 1700. Based on classification defined in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips' 1958 book Method and Theory in American Archaeology, the Oneota culture belongs to formative stage. The culture is believed to have transitioned into various Siouan cultures of the protohistoric and historic times, such as the Ioway. A long-accepted ancestry to the Ho-chunk has yet to be conclusively demonstrated.
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic term for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the agriculturalist Mississippian cultures. The Eastern Woodlands cultural region covers what is now eastern Canada south of the Subarctic region, the Eastern United States, along to the Gulf of Mexico.
Shiloh Indian Mounds Site (40HR7) is an archaeological site of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture. It is located beside the Tennessee River on the grounds of the Shiloh National Military Park, in Hardin County of southwestern Tennessee. A National Historic Landmark, it is one of the largest Woodland era sites in the southeastern United States.
The Nacoochee Mound is an archaeological site on the banks of the Chattahoochee River in White County, in the northeast part of the U.S. state of Georgia, at the junction of Georgia Georgia State Route 17 and Georgia State Route 75. First occupied as early as 100-500 CE, the site was later developed and occupied more intensively by peoples of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture from 1350 to 1600 CE. One of their characteristic platform mounds is located at the site. A professional archeological excavation revealed a total of 75 human burials, with artifacts that support dating of the site.
Hartley Fort State Preserve is a 2-acre (8,100 m2) Iowa state preserve located on the Upper Iowa River in the Driftless Area, in Allamakee County of Iowa, USA.
The Nodena Site is an archeological site east of Wilson, Arkansas and northeast of Reverie, Tennessee in Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. Around 1400–1650 CE an aboriginal palisaded village existed in the Nodena area on a meander bend of the Mississippi River. The Nodena site was discovered and first documented by Dr. James K. Hampson, archaeologist and owner of the plantation on which the Nodena site is located. Artifacts from this site are on display in the Hampson Museum State Park in Wilson, Arkansas. The Nodena Site is the type site for the Nodena Phase, believed by many archaeologists to be the province of Pacaha visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1542.
The Kincaid Mounds Historic Site c. 1050–1400 CE, is the site of a city from the prehistoric Mississippian culture. One of the largest settlements of the Mississippian culture, it was located at the southern tip of present-day U.S. state of Illinois. Kincaid Mounds has been notable for both its significant role in native North American prehistory and for the central role the site has played in the development of modern archaeological techniques. The site had at least 11 substructure platform mounds. Artifacts from the settlement link its major habitation and the construction of the mounds to the Mississippian period, but it was also occupied earlier during the Woodland period.
David G. Anderson is an archaeologist in the department of anthropology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who specializes in Southeastern archaeology. His professional interests include exploring the development of cultural complexity in Eastern North America, maintaining and improving the nation’s CRM program, teaching and writing about archaeology, and developing technical and popular syntheses of archaeological research. He is the project director of the on-line Paleoindian Database of the Americas (PIDBA).
Towosahgy State Historic Site (23MI2), also known as "Beckwith's Fort," is a large Mississippian earthwork mound site with a Woodland period Baytown culture component located in Mississippi County, Missouri. It is believed to have been inhabited from c. 400-1350. The site is maintained by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources as a state historic site. The name Towosahgy is an Osage word which means "old town." It is not known if members of the historic Osage, who dominated a large area of present-day Missouri at the beginning of encounter with European colonizers, occupied the site. The site includes the Beckwith's Fort Archeological Site, added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1969.
American Indians of Iowa include numerous Native American tribes and prehistoric cultures that have lived in this territory for thousands of years. There has been movement both within the territory, by prehistoric cultures that descended into historic tribes, and by other historic tribes that migrated into the territory from eastern territories. In some cases they were pushed by development pressure and warfare.
The Fourche Maline culture was a Woodland Period Native American culture that existed from 300 BCE to 800 CE, in what are now defined as southeastern Oklahoma, southwestern Arkansas, northwestern Louisiana, and northeastern Texas. They are considered to be one of the main ancestral groups of the Caddoan Mississippian culture, along with the contemporaneous Mill Creek culture of eastern Texas. This culture was named for the Fourche Maline Creek, a tributary of the Poteau River. Their modern descendants are the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
The Cary Village Site is an archaeological site in the west-central portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located southeast of the village of Plain City in Madison County, the site occupies a group of grassy terraces located amid two farm fields. In this grassy area, archaeologists have discovered a wide range of artifacts, including stone tools, materials made of flint, and various types of pottery.
The Glenwood Culture was a population of Indigenous peoples of North America prior to historical times. The culture is recognized as an eastern extension of the Nebraska Phase of the Woodland period, and was not a Mississippian culture.
Pocahontas Mounds is an archaeological site from the Plaquemine Mississippian culture in Hinds County, Mississippi, dating from 800 to 1300 CE. Two mounds from the site were added to the NRHP on two separate occasions, Pocahontas Mound A on November 25, 1969 as NRIS number 69000365 and Pocahontas Mound B on April 11, 1972 as NRIS number 72000694.
The Little Egypt site was an archaeological site located in Murray County, Georgia, near the junction of the Coosawattee River and Talking Rock Creek. The site originally had three platform mounds surrounding a plaza and a large village area. It was destroyed during the construction of the Dam of Carters Lake in 1972. It was situated between the Ridge and Valley and Piedmont sections of the state in a flood plain. Using Mississippian culture pottery found at the site archaeologists dated the site to the Middle and Late South Appalachian culture habitation from 1300 to 1600 CE during the Dallas, Lamar, and Mouse Creek phases.
Rucker's Bottom Site (9EB91) is an archaeological site in located on the Upper Savannah River in Elbert County, Georgia.
Mississippian copper plates, or plaques, are plain and repousséd plates of beaten copper crafted by peoples of the various regional expressions of the Mississippian culture between 800 and 1600 CE. They have been found as artifacts in archaeological sites in the American Midwest and Southeast. The plates, found as far afield as Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, were instrumental in the development of the archaeological concept known as the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Some of the more notable examples are representations of raptorial birds and avian-themed dancing warriors.