Cylindrotomidae

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Cylindrotomidae
Diogma wing veins.svg
Diogma wing vein
Scientific classification
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Cylindrotomidae
Genera

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Cylindrotoma distinctissima Cylindrotoma distinctissima.jpg
Cylindrotoma distinctissima

The Cylindrotomidae or long-bodied craneflies are a family of crane flies. About 115 species in 9 genera occur worldwide.

Contents

Most recent classifications place the group to family level. this was not supported by recent phylogenetic analyses by Petersen et al. [1] however Zhang et al. [2] have overturned this with their phylogenetic analyses. Thus they remain an established family.

Description

They are mostly large flies of around 11–16 mm and yellowish to pale brownish in colour. They have long, slender antennae with 16 segments; the wings, legs and the abdomen are all very long.

Biology

The larvae are all phytophagous (with the exception of the genus Cylindrotoma ) and are found living on terrestrial, semiaquatic and aquatic mosses. The larvae of the genus Cylindrotoma live on various flowering plants. Adults are found in damp, wooded habitats.

Classification

Related Research Articles

Crane fly Family of flies

Crane fly is a common name referring to any member of the insect family Tipulidae, of the order Diptera, true flies in the superfamily Tipuloidea. Cylindrotominae, Limoniinae, and Pediciinae have been ranked as subfamilies of Tipulidae by most authors, though occasionally elevated to family rank. In the most recent classifications, only Pediciidae is now ranked as a separate family, due to considerations of paraphyly. In colloquial speech, crane flies are sometimes known as mosquito hawks or daddy longlegs, a term also used to describe opiliones or the family Pholcidae, both of which are arachnids. The larvae of crane flies are known commonly as leatherjackets.

Nematocera Suborder of flies

The Nematocera are a suborder of elongated flies with thin, segmented antennae and mostly aquatic larvae. Major families in the suborder include the mosquitoes, crane flies, gnats, black flies, and a group of families described as midges.

Limoniinae Crane flies

The Limoniinae are a paraphyletic assemblage of genera within the crane flies, Tipulidae, although they can usually be distinguished by the way the wings are held at rest. Limoniines usually hold/fold the wings along the back of the body, whereas other tipulids usually hold them out at right angles. Snow flies such as Chionea scita have no wings at all. Limoniines are also usually smaller than other tipulids, with some exceptions. Limoniinae are a very large assemblage with nearly 10500 described species in 133 genera, and were historically treated as a subfamily, but their classification is in flux; numerous authors recently treated the group at the rank of family, but subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that the remaining groups of tipulids render the group paraphyletic. These flies are found in damp places throughout the world, and many species form dense swarms in suitable habitats.

<i>Ctenophora</i> (fly) Genus of flies

Ctenophora is a genus of true crane flies. The species are large, shiny black craneflies with large yellow, orange, or red markings to mimic wasps. Males have comb-like antennae. The larvae are saproxylic. The species are confined to old deciduous forests, orchards, and other habitats with continuity of the presence of dying and fallen trees. Ctenophora species are important bioindicators.

<i>Dactylolabis</i> Genus of flies

Dactylolabis is a genus of crane flies in the family Limoniidae. It is placed in its own subfamily, Dactylolabinae. Dactylolabis contains the following species:

Elliptera is a genus of crane fly in the family Limoniidae.

Tipuloidea Superfamily of flies

Tipuloidea is a superfamily of flies containing the living families Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae and Tipulidae, and the extinct families Architipulidae and Eolimnobiidae.

Limnophilinae Subfamily of flies

The Limnophilinae are a subfamily of tipulid crane flies. Some authors still use the name Hexatominae for this subfamily.

<i>Cylindrotoma</i> Genus of flies

Cylindrotoma is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

Stibadocera is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae. Stibadocera are unusual for crane flies in that the males have very long antenna, sometimes as long as the body. Most species are very small (6–10 mm).

<i>Diogma</i> Genus of flies

Diogma is a genus of crane flies in the family Cylindrotomidae.

<i>Liogma</i> Genus of flies

Liogma is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

<i>Phalacrocera</i> Genus of flies

Phalacrocera is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotominae.

Stibadocerella is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

Stibadocerina is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

Stibadocerodes is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

Triogma is a genus of crane fly in the family Cylindrotomidae.

The Cylindrotominae are a subfamily from the Long-bodied Craneflies family Cylindrotomidae. These flies are closely related to true crane flies.

The Stibadocerinae are a subfamily from the Long-bodied Craneflies family Cylindrotomidae. These flies are closely related to true crane flies.

Tipulinae Subfamily of flies

Tipulinae is a subfamily of crane flies. It contains the typical crane flies from the genus Tipula.

References

  1. Petersen, M.J.; Bertone, M.A.; Wiegmann, B.M.; Courtney, G.W. 2010: Phylogenetic synthesis of morphological and molecular data reveals new insights into the higher-level classification of Tipuloidea (Diptera). Systematic entomology, 35: 526-545. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2010.00524.x
  2. Zhang, Xiao; Kang, Zehui; Mao, Meng; Li, Xuankun; Cameron, Stephen L.; de Jong, Herman; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding (2016). "Comparative Mt Genomics of the Tipuloidea (Diptera: Nematocera: Tipulomorpha) and Its Implications for the Phylogeny of the Tipulomorpha". PLOS ONE. 11 (6): e0158167. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158167. PMC   4920351 . PMID   27341029.
  3. Macquart, P. J. M. (1834). Histoire naturelle des insectes. Dipteres. Tome premiere. Paris: Roret. pp. 578 + 8 pp., 12 pls.
  4. Edwards, Frederick W (1938). "British short-palped craneflies. Taxonomy of adults". Trans. Soc. Brit. Ent. 5: 1–168, 5 pls.
  5. Osten Sacken, C. R. (1869). "Monographs of the Diptera of North America. Part IV". Smithson. Misc. Collect. 8 (1): , xi + 345 pp., 4 pls. Retrieved 24 August 2017.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  6. 1 2 Schiner, I. R. (1863). "Vorlaufiger Commentar zum dipterologischen Theile der "Fauna Austriaca", mit einer naheren Begrundung der in derselben aufgenommenen neuen Dipteren-Gattungen. V. [concl]". Wien. Ent. Monstschr. 7: 217–226.
  7. Enderlein, G. (1912). "Studien uber die Tipuliden, Limoniiden, Cylindrotomiden und Ptychopteriden". Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.). 32: 1–88. Retrieved 24 August 2017.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. Alexander, C. P. (1929). "Crane-flies (Tipulidae, Trichoceridae, Tanyderidae)". Diptera of Patagonia and South Chile. 1: 1–240, 12 pls.
  9. Alexander, C. P. (1928). "Diptera. Fam. Tipulidae, Subfam. Cylindrotominae". Genera Insectorum. 187: 16 pp., 2 pls.