Domestic turkey

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Domestic turkey
Male north american turkey supersaturated.jpg
A broad breasted bronze male (tom) displaying
Domesticated
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Galliformes
Family: Phasianidae
Genus: Meleagris
Species:
M. gallopavo
Binomial name
Meleagris gallopavo

The domestic turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo ) is a large fowl, one of the two species in the genus Meleagris and the same as the wild turkey. Although turkey domestication was thought to have occurred in central Mesoamerica at least 2,000 years ago, [1] recent research suggests a possible second domestication event in the Southwestern United States between 200 BC and AD 500. However, all of the main domestic turkey varieties today descend from the turkey raised in central Mexico that was subsequently imported into Europe by the Spanish in the 16th century. [2]

Fowl superorder of birds

Fowl are birds belonging to one of two biological orders, namely the gamefowl or landfowl (Galliformes) and the waterfowl (Anseriformes). Anatomical and molecular similarities suggest these two groups are close evolutionary relatives; together, they form the fowl clade which is scientifically known as Galloanserae. This clade is also supported by morphological and DNA sequence data as well as retrotransposon presence/absence data.

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

A genus is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

Contents

Domestic turkey is a popular form of poultry, and it is raised throughout temperate parts of the world, partially because industrialized farming has made it very cheap for the amount of meat it produces. Female domestic turkeys are referred to as hens, and the chicks may be called poults or turkeylings. In the United States, the males are referred to as toms, while in the United Kingdom and Ireland, males are stags.

The great majority of domestic turkeys are bred to have white feathers because their pin feathers are less visible when the carcass is dressed, although brown or bronze-feathered varieties are also raised. The fleshy protuberance atop the beak is the snood, and the one attached to the underside of the beak is known as a wattle.

Snood (anatomy)

In anatomical terms, the snood is an erectile, fleshy protuberance on the forehead of turkeys. Most of the time when the turkey is in a relaxed state, the snood is pale and 2-3 cm long. However, when the male begins strutting, the snood engorges with blood, becomes redder and elongates several centimetres, hanging well below the beak.

Wattle (anatomy) fleshy caruncle hanging from various parts of the head or neck in several groups of birds and mammals

A wattle is a fleshy caruncle hanging from various parts of the head or neck in several groups of birds and mammals. A caruncle is defined as 'A small, fleshy excrescence that is a normal part of an animal's anatomy'. Within this definition, caruncles in birds include those found on the face, wattles, dewlaps, snoods and earlobes. Wattles are generally paired structures but may occur as a single structure when it is sometimes known as a dewlap. Wattles are frequently organs of sexual dimorphism. In some birds, caruncles are erectile tissue and may or may not have a feather covering.

The English language name for this species results from an early misidentification of the bird with an unrelated species which was imported to Europe through the country of Turkey. [3] The Latin species name gallopāvō means "chicken peacock".

History

Ceramic whistle in the shape of a turkey. Colima shaft tomb culture, 200 B.C. - A.D. 500 Turkey Whistle LACMA M.86.296.172.jpg
Ceramic whistle in the shape of a turkey. Colima shaft tomb culture, 200 B.C. – A.D. 500

The modern domestic turkey is descended from one of six subspecies of wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo , found in the area bounded by the present Mexican states of Jalisco, Guerrero, and Veracruz. [4] Ancient Mesoamericans domesticated this subspecies, using its meat and eggs as major sources of protein and employing its feathers extensively for decorative purposes. The Aztecs associated the turkey with their trickster god Tezcatlipoca, [5] perhaps because of its perceived humorous behavior.

Subspecies Taxonomic rank subordinate to species

In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to one of two or more populations of a species living in different subdivisions of the species' range and varying from one another by morphological characteristics. A single subspecies cannot be recognized independently: a species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term may be abbreviated to subsp. or ssp. The plural is the same as the singular: subspecies.

Wild turkey species of bird

The wild turkey is an upland ground bird native to North America and is the heaviest member of the diverse Galliformes. It is the same species as the domestic turkey, which was originally derived from a southern Mexican subspecies of wild turkey. Although native to North America, the turkey probably got its name from the domesticated variety being imported to Britain in ships coming from the Levant via Spain. The British at the time therefore associated the wild turkey with the country Turkey and the name prevails.

Jalisco State of Mexico

Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital city is Guadalajara. Jalisco is one of the most important states in Mexico because of its natural resources as well as its history. Many of the characteristic traits of Mexican culture, particularly outside Mexico City, are originally from Jalisco, such as mariachi, ranchera music, birria, tequila, jaripeo, etc., hence the state's motto: "Jalisco es México." Economically, it is ranked third in the country, with industries centered in the Guadalajara metropolitan area, the second largest metropolitan area in Mexico. The state is home to two significant indigenous populations, the Huichols and the Nahuas. There is also a significant foreign population, mostly from the United States and Canada, living in the Lake Chapala and Puerto Vallarta areas.

Domestic turkeys were taken to Europe by the Spanish. Many distinct breeds were developed in Europe (e.g. Spanish Black, Royal Palm). In the early 20th century, many advances were made in the breeding of turkeys, resulting in breeds such as the Beltsville Small White.

Animal husbandry Management, selective breeding, and care of farm animals by humans

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.

Beltsville Small White breed of domestic turkey

The Beltsville Small White is a breed of domestic turkey. The bird was named after its physical characteristics—a relatively small size and entirely white plumage—as well as its place of origin: the USDA's Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Maryland.

Black Spanish turkeys Black Spanish toms and hen.jpg
Black Spanish turkeys
A young turkey is called a poult. Baby turkey in FL.jpg
A young turkey is called a poult.

The 16th-century English navigator William Strickland is generally credited with introducing the turkey into England. [6] [7] His family coat of arms — showing a turkey cock as the family crest — is among the earliest known European depictions of a turkey. [6] [8] English farmer Thomas Tusser notes the turkey being among farmer's fare at Christmas in 1573. [9] The domestic turkey was sent from England to Jamestown, Virginia in 1608. A document written in 1584 lists supplies to be furnished to future colonies in the New World; "turkies, male and female". [10]

Prior to the late 19th century, turkey was something of a luxury in the UK, with goose or beef a more common Christmas dinner among the working classes. [11] In Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol (1843), Bob Cratchit had a goose before Scrooge bought him a turkey. [12]

Turkey production in the UK was centered in East Anglia, using two breeds, the Norfolk Black and the Norfolk Bronze (also known as Cambridge Bronze). These would be driven as flocks, after shoeing, down to markets in London from the 17th century onwards - the breeds having arrived in the early 16th century via Spain. [13]

Intensive farming of turkeys from the late 1940s dramatically cut the price, making it more affordable for the working classes. With the availability of refrigeration, whole turkeys could be shipped frozen to distant markets. Later advances in disease control increased production even more. Advances in shipping, changing consumer preferences and the proliferation of commercial poultry plants has made fresh turkey inexpensive as well as readily available.

Recent genome analysis has provided researchers with the opportunity to determine the evolutionary history of domestic turkeys, and their relationship to other domestic fowl. [14]

Behaviour

Anatomical structures on the head and throat of a domestic turkey. 1. Caruncles, 2. Snood, 3. Wattle (Dewlap), 4. Major caruncle, 5. Beard Anatomy of turkey head.jpg
Anatomical structures on the head and throat of a domestic turkey. 1. Caruncles, 2. Snood, 3. Wattle (Dewlap), 4. Major caruncle, 5. Beard

Young domestic turkeys readily fly short distances, perch and roost. These behaviours become less frequent as the birds mature, but adults will readily climb on objects such as bales of straw. Young birds perform spontaneous, frivolous running ('frolicking') which has all the appearance of play. Commercial turkeys show a wide diversity of behaviours including 'comfort' behaviours such as wing-flapping, feather ruffling, leg stretching and dust-bathing. Turkeys are highly social and become very distressed when isolated. Many of their behaviours are socially facilitated i.e. expression of a behaviour by one animal increases the tendency for this behaviour to be performed by others. Adults can recognise 'strangers' and placing any alien turkey into an established group will almost certainly result in that individual being attacked, sometimes fatally. Turkeys are highly vocal, and 'social tension' within the group can be monitored by the birds’ vocalisations. A high-pitched trill indicates the birds are becoming aggressive which can develop into intense sparring where opponents leap at each other with the large, sharp talons, and try to peck or grasp the head of each other. Aggression increases in frequency and severity as the birds mature.

Male domestic turkey sexually displaying by showing the snood hanging over the beak, the caruncles hanging from the throat, and the 'beard' of small, black, stiff feathers on the chest Turkeybird.JPG
Male domestic turkey sexually displaying by showing the snood hanging over the beak, the caruncles hanging from the throat, and the 'beard' of small, black, stiff feathers on the chest

Maturing males spend a considerable proportion of their time sexually displaying. This is very similar to that of the wild turkey and involves fanning the tail feathers, drooping the wings and erecting all body feathers, including the 'beard' (a tuft of black, modified hair-like feathers on the centre of the breast). The skin of the head, neck and caruncles (fleshy nodules) becomes bright blue and red, and the snood (an erectile appendage on the forehead) elongates, the birds 'sneeze' at regular intervals, followed by a rapid vibration of their tail feathers. Throughout, the birds strut slowly about, with the neck arched backward, their breasts thrust forward and emitting their characteristic 'gobbling' call.

Size and weight

AnimalAverage mass
kg (lb)
Maximum mass
kg (lb)
Average total length
cm (ft)
Domestic turkey13.5 (29.8) [15] 39 (86) [16] 100 - 124.9 (3.3 – 4.1) [17]

The domestic turkey is the eighth largest living bird species in terms of maximum mass at 39 kg (86 lbs).[ citation needed ]

Turkey breeds

A domestic turkey taken as a pet Jill turkey.jpg
A domestic turkey taken as a pet
Turkey in Pakistan Domestic turkey in Pakistan.jpg
Turkey in Pakistan

Commercial production

In commercial production, breeder farms supply eggs to hatcheries. After 28 days of incubation, the hatched poults are sexed and delivered to the grow-out farms; hens are raised separately from toms because of different growth rates.

In the UK, it is common to rear chicks in the following way. Between one and seven days of age, chicks are placed into small 2.5 m (8 ft) circular brooding pens to ensure they encounter food and water. To encourage feeding, they may be kept under constant light for the first 48 hours. To assist thermoregulation, air temperature is maintained at 35 °C (95 °F) for the first three days, then lowered by approximately 3 °C (5.4 °F) every two days to 18 °C (64 °F) at 37 days of age, and infra-red heaters are usually provided for the first few days. Whilst in the pens, feed is made widely accessible by scattering it on sheets of paper in addition to being available in feeders. After several days, the pens are removed, allowing the birds access to the entire rearing shed, which may contain tens of thousands of birds. The birds remain there for several weeks, after which they are transported to another unit. [18]

The vast majority of turkeys are reared indoors in purpose-built or modified buildings of which there are many types. Some types have slatted walls to allow ventilation, but many have solid walls and no windows to allow artificial lighting manipulations to optimise production. The buildings can be very large (converted aircraft hangars are sometimes used) and may contain tens of thousands of birds as a single flock. The floor substrate is usually deep-litter, e.g. wood shavings, which relies upon the controlled build-up of a microbial flora requiring skilful management. Ambient temperatures for adult domestic turkeys are usually maintained between 18 and 21 °C (64 and 70 °F). High temperatures should be avoided because the high metabolic rate of turkeys (up to 69 W/bird) makes them susceptible to heat stress, exacerbated by high stocking densities. [18] Commercial turkeys are kept under a variety of lighting schedules, e.g. continuous light, long photoperiods (23 h), or intermittent lighting, to encourage feeding and accelerate growth. [19] Light intensity is usually low (e.g. less than one lux) to reduce feather pecking.

Rations generally include corn and soybean meal, with added vitamins and minerals, and is adjusted for protein, carbohydrate and fat based on the age and nutrient requirements. Hens are slaughtered at about 14–16 weeks and toms at about 18–20 weeks of age when they can weigh over 20 kg (44 lb) compared to a mature male wild turkey which weighs approximately 10.8 kg (24 lb). [20] [ citation needed ]

Welfare concerns

Modern domestic turkeys under commercial conditions Turkeys.jpg
Modern domestic turkeys under commercial conditions

Stocking density is an issue in the welfare of commercial turkeys and high densities are a major animal welfare concern. Permitted stocking densities for turkeys reared indoors vary according to geography and animal welfare farm assurance schemes. For example, in Germany, there is a voluntary maximum of 52 kg/m2 and 58 kg/m2 for males and females respectively. In the UK, the RSPCA Freedom Foods assurance scheme reduces permissible stocking density to 25 kg/m2 for turkeys reared indoors. [21] Turkeys maintained at commercial stocking densities (8 birds/m2; 61 kg/m2) exhibit increased welfare problems such as increases in gait abnormalities, hip and foot lesions, and bird disturbances, and decreased bodyweight compared with lower stocking densities. [22] Turkeys reared at 8 birds/m2 have a higher incidence of hip lesions and foot pad dermatitis than those reared at 6.5 or 5.0 birds/m2. [23] Insufficient space may lead to an increased risk for injuries such as broken wings caused by hitting the pen walls or other turkeys during aggressive encounters [24] and can also lead to heat stress. [25] The problems of small space allowance are exacerbated by the major influence of social facilitation on the behaviour of turkeys. If turkeys are to feed, drink, dust-bathe, etc., simultaneously, then to avoid causing frustration, resources and space must be available in large quantities.

Lighting manipulations used to optimise production can compromise welfare. Long photoperiods combined with low light intensity can result in blindness from buphthalmia (distortions of the eye morphology) or retinal detachment.

Feather pecking occurs frequently amongst commercially reared turkeys and can begin at 1 day of age. This behaviour is considered to be re-directed foraging behaviour, caused by providing poultry with an impoverished foraging environment. To reduce feather pecking, turkeys are often beak-trimmed. Ultraviolet-reflective markings appear on young birds at the same time as feather pecking becomes targeted toward these areas, indicating a possible link. [26] Commercially reared turkeys also perform head-pecking, which becomes more frequent as they sexually mature. When this occurs in small enclosures or environments with few opportunities to escape, the outcome is often fatal and rapid. Frequent monitoring is therefore essential, particularly of males approaching maturity. Injuries to the head receive considerable attention from other birds, and head-pecking often occurs after a relatively minor injury has been received during a fight or when a lying bird has been trodden upon and scratched by another. Individuals being re-introduced after separation are often immediately attacked again. Fatal head-pecking can occur even in small (10 birds), stable groups. Commercial turkeys are normally reared in single-sex flocks. If a male is inadvertently placed in a female flock, he may be aggressively victimised (hence the term 'henpecked'). Females in male groups will be repeatedly mated, during which it is highly likely she will be injured from being trampled upon.

Breeding and companies

The dominant commercial breed is the Broad-breasted Whites (similar to "White Holland", but a separate breed), which have been selected for size and amount of meat. Mature toms are too large to achieve natural fertilization without injuring the hens, so their semen is collected, and hens are inseminated artificially. Several hens can be inseminated from each collection, so fewer toms are needed. The eggs of some turkey breeds are able to develop without fertilization, in a process called parthenogenesis. [27] [28] Breeders' meat is too tough for roasting, and is mostly used to make processed meats.

Waste products

Approximately two billion to four billion pounds (900,000 to 1,800,000 t) of poultry feathers are produced every year by the poultry industry. Most are ground into a protein source for ruminant animal feed, which are able to digest the protein keratin of which feathers are composed. Researchers at the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have patented a method of removing the stiff quill from the fibers which make up the feather.[ citation needed ] As this is a potential supply of natural fibers, research has been conducted at Philadelphia University's School of Engineering and Textiles to determine textile applications for feather fibers. Turkey feather fibers have been blended with nylon and spun into yarn, and then used for knitting. The yarns were tested for strength while the fabrics were evaluated as insulation materials. In the case of the yarns, as the percentage of turkey feather fibers increased, the strength decreased. In fabric form, as the percentage of turkey feather fibers increased, the heat retention capability of the fabric increased. [ citation needed ]

Turkeys as food

A roast turkey prepared for a traditional U.S. Thanksgiving meal Thanksgiving Turkey.jpg
A roast turkey prepared for a traditional U.S. Thanksgiving meal
Turkey, breast, meat only, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 465 kJ (111 kcal)
0 g
Sugars 0 g
Dietary fiber 0 g
Fat
0.7 g
24.6 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Thiamine (B1)
0%
0 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
8%
0.1 mg
Niacin (B3)
44%
6.6 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
14%
0.7 mg
Vitamin B6
46%
0.6 mg
Folate (B9)
2%
8 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
1%
10 mg
Iron
9%
1.2 mg
Magnesium
8%
28 mg
Phosphorus
29%
206 mg
Potassium
6%
293 mg
Sodium
3%
49 mg
Zinc
13%
1.2 mg
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database [29]

Approximately 620 million turkeys are slaughtered each year for meat wordwide. [30] Turkeys are traditionally eaten as the main course of Christmas feasts in much of the English-speaking world (stuffed turkey) since appearing in England in the 16th century, [31] as well as for Thanksgiving in the United States and Canada. While eating turkey was once mainly restricted to special occasions such as these, turkey is now eaten year-round and forms a regular part of many diets.

Turkeys are sold sliced and ground, as well as "whole" in a manner similar to chicken with the head, feet, and feathers removed. Frozen whole turkeys remain popular. Sliced turkey is frequently used as a sandwich meat or served as cold cuts; in some cases, where recipes call for chicken, turkey can be used as a substitute. Additionally, ground turkey is frequently marketed as a healthy ground beef substitute. Without careful preparation, cooked turkey may end up less moist than other poultry meats, such as chicken or duck.

Wild turkeys, while technically the same species as domestic turkeys, have a very different taste from farm-raised turkeys. In contrast to domestic turkeys, almost all wild turkey meat is "dark" (even the breast) and more intensely flavored. The flavor can also vary seasonally with changes in available forage, often leaving wild turkey meat with a gamier flavor in late summer due to the greater number of insects in its diet over the preceding months. Wild turkey that has fed predominantly on grass and grain has a milder flavor. Older heritage breeds also differ in flavor.

Unlike chicken, duck, and quail eggs, turkey eggs are not commonly sold as food due to the high demand for whole turkeys and the lower output of turkey eggs as compared with other fowl. The value of a single turkey egg is estimated to be about US$3.50 on the open market, substantially more than a single carton of one dozen chicken eggs. [32] [33]

Cooking

Roast turkey Hinduska qizartmasi.jpg
Roast turkey

Both fresh and frozen turkeys are used for cooking; as with most foods, fresh turkeys are generally preferred, although they cost more. Around holiday seasons, high demand for fresh turkeys often makes them difficult to purchase without ordering in advance. For the frozen variety, the large size of the turkeys typically used for consumption makes defrosting them a major endeavor: a typically sized turkey will take several days to properly defrost.

Turkeys are usually baked or roasted in an oven for several hours, often while the cook prepares the remainder of the meal. Sometimes, a turkey is brined before roasting to enhance flavor and moisture content. This is necessary because the dark meat requires a higher temperature to denature all of the myoglobin pigment than the white meat (which is very low in myoglobin), so that fully cooking the dark meat tends to dry out the breast. Brining makes it possible to fully cook the dark meat without drying the breast meat. Turkeys are sometimes decorated with turkey frills prior to serving.

In some areas, particularly the American South, turkeys may also be deep fried in hot oil (often peanut oil) for 30 to 45 minutes by using a turkey fryer. Deep frying turkey has become something of a fad, with hazardous consequences for those unprepared to safely handle the large quantities of hot oil required. [34]

Nutritional value

White turkey meat is often considered healthier than dark meat because of its lower fat content, but the nutritional differences are small. Although turkey is reputed to cause sleepiness, holiday dinners are commonly large meals served with carbohydrates, fats, and alcohol in a relaxed atmosphere, all of which are bigger contributors to post-meal sleepiness than the tryptophan in turkey. [35] [36]

Turkey litter for fuel

Although most commonly used as fertilizer, turkey litter (droppings mixed with bedding material, usually wood chips) is used as a fuel source in electric power plants. One such plant in western Minnesota provides 55 megawatts of power using 500,000 tons of litter per year. The plant began operating in 2007. [37]

See also

Footnotes

  1. "UF researchers discover earliest use of Mexican turkeys by ancient Maya". EurekAlert!. August 8, 2012.
  2. Speller, C. F.; Kemp, B. M.; Wyatt, S. D.; Monroe, C.; Lipe, W. D.; Arndt, U. M. & Yang, D. Y. (2010). "Ancient mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals complexity of indigenous North American Canham domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (7): 2807–2812. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909724107. PMC   2840336 . PMID   20133614.
  3. Webster's II New College Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2005, ISBN   978-0-618-39601-6, p. 1217
  4. C. Michael Hogan. 2008. Wild turkey: Meleagris gallopavo, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived July 25, 2017, at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Ancient North & Central American History of the Wild Turkey". Wildturkeyzone.com. Archived from the original on January 1, 2008. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
  6. 1 2 Emett, Charlie (2003) Walking the Wolds Cicerone Press Limited, 1993 ISBN   1-85284-136-2
  7. M. F. Fuller (2004) The encyclopedia of farm animal nutrition ISBN   0-85199-369-9
  8. Peach, Howard (2001) Curious Tales of Old East Yorkshire , p. 53. Sigma Leisure.
  9. John Harland The house and farm accounts of the Shuttleworths of Gawthorpe Hall in the county of Lancaster at Smithils and Gawthorpe: from September 1582 to October 1621 Chetham society, 1858
  10. James G. Dickson, National Wild Turkey Federation (U.S.), United States. Forest Service The Wild turkey: biology and management Stackpole Books, 1992 ISBN   0-8117-1859-X
  11. A Victorian Christmas Historic UK.com Retrieved December 26, 2010
  12. Charles Dickens (1843) A Christmas carol in prose, being a ghost story of Christmas p.156. Bradbury & Evans
  13. "The Turkey Club UK". March 19, 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
  14. Dalloul, Rami A.; Long, Julie A.; Zimin, Aleksey V. (September 7, 2010), "Multi-Platform Next-Generation Sequencing of the Domestic Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): Genome Assembly and Analysis", PLOS Biology, 8 (9): e1000475, doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000475, PMC   2935454 , PMID   20838655
  15. Tanya Lewis (November 25, 2015). "How big turkeys were then and now - Business Insider". Business Insider.
  16. "Turkey Facts".
  17. "Encyclopedia of Life".
  18. 1 2 Sherwin, C.M., (2010). Turkeys: Behavior, Management and Well-Being. In "The Encyclopaedia of Animal Science". Wilson G. Pond and Alan W. Bell (Eds). Marcel Dekker. pp. 847-849
  19. Nixey C (1994). "Lighting for the production and welfare of turkeys". World's Poultry Science Journal. 50: 292–294.
  20. Wild Turkey National Geographic.
  21. Sandilands, V.; Hocking, P.M., eds. (2012). Alternative Systems for Poultry: Health, Welfare and Productivity. 30. Cabi.
  22. Martrenchar, A.; Huonnic, D.; Cotte, J. P.; Boilletot, E. & Morisse, J.P. (1999). "Influence of stocking density on behavioural, health and productivity traits of turkeys in large flocks". British Poultry Science. 40 (3): 323–331. doi:10.1080/00071669987403. PMID   10475628.
  23. Glatz, P.C. (2013). "Turkey farming - a brief review of welfare and husbandry issues" (PDF). 24th Annual Australian Poultry Science Symposium: 214–217. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 8, 2015. Retrieved December 4, 2015.
  24. Marchewka, J.; Watanabe, T.T.N.; Ferrante, V. & Estevez, I. (2013). "Review of the social and environmental factors affecting the behavior and welfare of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo)". Poultry Science. 92 (6): 1467–1473. doi:10.3382/ps.2012-02943. PMID   23687141.
  25. Jankowski, J.; Mikulski, D.; Tatara, M.R. & Krupski, W. (2014). "Effects of increased stocking density and heat stress on growth, performance, carcase characteristics and skeletal properties in turkeys". Veterinary Record. doi:10.1136/vr.10221 (inactive November 8, 2019).
  26. Sherwin C.M.; Devereux C.L. (1999). "A preliminary investigation of ultraviolet-visible markings on domestic turkey chicks and a possible role in injurious pecking". British Poultry Science. 40: 429–433. doi:10.1080/00071669987151. PMID   10579397.
  27. "Discovered in Turkey Eggs: Parthenogenesis", World's Poultry Science Journal (1953), 9: 276-278 Cambridge University Press
  28. McDaniel, C D, "Parthenogenesis: Embryonic development in unfertilized eggs may impact normal fertilization and embryonic mortality", MSU Poultry Dept. Spring Newsletter, 1:1. (reproduced on The Poultry Site)
  29. "Turkey, fryer-roasters, breast, meat only, raw". USDA Nutrient Database.
  30. "FAOSTAT". www.fao.org. Retrieved October 25, 2019.
  31. Davis, Karen (2001) More than a meal: the turkey in history, myth, ritual, and reality Lantern Books, 2001
  32. Cecil Adams (March 6, 1998). "Why can't you buy turkey eggs in stores?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  33. Kasey-Dee Gardner (November 18, 2008). "Why? Tell Me Why!: Turkey Eggs". DiscoveryNews. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
  34. "Product Safety Tips: Turkey Fryers". Underwriters Laboratories . Retrieved December 21, 2007.
  35. "Does eating turkey make you sleepy?". About.com. Retrieved May 11, 2005.
  36. "Researcher talks turkey on Thanksgiving dinner droop". Massachusetts Institute of Technology News Office. Retrieved November 21, 2006.
  37. "Turkey-Manure Power Plant Raises Stink with Environmentalists". International Herald Tribune iht.com. Retrieved November 15, 2007.

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A hatchery is a facility where eggs are hatched under artificial conditions, especially those of fish or poultry. It may be used for ex-situ conservation purposes, i.e. to breed rare or endangered species under controlled conditions; alternatively, it may be for economic reasons.

Free range

Free range denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals, for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours each day. On many farms, the outdoors ranging area is fenced, thereby technically making this an enclosure, however, free range systems usually offer the opportunity for the extensive locomotion and sunlight that is otherwise prevented by indoor housing systems. Free range may apply to meat, eggs or dairy farming.

Sussex chicken British breed of chicken

The Sussex is a British breed of dual-purpose chicken, reared both for its meat and for its eggs. Eight colours are recognised for both standard-sized and bantam fowl. A breed association, the Sussex Breed Club, was organised in 1903.

Poultry farming Part of animal husbandry

Poultry farming is the form of animal husbandry which raises domesticated birds such as chickens, ducks, turkeys and geese to produce meat or eggs for food. Poultry – mostly chickens – are farmed in great numbers. More than 60 billion chickens are killed for consumption annually. Chickens raised for eggs are known as layers, while chickens raised for meat are called broilers.

Narragansett turkey

The Narragansett turkey is a breed of Meleagris gallopavo which descends from a cross between the eastern wild turkey and the domestic turkey. According to the American Livestock Breeds Conservancy, the Narragansett turkey is a "historic variety, unique to North America" and is named for Narragansett Bay.

Heritage turkey

A heritage turkey is one of a variety of strains of domestic turkey which retains historic characteristics that are no longer present in the majority of turkeys raised for consumption since the mid-20th century. Heritage turkeys can be differentiated from other domestic turkeys in that they are biologically capable of being raised in a manner that more closely matches the natural behavior and life cycle of wild turkeys. Heritage turkeys have a relatively long lifespan and a much slower growth rate than turkeys bred for industrial agriculture, and unlike industrially bred turkeys, can reproduce without artificial insemination.

Turkey as food meat from a turkey

Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys. It is a popular poultry dish, especially in North America, where it is traditionally consumed as part of culturally significant events such as Thanksgiving and Christmas, as well as in standard cuisine.

Feather pecking

Feather pecking is a behavioural problem that occurs most frequently amongst domestic hens reared for egg production, although it does occur in other poultry such as pheasants, turkeys, ducks, broiler chickens and is sometimes seen in farmed ostriches. Feather pecking occurs when one bird repeatedly pecks at the feathers of another. The levels of severity may be recognized as mild and severe. Gentle feather pecking is considered to be a normal investigatory behaviour where the feathers of the recipient are hardly disturbed and therefore does not represent a problem. In severe feather pecking, however, the feathers of the recipient are grasped, pulled at and sometimes removed. This is painful for the receiving bird and can lead to trauma of the skin or bleeding, which in turn can lead to cannibalism and death.

Abnormal behaviour of birds in captivity

Abnormal behavior of birds in captivity can be defined in several ways. Statistically, 'abnormal' is when the occurrence, frequency or intensity of a behaviour varies statistically significantly, either more or less, from the normal value. This means that theoretically, almost any behaviour could become 'abnormal' in an individual. Less formally, 'abnormal' includes any activity judged to be outside the normal behaviour pattern for captive birds of that particular class or age. For example, running rather than flying may be a normal behaviour and regularly observed in one species, however, in another species it might be normal but becomes 'abnormal' if it reaches a high frequency, or in another species it is rarely observed and any incidence is considered 'abnormal'. This article does not include 'one-off' behaviours performed by individual birds that might be considered abnormal for that individual, unless these are performed repeatedly by other individuals in the species and are recognised as part of the ethogram of that species.

Vent pecking is an abnormal behaviour of birds performed primarily by commercial egg-laying hens. It is characterised by pecking damage to the cloaca, the surrounding skin and underlying tissue. Vent pecking frequently occurs immediately after an egg has been laid when the cloaca often remains partly everted exposing the mucosa, red from the physical trauma of oviposition or bleeding if the tissue is torn by her laying an egg. Vent pecking clearly causes pain and distress to the bird being pecked. Tearing of the skin increases susceptibility to disease and may lead to cannibalism, with possible evisceration of the pecked bird and ultimately, death.

Cannibalism in poultry

Cannibalism in poultry is the act of one individual of a poultry species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food. It commonly occurs in flocks of domestic hens reared for egg production, although it can also occur in domestic turkeys, pheasants and other poultry species. Cannibalism can occur as a consequence of feather pecking which has caused denuded areas and bleeding on a bird's skin. Cannibalism can cause large mortality rates within the flock and large decreases in production due to the stress it causes. Vent pecking, sometimes called 'cloacal cannibalism', is considered to be a separate form of cannibalistic pecking as this occurs in well-feathered birds and only the cloaca is targeted.

Blinders (poultry) devices fitted to, or through, the beaks of poultry to block their forward vision

Blinders, also known as peepers, are devices fitted to, or through, the beaks of poultry to block their forward vision and assist in the control of feather pecking, cannibalism and sometimes egg-eating. A patent for the devices was filed as early as 1935. They are used primarily for game birds, pheasant and quail, but also for turkeys and laying hens. Blinders are opaque and prevent forward vision, unlike similar devices called spectacles which have transparent lenses. Blinders work by reducing the accuracy of pecking at the feathers or body of another bird, rather than spectacles which have coloured lenses and allow the bird to see forwards but alter the perceived colour, particularly of blood. Blinders are held in position with a circlip arrangement or lugs into the nares of the bird, or a pin which pierces through the nasal septum. They can be made of metal (aluminium), neoprene or plastic, and are often brightly coloured making it easy to identify birds which have lost the device. Some versions have a hole in the centre of each of the blinders, thereby allowing restricted forward vision.

Broodiness the action or behavioral tendency to sit on a clutch of eggs to incubate them, often requiring the non-expression of many other behaviors including feeding and drinking

Broodiness is the action or behavioral tendency to sit on a clutch of eggs to incubate them, often requiring the non-expression of many other behaviors including feeding and drinking. Being broody has been defined as "Being in a state of readiness to brood eggs that is characterized by cessation of laying and by marked changes in behavior and physiology". Broody birds often pluck feathers from their chest and abdomen, using them to cover the eggs. As a consequence of this, they develop one or several patches of bare skin on the ventral surface. These reddish, well-vascularized areas of skin are usually called brood patches, and improve heat transfer to the eggs. Broodiness is usually associated with female birds, although males of some bird species become broody and some non-avian animals also show broodiness.

Poultry farming in Kenya part of the Kenyas agricultural economy

Poultry farming in Kenya is mostly practiced small-scale, and predominantly for domestic consumption. Poultry farming is the raising of domesticated birds such as chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese, for the purposes of farming meat or eggs for food. In the advent of frequent food shortages and fluctuating prices, some farmers have embraced commercial poultry farming methods. These farmers are classified in the following categories: