In materials science, fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by cyclic loading that results in progressive and localised structural damage and the growth of cracks. Once a fatigue crack has initiated, each loading cycle will grow the crack a small amount, typically producing striations on some parts of the fracture surface. The crack will continue to grow until it reaches a critical size, which occurs when the stress intensity factor of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material, producing rapid propagation and typically complete fracture of the structure.
Fatigue has traditionally been associated with the failure of metal components which led to the term metal fatigue. In the nineteenth century, the sudden failing of metal railway axles was thought to be caused by the metal crystallising because of the brittle appearance of the fracture surface, but this has since been disproved.Most materials seem to experience some sort of fatigue-related failure such as composites, plastics and ceramics.
To aid in predicting the fatigue life of a component, fatigue tests are carried out using coupons to measure the rate of crack growth by applying constant amplitude cyclic loading and averaging the measured growth of a crack over thousands of cycles. However, there are also a number of special cases that need to be considered where the rate of crack growth obtained from these tests needs adjustment. Such as: the reduced rate of growth that occurs for small loads near the threshold or after the application of an overload; and the increased rate of crack growth associated with short cracks or after the application of an underload.
If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to initiate at stress concentrations such as holes, persistent slip bands (PSBs), composite interfaces or grain boundaries in metals.The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage may be much less than the strength of the material, typically quoted as the ultimate tensile strength, or the yield strength.
Historically, fatigue has been separated into regions of high cycle fatigue that require more than 104 cycles to failure where stress is low and primarily elastic and low cycle fatigue where there is significant plasticity. Experiments have shown that low cycle fatigue is also crack growth.
Fatigue failures, both for high and low cycle, all follow the same basic steps process of crack initiation, stage I crack growth, stage II crack growth, and finally ultimate failure. To begin the process cracks must nucleate within a material. This process can occur either at stress risers in metallic samples or at areas with a high void density in polymer samples. These cracks propagate slowly at first during stage I crack growth along crystallographic planes, where shear stresses are highest. Once the cracks reach a critical size they propagate quickly during stage II crack growth in a direction perpendicular to the applied force. These cracks can eventually lead to the ultimate failure of the material, often in a brittle catastrophic fashion.
The formation of initial cracks preceding fatigue failure is a separate process consisting of four discrete steps in metallic samples. The material will develop cell structures and harden in response to the applied load. This causes the amplitude of the applied stress to increase given the new restraints on strain. These newly formed cell structures will eventually break down with the formation of persistent slip bands (PSBs). Slip in the material is localized at these PSBs, and the exaggerated slip can now serve as a stress concentrator for a crack to form. Nucleation and growth of a crack to a detectable size accounts for most of the cracking process. It is for this reason that cyclic fatigue failures seem to occur so suddenly where the bulk of the changes in the material are not visible without destructive testing. Even in normally ductile materials, fatigue failures will resemble sudden brittle failures.
PSB-induced slip planes result in intrusions and extrusions along the surface of a material, often occurring in pairs.This slip is not a microstructural change within the material, but rather a propagation of dislocations within the material. Instead of a smooth interface, the intrusions and extrusions will cause the surface of the material to resemble the edge of a deck of cards, where not all cards are perfectly aligned. Slip-induced intrusions and extrusions create extremely fine surface structures on the material. With surface structure size inversely related to stress concentration factors, PSB-induced surface slip can cause fractures to initiate.
These steps can also be bypassed entirely if the cracks form at a pre-existing stress concentrator such as from an inclusion in the material or from a geometric stress concentrator caused by a sharp internal corner or fillet.
Most of the fatigue life is generally consumed in the crack growth phase. The rate of growth is primarily driven by the range of cyclic loading although additional factors such as mean stress, environment, overloads and underloads can also affect the rate of growth. Crack growth may stop if the loads are small enough to fall below a critical threshold.
Fatigue cracks can grow from material or manufacturing defects from as small as 10 μm.
When the rate of growth becomes large enough, fatigue striations can be seen on the fracture surface. Striations mark the position of the crack tip and the width of each striation represents the growth from one loading cycle. Striations are a result of plasticity at the crack tip.
When the stress intensity exceeds a critical value known as the fracture toughness, unsustainable fast fracture will occur, usually by a process of microvoid coalescence. Prior to final fracture, the fracture surface may contain a mixture of areas of fatigue and fast fracture.
The following effects change the rate of growth:
The American Society for Testing and Materials defines fatigue life, Nf, as the number of stress cycles of a specified character that a specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs.For some materials, notably steel and titanium, there is a theoretical value for stress amplitude below which the material will not fail for any number of cycles, called a fatigue limit, endurance limit, or fatigue strength.
Engineers have used a number of methods to determine the fatigue life of a material:
Whether using stress/strain-life approach or using crack growth approach, complex or variable amplitude loading is reduced to a series of fatigue equivalent simple cyclic loadings using a technique such as the rainflow-counting algorithm.
A mechanical part is often exposed to a complex, often random, sequence of loads, large and small. In order to assess the safe life of such a part using the fatigue damage or stress/strain-life methods the following series of steps is usually performed:
Since S-N curves are typically generated for uniaxial loading, some equivalence rule is needed whenever the loading is multiaxial. For simple, proportional loading histories (lateral load in a constant ratio with the axial), Sines rule may be applied. For more complex situations, such as non-proportional loading, critical plane analysis must be applied.
In 1945, M.A. Miner popularised a rule that had first been proposed by A. Palmgren in 1924.The rule, variously called Miner's rule or the Palmgren-Miner linear damage hypothesis, states that where there are k different stress magnitudes in a spectrum, Si (1 ≤ i ≤ k), each contributing ni(Si) cycles, then if Ni(Si) is the number of cycles to failure of a constant stress reversal Si (determined by uni-axial fatigue tests), failure occurs when:
Usually, for design purposes, C is assumed to be 1. This can be thought of as assessing what proportion of life is consumed by a linear combination of stress reversals at varying magnitudes.
Although Miner's rule may be a useful approximation in many circumstances, it has several major limitations:
Materials fatigue performance is commonly characterized by an S-N curve, also known as a Wöhler curve. This is often plotted with the cyclic stress (S) against the cycles to failure (N) on a logarithmic scale.S-N curves are derived from tests on samples of the material to be characterized (often called coupons or specimens) where a regular sinusoidal stress is applied by a testing machine which also counts the number of cycles to failure. This process is sometimes known as coupon testing. For greater accuracy but lower generality component testing is used. Each coupon or component test generates a point on the plot though in some cases there is a runout where the time to failure exceeds that available for the test (see censoring). Analysis of fatigue data requires techniques from statistics, especially survival analysis and linear regression.
The progression of the S-N curve can be influenced by many factors such as stress ratio (mean stress),loading frequency, temperature, corrosion, residual stresses, and the presence of notches. A constant fatigue life (CFL) diagram is useful for the study of stress ratio effect. The Goodman line is a method used to estimate the influence of the mean stress on the fatigue strength.
A Constant Fatigue Life (CFL) diagram is useful for stress ratio effect on S-N curve.Also, in the presence of a steady stress superimposed on the cyclic loading, the Goodman relation can be used to estimate a failure condition. It plots stress amplitude against mean stress with the fatigue limit and the ultimate tensile strength of the material as the two extremes. Alternative failure criteria include Soderberg and Gerber.
As coupons sampled from a homogeneous frame will display a variation in their number of cycles to failure, the S-N curve should more properly be a Stress-Cycle-Probability (S-N-P) curve to capture the probability of failure after a given number of cycles of a certain stress.
With body-centered cubic materials (bcc), the Wöhler curve often becomes a horizontal line with decreasing stress amplitude, i.e. there is a fatigue strength that can be assigned to these materials. With face-centered cubic metals (fcc), the Wöhler curve generally drops continuously, so that only a fatigue limit can be assigned to these materials.
When strains are no longer elastic, such as in the presence of stress concentrations, the total strain can be used instead of stress as a similitude parameter. This is known as the strain-life method. The total strain amplitude is the sum of the elastic strain amplitude and the plastic strain amplitude and is given by
Basquin's equation for the elastic strain amplitude is
where is Young's modulus.
The relation for high cycle fatigue can be expressed using the elastic strain amplitude
where is a parameter that scales with tensile strength obtained by fitting experimental data, is the number of cycles to failure and is the slope of the log-log curve again determined by curve fitting.
In 1954, Coffin and Manson proposed that the fatigue life of a component was related to the plastic strain amplitude using:
The equations can be combined to account for high cycle and low cycle fatigue giving
An estimate of the fatigue life of a component can be made using a crack growth equation by summing up the width of each increment of crack growth for each loading cycle. Safety or scatter factors are applied to the calculated life to account for any uncertainty and variability associated with fatigue. The rate of growth used in crack growth predictions is typically measured by applying thousands of constant amplitude cycles to a coupon and measuring the rate of growth from the change in compliance of the coupon or by measuring the growth of the crack on the surface of the coupon. Standard methods for measuring the rate of growth have been developed by ASTM International.
Crack growth equations such as the Paris–Erdoğan equation are used to predict the life of a component. They can be used to predict the growth of a crack from 10 um to failure. For normal manufacturing finishes this may cover the most of the fatigue life of a component where growth can start from the first cycle. The conditions at the crack tip of a component are usually related to the conditions of test coupon using a characterising parameter such as the stress intensity, J-integral or crack tip opening displacement. All these techniques aim to match the crack tip conditions on the component to that of test coupons which give the rate of crack growth.
Additional models may be necessary to include retardation and acceleration effects associated with overloads or underloads in the loading sequence. In addition, small crack growth data may be needed to match the increased rate of growth seen with small cracks.
Typically, a cycle counting technique such as rainflow-cycle counting is used to extract the cycles from a complex sequence. This technique, along with others, has been shown to work with crack growth methods.
Crack growth methods have the advantage that they can predict the intermediate size of cracks. This information can be used to schedule inspections on a structure to ensure safety whereas strain/life methods only give a life until failure.
Dependable design against fatigue-failure requires thorough education and supervised experience in structural engineering, mechanical engineering, or materials science. There are at least five principal approaches to life assurance for mechanical parts that display increasing degrees of sophistication:
Fatigue testing can be used for components such as a coupon or a full-scale test article to determine:
These tests may form part of the certification process such as for airworthiness certification.
Following the King Louis-Philippe I's celebrations at the Palace of Versailles, a train returning to Paris crashed in May 1842 at Meudon after the leading locomotive broke an axle. The carriages behind piled into the wrecked engines and caught fire. At least 55 passengers were killed trapped in the carriages, including the explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville. This accident is known in France as the "Catastrophe ferroviaire de Meudon". The accident was witnessed by the British locomotive engineer Joseph Locke and widely reported in Britain. It was discussed extensively by engineers, who sought an explanation.
The derailment had been the result of a broken locomotive axle. Rankine's investigation of broken axles in Britain highlighted the importance of stress concentration, and the mechanism of crack growth with repeated loading. His and other papers suggesting a crack growth mechanism through repeated stressing, however, were ignored, and fatigue failures occurred at an ever-increasing rate on the expanding railway system. Other spurious theories seemed to be more acceptable, such as the idea that the metal had somehow "crystallized". The notion was based on the crystalline appearance of the fast fracture region of the crack surface, but ignored the fact that the metal was already highly crystalline.
Two de Havilland Comet passenger jets broke up in mid-air and crashed within a few months of each other in 1954. As a result, systematic tests were conducted on a fuselage immersed and pressurised in a water tank. After the equivalent of 3,000 flights, investigators at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) were able to conclude that the crash had been due to failure of the pressure cabin at the forward Automatic Direction Finder window in the roof. This 'window' was in fact one of two apertures for the aerials of an electronic navigation system in which opaque fibreglass panels took the place of the window 'glass'. The failure was a result of metal fatigue caused by the repeated pressurisation and de-pressurisation of the aircraft cabin. Also, the supports around the windows were riveted, not bonded, as the original specifications for the aircraft had called for. The problem was exacerbated by the punch rivet construction technique employed. Unlike drill riveting, the imperfect nature of the hole created by punch riveting caused manufacturing defect cracks which may have caused the start of fatigue cracks around the rivet.
The Comet's pressure cabin had been designed to a safety factor comfortably in excess of that required by British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (2.5 times the cabin proof test pressure as opposed to the requirement of 1.33 times and an ultimate load of 2.0 times the cabin pressure) and the accident caused a revision in the estimates of the safe loading strength requirements of airliner pressure cabins.
In addition, it was discovered that the stresses around pressure cabin apertures were considerably higher than had been anticipated, especially around sharp-cornered cut-outs, such as windows. As a result, all future jet airliners would feature windows with rounded corners, greatly reducing the stress concentration. This was a noticeable distinguishing feature of all later models of the Comet. Investigators from the RAE told a public inquiry that the sharp corners near the Comets' window openings acted as initiation sites for cracks. The skin of the aircraft was also too thin, and cracks from manufacturing stresses were present at the corners.
The Alexander L. Kielland was a Norwegian semi-submersible drilling rig that capsized whilst working in the Ekofisk oil field in March 1980, killing 123 people. The capsizing was the worst disaster in Norwegian waters since World War II. The rig, located approximately 320 km east of Dundee, Scotland, was owned by the Stavanger Drilling Company of Norway and was on hire to the United States company Phillips Petroleum at the time of the disaster. In driving rain and mist, early in the evening of 27 March 1980 more than 200 men were off duty in the accommodation on the Alexander L. Kielland. The wind was gusting to 40 knots with waves up to 12 m high. The rig had just been winched away from the Edda production platform. Minutes before 18:30 those on board felt a 'sharp crack' followed by 'some kind of trembling'. Suddenly the rig heeled over 30° and then stabilised. Five of the six anchor cables had broken, with one remaining cable preventing the rig from capsizing. The list continued to increase and at 18:53 the remaining anchor cable snapped and the rig turned upside down.
A year later in March 1981, the investigative report mm fillet weld which joined a non-load-bearing flange plate to this D-6 bracing. This flange plate held a sonar device used during drilling operations. The poor profile of the fillet weld contributed to a reduction in its fatigue strength. Further, the investigation found considerable amounts of lamellar tearing in the flange plate and cold cracks in the butt weld. Cold cracks in the welds, increased stress concentrations due to the weakened flange plate, the poor weld profile, and cyclical stresses (which would be common in the North Sea), seemed to collectively play a role in the rig's collapse.concluded that the rig collapsed owing to a fatigue crack in one of its six bracings (bracing D-6), which connected the collapsed D-leg to the rest of the rig. This was traced to a small 6
In engineering, deformation refers to the change in size or shape of an object. Displacements are the absolute change in position of a point on the object. Deflection is the relative change in external displacements on an object. Strain is the relative internal change in shape of an infinitesimally small cube of material and can be expressed as a non-dimensional change in length or angle of distortion of the cube. Strains are related to the forces acting on the cube, which are known as stress, by a stress-strain curve. The relationship between stress and strain is generally linear and reversible up until the yield point and the deformation is elastic. The linear relationship for a material is known as Young's modulus. Above the yield point, some degree of permanent distortion remains after unloading and is termed plastic deformation. The determination of the stress and strain throughout a solid object is given by the field of strength of materials and for a structure by structural analysis.
Fracture mechanics is the field of mechanics concerned with the study of the propagation of cracks in materials. It uses methods of analytical solid mechanics to calculate the driving force on a crack and those of experimental solid mechanics to characterize the material's resistance to fracture.
In safe-life design, products are intended to be removed from service at a specific design life.
In materials science, fracture toughness is the critical stress intensity factor of a sharp crack where propagation of the crack suddenly becomes rapid and unlimited. The critical value of stress intensity factor in mode I loading measured under plane strain conditions is known as the plane strain fracture toughness, denoted . Fracture toughness is a quantitative way of expressing a material's resistance to crack propagation and standard values for a given material are generally available.
Corrosion fatigue is fatigue in a corrosive environment. It is the mechanical degradation of a material under the joint action of corrosion and cyclic loading. Nearly all engineering structures experience some form of alternating stress, and are exposed to harmful environments during their service life. The environment plays a significant role in the fatigue of high-strength structural materials like steel, aluminum alloys and titanium alloys. Materials with high specific strength are being developed to meet the requirements of advancing technology. However, their usefulness depends to a large extent on the degree to which they resist corrosion fatigue.
The J-integral represents a way to calculate the strain energy release rate, or work (energy) per unit fracture surface area, in a material. The theoretical concept of J-integral was developed in 1967 by G. P. Cherepanov and independently in 1968 by James R. Rice, who showed that an energetic contour path integral was independent of the path around a crack.
Paris' law is a crack growth equation that gives the rate of growth of a fatigue crack. The stress intensity factor characterises the load around a crack tip and the rate of crack growth is experimentally shown to be a function of the range of stress intensity seen in a loading cycle. The Paris equation is
Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC) is one of the most common causes of unexpected brittle failure of thermoplastic polymers known at present. According to ASTM D883, stress cracking is defined as " an external or internal crack in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less than its short-term mechanical strength." This type of cracking typically involves brittle cracking, with little or no ductile drawing of the material from its adjacent failure surfaces. Environmental stress cracking may account for around 15-30% of all plastic component failures in service. This behavior is especially prevalent in glassy, amorphous thermoplastics. Amorphous polymers exhibit ESC because of their loose structure which makes it easier for the fluid to permeate into the polymer. Amorphous polymers are more prone to ESC at temperature higher than their glass transition temperature (Tg) due to the increased free volume. When Tg is approached, more fluid can permeate permeation into the polymer chains.
Material failure theory is the science of predicting the conditions under which solid materials fail under the action of external loads. The failure of a material is usually classified into brittle failure (fracture) or ductile failure (yield). Depending on the conditions most materials can fail in a brittle or ductile manner or both. However, for most practical situations, a material may be classified as either brittle or ductile. Though failure theory has been in development for over 200 years, its level of acceptability is yet to reach that of continuum mechanics.
Thermo-mechanical fatigue is the overlay of a cyclical mechanical loading, that leads to fatigue of a material, with a cyclical thermal loading. Thermo-mechanical fatigue is an important point that needs to be considered, when constructing turbine engines or gas turbines.
Polymer fracture is the study of the fracture surface of an already failed material to determine the method of crack formation and extension in polymers both fiber reinforced and otherwise. Failure in polymer components can occur at relatively low stress levels, far below the tensile strength because of four major reasons: long term stress or creep rupture, cyclic stresses or fatigue, the presence of structural flaws and stress-cracking agents. Formations of submicroscopic cracks in polymers under load have been studied by x ray scattering techniques and the main regularities of crack formation under different loading conditions have been analyzed. The low strength of polymers compared to theoretically predicted values are mainly due to the many microscopic imperfections found in the material. These defects namely dislocations, crystalline boundaries, amorphous interlayers and block structure can all lead to the non-uniform distribution of mechanical stress.
Crack closure is a phenomenon in fatigue loading, where the opposing faces of a crack remain in contact even with an external load acting on the material. As the load is increased, a critical value will be reached at which time the crack becomes open. Crack closure occurs from the presence of material propping open the crack faces and can arise from many sources including plastic deformation or phase transformation during crack propagation, corrosion of crack surfaces, presence of fluids in the crack, or roughness at cracked surfaces..
Critical plane analysis refers to the analysis of stresses or strains as they are experienced by a particular plane in a material, as well as the identification of which plane is likely to experience the most extreme damage. Critical plane analysis is widely used in engineering to account for the effects of cyclic, multiaxial load histories on the fatigue life of materials and structures. When a structure is under cyclic multiaxial loading, it is necessary to use multiaxial fatigue criteria that account for the multiaxial loading. If the cyclic multiaxial loading is nonproportional it is mandatory to use a proper multiaxial fatigue criteria. The multiaxial criteria based on the Critical Plane Method are the most effective criteria.
The microplane model, conceived in 1984, is a material constitutive model for progressive softening damage. Its advantage over the classical tensorial constitutive models is that it can capture the oriented nature of damage such as tensile cracking, slip, friction, and compression splitting, as well as the orientation of fiber reinforcement. Another advantage is that the anisotropy of materials such as gas shale or fiber composites can be effectively represented. To prevent unstable strain localization, this model must be used in combination with some nonlocal continuum formulation. Prior to 2000, these advantages were outweighed by greater computational demands of the material subroutine, but thanks to huge increase of computer power, the microplane model is now routinely used in computer programs, even with tens of millions of finite elements.
Low cycle fatigue has two fundamental characteristics: plastic deformation in each cycle; and low cycle phenomenon, in which the materials have finite endurance for this type of load. The term cycle refers to repeated applications of stress that lead to eventual fatigue and failure; low-cycle pertains to a long period between applications.
Solder fatigue is the mechanical degradation of solder due to deformation under cyclic loading. This can often occur at stress levels below the yield stress of solder as a result of repeated temperature fluctuations, mechanical vibrations, or mechanical loads. Techniques to evaluate solder fatigue behavior include finite element analysis and semi-analytical closed form equations.
Welding is a manufacturing method used to join various materials in order to form an assembly. During welding, joints are formed between two or more separate pieces of material. A welded joint subjected to cyclic loading could fail due to fatigue. Fatigue results from this cyclic loading, as well as strains, in the material. Throughout a welded assembly's life, cracks, which reduce the fatigue life of a joint, could initiate, propagate, and grow causing the assembly to fail even if these cyclic stresses are low and smaller than the base material and weld filler material yield stress. Hence, the fatigue strength of a welded joint does not correlate to the fatigue strength of the base material. Incorporating design considerations in the development phase can reduce failures due to fatigue in welded joints.
Striations are marks produced on the fracture surface that show the incremental growth of a fatigue crack. A striation marks the position of the crack tip at the time it was made. Striations are typically rounded bands on the fracture surface separated by depressions or fissures. The term striation generally refers to ductile striations which are rounded striations and can have the same appearance on both sides of the mating surfaces of the fatigue crack. Although some research has suggested that many loading cycles are required to form a single striation, it is now generally thought that each striation is the result of a single loading cycle.
A crack growth equation is used for calculating the size of a fatigue crack growing from cyclic loads. The growth of fatigue cracks can result in catastrophic failure, particularly in the case of aircraft. A crack growth equation can be used to ensure safety, both in the design phase and during operation, by predicting the size of cracks. In critical structure, loads can be recorded and used to predict the size of cracks to ensure maintenance or retirement occurs prior to any of the cracks failing.
Fatigue testing is a specialised form of mechanical testing that is performed by applying cyclic loading to a coupon or structure. These tests are used either to generate fatigue life and crack growth data, identify critical locations or demonstrate the safety of a structure that may be susceptible to fatigue. Fatigue tests are used on a range components from coupons through to full size test articles such as automobiles and aircraft.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Material fatigue .|