|• Mayor||Ahmet Sel (MHP)|
|• Kaymakam||Bünyamin Kuş|
|• District||1,227.13 km2 (473.80 sq mi)|
|Elevation||620 m (2,030 ft)|
|• District density||15/km2 (38/sq mi)|
Feke (Armenian : Վահկա or Vahka) is a small city and a district in Adana Province of Turkey, 122 km from the city of Adana, 620m above sea-level, a small town on attractive forested mountainside. The current mayor is Ahmet Sel (MHP).
The area was settled by the Hittites in the 16th century BC, the Persians in the 6th century BC, conquered by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, and later passed into the hands of the Romans and Byzantines.
Feke commands a pass across the Taurus mountains directly north of Adana, and a castle was first built in the Byzantine period. The name then was Vahka and has since mutated to today's spelling Feke.
Beginning in the 10th century AD the Byzantine government forcibly settled Armenians into Cilicia to act as guards on the frontier with Syria. With the collapse of Byzantine rule in Asia Minor after the Battle of Manzikert it fell upon the Armenians in Cilicia to defend themselves and in 1097/98 they captured this castle and rebuilt most of the Greek fortifications. It became an important stronghold for the Rubenid barons, who later became the rulers of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. It was captured by the Mameluks and then the Ottomans.
Below the castle are the imposing remains of a two-story early Byzantine church and a late antique/medieval town.
The impressive circuit walls, towers, and vaulted chambers of the castle are positioned at the top of an elongated mountainous outcrop, primarily flanking the more accessible western side.Sheer cliffs precluded the need for defenses at the east. The outer gatehouse, which consists of a winding staircase and an elaborate bent entrance, leads to the summit. Here there are cisterns, residential quarters, and embrasured loopholes for archers. Most of the exterior masonry is the typical Armenian rusticated ashlar with finely drafted margins.
Cilicia is a geo-cultural region in southern Turkey, extending inland from the northeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea. With a population of six million, comprising Mersin, Adana, Osmaniye and Hatay provinces, Cilicia is one of the large population concentrations of the Near East.
Kozan is a city in Adana Province, Turkey, 68 kilometres northeast of Adana, in the northern section of the Çukurova plain. The city is the capital of the ilçe (district) of Kozan. The Kilgen River, a tributary of the Ceyhan, flows through Kozan and crosses the plain south into the Mediterranean. The Taurus Mountains rise up sharply behind the town.
Toros I, also Thoros I, was the third lord of Armenian Cilicia or “Lord of the Mountains”.
Lampron is a castle near the town of Çamlıyayla in Mersin Province, Turkey. While part of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia in the Middle Ages, the castle was known as Lampron and was the ancestral home of the Armenian Hethumid princes. Situated in the Taurus Mountains, the fortress guarded passes to Tarsus and the Cilician Gates.
Aladağ, formerly Karsantı, is a small city and a district in Adana Province, Turkey about 100 km north of the city of Adana, up in the mountains. This is an undeveloped area, the people live from agriculture and forestry. People from the Çukurova retreat up here in the summer to escape the heat on the plain, although it's too high up for a day trip.
Çamlıyayla is a town and district of Mersin Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The district has a population of 10,558 of which 3335 lives in the town of Çamlıyayla.
Düziçi is a town and district of Osmaniye Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is located in a small plain in the foothills of the Nur Mountains and 440 m above the sea level.
Saimbeyli is a small city and a district in Adana Province, Turkey at the Cilicia highlands. The city of Saimbeyli is located in the Taurus mountains, 157 km north of the city of Adana, via an adequate road. The city had a population of 4,010 in 2012.
Toprakkale is a town and district of Osmaniye Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is located at 10 km to the west of Osmaniye. Its name comes from an Abbasid castle near the city.
Yılankale is a late 12th–13th century Armenian castle in Adana Province of Turkey. It is known in Armenian as Levonkla after its possible founder—King Leo (Levon) I the Magnificent of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. Medieval Armenian names attached to the site are Kovara and Vaner.
Gülek is a town in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Limonlu is a small town in Mersin Province, Turkey.
Sarvandikar, also spelled Sarvanda k'ar. It was the Frankish castle of Savranda and is officially known today as Savranda Kalesi. The site is a medieval castle in the former Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, located in Turkey's Osmaniye Province approximately 115 kilometers east of Adana.
Sis was the capital of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The massive fortified complex is just to the southwest of the modern Turkish town of Kozan in Adana Province.
Geben is a town in Andırın district of Kahramanmaraş Province, Turkey. Atit is a mountainous town the distance to Andırın being about 30 kilometres (19 mi). Near the settlement of Geben is a large baronial castle primarily of Armenian construction with probable late antique/Byzantine remains and a period of Crusader occupation. The two baileys are well-protected with rounded towers. This site was the guardian of the strategic road at the Meryemçil Pass, connecting Cappadocia to the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. The remains of a late antique/medieval settlement are in the valley below to the southeast.An extensive photographic survey, description and plan of Geben Castle / Kahramanmaraş was made between 1973 and 1979. This road now used only by Geben residents was an important caravan route in history which connected East Mediterranean cities to Central Anatolia. The population of Geben is 2127 as of 2010.
Dumlu is a village in the District of Ceyhan, Adana Province, Turkey. Above the village is a magnificent fortification dating from the period of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. This well-preserved site displays horseshoe-shaped towers, a complex entrance, numerous vaulted undercrofts, and cisterns. This site was the subject of a University of California archaeological survey in 1974 and 1979. Neither these surveys nor the one conducted earlier by G. R. Youngs could find any evidence of Crusader construction or occupation.
Andıl is a village in the District of Kozan, Adana Province, Turkey. Near the village are the remains of a monastic fortified estate house as well as a rectangular building and the fragments of a medieval civilian settlement, all associated with the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia. This site was the subject of an archaeological survey in 1979.
Güveloğlu is a village in the District of Yüreğir, Adana Province, Turkey.
Silifke Castle is a medieval castle in Turkey.
Anvarza Castle is an ancient castle in Adana Province, Turkey.
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