Fort Aguada

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Aguada Fort
Fort aguada.jpg
Fort Aguada's ramparts overlook Sinquerim Beach and the Arabian Sea.
Location Goa, India
Coordinates 15°29′17″N73°45′47″E / 15.488°N 73.763°E / 15.488; 73.763
Built1612
TypeCultural
State PartyFlag of India.svg  India
India Goa location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Goa, India
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Fort Aguada (India)

Fort Aguada and its lighthouse is a well-preserved seventeenth-century Portuguese fort standing in Goa, India, on Sinquerim Beach, overlooking the Arabian Sea.

Portuguese Empire global empire centered in Portugal

The Portuguese Empire, also known as the Portuguese Overseas or the Portuguese Colonial Empire, was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history. It existed for almost six centuries, from the capture of Ceuta in 1415, to the handover of Portuguese Macau to China in 1999. The empire began in the 15th century, and from the early 16th century it stretched across the globe, with bases in North and South America, Africa, and various regions of Asia and Oceania. The Portuguese Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description also given to the Spanish Empire.

Goa State in India

Goa is a state on the south-western coast of India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, separated from the Deccan highlands of the state of Karnataka by the Western Ghats. It is bounded by Maharashtra to the north and Karnataka to the east and south, with the Arabian Sea forming its western coast. It is India's smallest state by area and the fourth-smallest by population. Goa has the highest GDP per capita among all Indian states, two and a half times that of the country. It was ranked the best-placed state by the Eleventh Finance Commission for its infrastructure and ranked on top for the best quality of life in India by the National Commission on Population based on the 12 Indicators.

India Country in South Asia

India, also known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Contents

Origins and history

The fort was constructed in 1612 to guard against the Dutch and the Marathas. It was a reference point for the vessels coming from Europe at that time. This old Portuguese fort stands on the beach south of Candolim, at the shore of the Mandovi River. It was initially tasked with defense of shipping and the nearby Bardez sub district.

Dutch Empire overseas territories controlled by the Dutch Republic and, later, the modern Netherlands from the 17th century to the mid-1950s

The Dutch colonial empire comprised the overseas territories and trading posts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and by the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands after 1815. It was initially a trade-based system which derived most of its influence from merchant enterprise and from Dutch control of international maritime shipping routes through strategically placed outposts, rather than from expansive territorial ventures. With a few notable exceptions, the majority of the Dutch colonial empire's overseas holdings consisted of coastal forts, factories, and port settlements with varying degrees of incorporation of their hinterlands and surrounding regions. Dutch chartered companies often dictated that their possessions be kept as confined as possible in order to avoid unnecessary expense, and while some such as the Dutch Cape Colony and Dutch East Indies expanded anyway, others remained undeveloped, isolated trading centres dependent on an indigenous host-nation. This reflected the primary purpose of the Dutch colonial empire: commercial exchange as opposed to sovereignty over homogeneous landmasses.

Europe Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

Candolim Town in Goa, India

Candolim is a census town in North Goa and is located in the Bardez taluka in the state of Goa, India. It is situated just south of Calangute Beach, and is a tourist destination. It is less congested and has better planned than the other beaches of Goa.

A freshwater spring within the fort provided water supply to the ships that used to stop by. This is how the fort got its name: Aguada, meaning Water. Crews of passing ships would often visit to replenish their fresh water stores. On the fort stands a four-storey Portuguese lighthouse, erected in 1864 and the oldest of its kind in Asia. Built in 1612, it was once the grandstand of 79 cannons. It has the capacity of storing 2,376,000 gallons of water, one of the biggest freshwater storages of the time in whole of Asia. This fort is divided in two segments: the upper part acted as fort and watering station, while the lower part served as a safe berth for Portuguese ships. Whereas the upper part has a moat, underground water storage chamber, gunpowder room, light house and bastions, it also has a secret escape passage to use during time of war and emergency. The lighthouse at initial stage is used to emit light once in 7 minutes. In 1834 it was changed to emit light creating eclipse every 30 seconds, however it was abandoned in 1976.

Fort Aguada was the most prized and crucial fort of Portuguese. The fort is so large that it envelops the entire peninsula at the south western tip of Bardez. Built on the mouth of river Mandovi, it was strategically located and was the chief defence of Portuguese against the Dutch and Marathas.

During the Salazar Administration, Fort Aguada was repurposed for use as a prison primarily, some claim, for Salazar's political opponents.[ citation needed ]

António de Oliveira Salazar Prime Minister of Portugal

António de Oliveira Salazar was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He was responsible for the Estado Novo, the corporatist authoritarian government that ruled Portugal until 1974.

Fort Aguada Beach Resort

Renamed as The Taj Fort Aguada Resort & Spa, Goa, this five-star-rated hotel, owned by the Tata Group, is part of an 88-acre (360,000 m2) complex overlooking the Arabian Sea is situated on Sinquerim Beach.

Tata Group Indian conglomerate

Tata Group is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. Founded in 1868 by Jamsetji Tata, the company gained international recognition after purchasing several global companies. One of India's largest conglomerates, Tata Group is owned by Tata Sons.

Arabian Sea A marginal sea of the northern Indian Ocean between the Arabian Peninsula and India

The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea, on the southwest by the Somali Sea, and on the east by India. Its total area is 3,862,000 km2 (1,491,000 sq mi) and its maximum depth is 4,652 metres (15,262 ft). The Gulf of Aden in the west, connects the Arabian Sea to the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and the Gulf of Oman is in the northwest, connecting it to the Persian Gulf.

Coordinates: 15°29′17″N73°45′47″E / 15.488°N 73.763°E / 15.488; 73.763

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Portuguese India former colony of Portugal

The State of India, also referred as the Portuguese State of India or simply Portuguese India, was a state of the Portuguese Overseas Empire, founded six years after the discovery of a sea route between Portugal and the Indian Subcontinent to serve as the governing body of a string of Portuguese fortresses and colonies overseas.

Raj Bhavan, Panjim official residence of the Governor of Goa

Raj Bhavan is a residential palace and fort situated in Dona Paula, Goa which serves as the official residence of the Governor of Goa. The sprawling 88 acres estate is located on a cape in the Goan capital, Panjim. Known by the name "Palacio do Cabo" until it gained official status as the residence of the governor of Goa, this palace is said to be built between the 16th and 17th century in the erstwhile Portuguese India. The fort is strategically positioned facing the Arabian sea opposite the well-preserved 17th century Forte Aguada.

Mandovi River river in India

The Mahadayi/Mandovi River, also known as Mahadayi or Mhadei river, is described as the lifeline of the Indian state of Goa. The Mandovi and the Zuari are the two primary rivers in the state of Goa. Mandovi joins with the Zuari at a common creek at Cabo Aguada, forming the Mormugao harbour. Panaji, the state capital and Old Goa, the former capital of Goa, are both situated on the left bank of the Mandovi.

North Goa district District of Goa in India

North Goa is one of the two districts that make up the state of Goa, India. The district has an area of 1736 km², and is bounded by Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra state to the north and by Belgaum district of Karnataka to the east, by South Goa District to the south, and by the Arabian Sea to the west.

Bardez Sub-District in Goa, India

Bardez is the name of a region and taluka in North Goa. The name is credited to the Brahmin immigrants who migrated to the Konkan via Magadha in Gangetic India from Āryāvarta, in the north-western part of the Indian sub-continent. Bardez or more properly Bara (twelve) desh (country) means "twelve countries". The form "country" probably refers to clan territorial limits, or to the Brahmin comunidades, of which the twelve, in no particular order, are Aldona, Moira, Olaulim, Nachinola, Siolim, Anjuna, Candolim, Serula, Saligao, Sangolda, Assagao and Pomburpa

Castella de Aguada building in India

Castella de Aguada, also known as the Bandra Fort, is a fort located in Bandra, Mumbai. "Castella" is a misspelling for Portuguese "Castelo" (castle). Properly, it should be called Castelo da Aguada, although it seems its Portuguese builders actually called it Forte de Bandorá. It is located at Land's End in Bandra. It was built by the Portuguese in 1640 as a watchtower overlooking Mahim Bay, the Arabian Sea and the southern island of Mahim. The strategic value of the fort was enhanced in 1661 after the Portuguese ceded the seven islands of Bombay that lay to the immediate south of Bandra to the English. The name indicates its origin as a place where fresh water was available in the form of a fountain ("Aguada") for Portuguese ships cruising the coasts in the initial period of Portuguese presence. The fort lies over several levels, from sea level to an altitude of 24 metres (79 ft). Castella de Aguada has been featured in several Hindi films, such as Dil Chahta Hai and Buddha Mil Gaya.

Pernem taluka Sub-District in Goa, India

Pernem is a northmost administrative region or sub-district in North Goa.It acts as the Gateway of Goa from Maharashtra side. It is also the name of the town of Pernem, which is its headquarters. It has a Municipal Council. Geographically, Pernem is surrounded by Sawantwadi sub-district on East, Arabian Sea on West, Bardez and Bicholim sub-district on south and Sawantwadi sub-district on north.The two rivers which decide the boundary of this sub-district are Terekhol River and Chapora River. Terekhol river acts as a border of Maharashtra and Goa while Chapora river acts as a border of Pernem sub-district and Bardez sub-district.

Reis Magos Village in Goa, India

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Kolaba Fort building in India

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Chapora Fort human settlement in India

Chapora Fort, located in Bardez, Goa, rises high above the Chapora River. Before the Portuguese arrived in Goa in 1510, this location was the site of another fort. The fort changed hands several times after Portuguese acquired Bardez. Trying to end the Portuguese rule in Goa, Prince Akbar joined his father’s enemies, the Marathas in 1683 and made this place his base camp. It became the northern outpost of the Old Conquests. After the Portuguese recovered from an encounter with the Marathas, they strengthened their northern defences and provided shelter to the people there.

Tourism in Goa

The state of Goa, in India, is famous for its beaches and places of worship, and tourism is its primary industry. Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. Foreign tourists, mostly from Europe, arrive in Goa in winter whilst the summer and monsoon seasons see a large number of Indian tourists. Goa handled 2.29% of all foreign tourist arrivals in the country in 2011. This relatively small state is situated on the western coast of India, between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka and is better known to the world as a former Portuguese enclave on Indian soil. Tourism is said to be the backbone of Goa's economy.

Korlai Fort building in India

Korlai Fort is a Portuguese fortification in the town of Korlai, Maharashtra, India. It was built on an island which guards the way to the Revdanda Creek. It was meant as a companion to the fort at Chaul. At this strategic position the Portuguese could use it to defend their province which stretched from Korlai to Bassein. Vestiges of the Portuguese occupation are manifested in the distinct dialect of the Korlai villages inhabitants which is a Luso-Indian Portuguese Creole called Kristi.

Khanderi island in India

Khanderi is an island with a fort, located south of Mumbai, along the coast of Maharashtra, India.

Corjuem Fort building in India

Corjuem Fort is a fortress situated 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the village of Aldona on the river island of Corjuem, Goa. It was a military fortress for the defense of Portuguese India. It is smaller than the other forts in Goa, but it gives a good view of the surrounding river and land. It is a protected monument under the Goa, Daman and Diu ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains act.

Yashwantgad Fort

Yashwantgad Fort is located in Redi, Maharashtra, near the Maharashtra-Goa border. It is located on a small hill North of Jaitapur creek. It is a tree-entangled ruin that looks out over the beaches of the south Maharashtra coast.

Colvale Fort (Goa) building in India

O Fortaleza de São Sebastião de Tivim, also called the Tivim fort after the village where a part of the long wall structure was once located. Also referred to as the Middle Fort or Fortress Tivim. The structure spans from the village of Tivim, to the area known as Colvale, in the State of Goa, on the west coast of India. Currently, most of it is in ruins and barely visible. However, parts of the structure are in the process of being restored.

Naroa, Ilhas, Goa Village in Goa, India

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Maratha Navy

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The Mormugão fort was located on the southern tip of the mouth of the Zuari river in Mormugao in the state of Goa on the west coast of India.