Home Fleet

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Home Fleet
Home Fleet 1904-05.jpg
HMS Neptune leading the Home Fleet before the First World War
Active1902–1904, 1907–1914, 1932–1967
CountryFlag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom
Branch Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Royal Navy
Type Fleet
Commanders
Notable
commanders
George Callaghan, John Tovey, Bruce Fraser

The Home Fleet was a fleet of the Royal Navy that operated in the United Kingdom's territorial waters from 1902 with intervals until 1967. Before the First World War, it consisted of the four Port Guard ships.[ which? ] During the First World War, it comprised some of the older ships of the Royal Navy. During the Second World War, it was the Royal Navy's main battle force in European waters.

Naval fleet formation of warships

A fleet or naval fleet is a large formation of warships, which is controlled by one leader and the largest formation in any navy. A fleet at sea is the direct equivalent of an army on land.

Royal Navy Maritime warfare branch of the United Kingdoms military

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service.

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom, officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland but more commonly known as the UK or Britain, is a sovereign country lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Contents

Pre-First World War

History

On 1 October 1902, the Admiral Superintendent Naval Reserves, then Vice-Admiral Gerard Noel, was given the additional appointment of Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, and allotted a rear-admiral to serve under him as commander of the Home Squadron. [2] "... the nucleus of the Home Fleet would consist of the four Port Guard ships, which would be withdrawn from their various scattered dockyards and turned into a unified and permanent sea-going command – the Home Squadron – based on Portland. Also under the direction of the commander-in-chief of the Home Fleet would be the Coast Guard ships, which would continue to be berthed for the most part in their respective district harbours in order to carry out their local duties, but would join the Home Squadron for sea work at least three times per year, at which point the assembled force – the Home Squadron and the Coast Guard vessels – would be known collectively as the Home Fleet." [3] Rear-Admiral George Atkinson-Willes was Second-in-Command of the Home Fleet, with his flag in the battleship HMS Empress of India, at this time. [4] In May 1903 Noel was succeeded as Commander-in-Chief by Vice-Admiral Sir Arthur Wilson. [5]

Gerard Noel (Royal Navy officer) Royal Navy admiral of the fleet

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Gerard Henry Uctred Noel, was a Royal Navy officer. As a junior officer he commanded a naval brigade which took part in the capture of Kumasi in February 1874 during the Second Anglo-Ashanti War.

Admiral Sir George Lambart Atkinson-Willes, KCB was a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station.

Arthur Wilson (Royal Navy officer) Royal Navy officer

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Knyvet Wilson, 3rd Baronet was a Royal Navy officer. He served in the Anglo-Egyptian War and then the Mahdist War being awarded the Victoria Cross during the Battle of El Teb in February 1884. He went on to command a battleship, the torpedo school HMS Vernon and then another battleship before taking charge of the Experimental Torpedo Squadron. He later commanded the Channel Fleet. He briefly served as First Sea Lord but in that role he "was abrasive, inarticulate, and autocratic" and was really only selected as Admiral Fisher's successor because he was a supporter of Fisher's reforms. Wilson survived for even less time than was intended by the stop-gap nature of his appointment because of his opposition to the establishment of a Naval Staff. Appointed an advisor at the start of World War I, he advocated offensive schemes in the North Sea including the capture of Heligoland and was an early proponent of the development and use of submarines in the Royal Navy.

On 14 December 1904, the Channel Fleet was re-styled the Atlantic Fleet and the Home Fleet became the Channel Fleet. [6] In 1907, the Home Fleet was reformed with Vice-Admiral Francis Bridgeman in command, succeeded by Admiral Sir William May in 1909. Bridgeman took command again in 1911, and in the same year was succeeded by Admiral Sir George Callaghan. On 29 March 1912, a new structure of the fleet was announced, which came into force on 1 May 1912. The former Home Fleet, which was organised into four divisions, was divided into the First, Second and Third Fleets as Home Fleets. [7] The Home Fleets were the Navy's unified home commands in British waters from 1912 to 1914. [8] On 4 August 1914, as the First World War was breaking out, John Jellicoe was ordered to take command of the Fleet, which by his appointment order was renamed the Grand Fleet.

Channel Fleet strait

The Channel Fleet and originally known as the Channel Squadron was the Royal Navy formation of warships that defended the waters of the English Channel from 1854 to 1909 and 1914 to 1915.

Atlantic Fleet (United Kingdom) early 20th century formation of the Royal Navy

The Atlantic Fleet was a major fleet formation of the Royal Navy. There have been two main formations in the Royal Navy officially called the Atlantic Fleet. The first was created in 1909 and lasted until 1914. The second lasted from 1919 until 1932.

Francis Bridgeman (Royal Navy officer) Royal Navy admiral

Admiral Sir Francis Charles Bridgeman Bridgeman was a Royal Navy officer. As a captain he commanded a battleship and then an armoured cruiser and then, after serving as second-in-command of three different fleets, he twice undertook tours as Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet with a stint as Second Sea Lord in between those tours. He became First Sea Lord in November 1911 but clashed with First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill on technical issues as well as matters relating to a perceived overriding of naval traditions by Churchill: this led to Bridgeman's resignation just a year later.

Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet

Post holders during the pre-war period were:' [9]

RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet [10]
1Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Gerard Noel 1 October 1902 – 21 May 1903
2Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Arthur Wilson 21 May 1903 – 31 December 1904
RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet [11]
1Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Francis Bridgeman 5 March 1907 – 24 March 1909
2Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir William May 24 March 1909 – 1911
3Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Francis Bridgeman 25 March 1911 – 5 December 1911
4Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir George Callaghan 5 December 1911 – 31 July 1912

Second in command

Post holders included: [12]

RankFlagNameTerm
Second-in-Command, Home Fleet
1Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg George L. Atkinson-Willes October 1902 – May 1903
2Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Edmund S. Poe May 1903 – June 1904
3Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Charles J. Barlow June – December 1904
4Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Archibald Berkeley 5 December 1911 – 31 July 1912
5Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir George A. Callaghan August 1910 – December 1911
6Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John R. Jellicoe December 1911 – 31 July 1912

Chief of staff

Post holders included: [13]

RankFlagNameTerm
Chief of Staff, Home Fleet
1Rear-Admiral Flag of Rear-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg the Hon. Alexander E. BethellJanuary 1908 – March 1909

Fleet divided into divisions

Note: There was no Home Fleet between 1905 and 1907 remaining ships at a lesser state of readiness were split into three reserve divisions: Devonport Division, Nore Division, and Portsmouth Division [14]

Unified command Home Fleets

The Home Fleets were a new organisation of the Royal Navy's unified home commands (First, Second and Third, Fleets) instituted on 31 July 1912 to December 1914. The Commander-in-Chiefs of the three home commands reported to the Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets.

The First Fleet was a formation of the Royal Navy that briefly existed before the First World War from 1912 to 1914.

The Second Fleet was a reserve formation of the Royal Navy that briefly existed before the First World War.

The Third Fleet was a reserve formation of the Royal Navy that briefly existed before the First World War.

Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets

RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets/First Fleet [16]
1Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir George Callaghan 31 July 1912 – December 1914

Second in command

Post holders included: [17]

RankFlagNameTerm
Second-in-Command, Home Fleets
1Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John R. Jellicoe 31 July – December 1912
2Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg the Hon. Sir Stanley C. J. Colville June 1912 – June 1914
3Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Lewis Bayly June – August 1914

On 8 August 1914 units of the Home Fleets were distributed in accordance with Admiralty Fleet Order the majority of elements formed the new Grand Fleet others were assigned to the following units: Channel Fleet, Northern Patrol-Cruiser Force B, 7th Cruiser Squadron-Cruiser Force, 11th Cruiser Squadron-Cruiser Force E, Dover Patrol, Harwich Flotillas, 7th Destroyer Flotilla, 8th Destroyer Flotilla, 9th Destroyer Flotilla, 5th Submarine Flotilla, 6th Submarine Flotilla, 7th Submarine Flotilla and the 8th Submarine Flotilla. [18]

Grand Fleet Royal Navy fleet during the First World War

The Grand Fleet was the main fleet of the Royal Navy during the First World War.

The Northern Patrol also known as Cruiser Force B and Northern Patrol Force was an operation of the British or Royal Navy during the First World War and again during the Second World War.

11th Cruiser Squadron

The 11th Cruiser Squadron and also known as Cruiser Force E was a formation of cruisers of the British Royal Navy from 1914 to 1917 and again from 1939 to 1940.

Inter-war period

History

When the Grand Fleet was disbanded in April 1919, the more powerful ships were reformed into the Atlantic Fleet and the older ships were reformed into the "Home Fleet"; this arrangement lasted until Autumn 1919, when the ships of the Home Fleet became the Reserve Fleet.

The Reserve Fleet was a Royal Navy formation of decommissioned vessels which could be brought to a state of readiness at time of war.

The name "Home Fleet" was resurrected in March 1932, as the new name for the Atlantic Fleet, following the Invergordon Mutiny. [20] The Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet in 1933 was Admiral Sir John Kelly. The Home Fleet comprised the flagship Nelson leading a force that included the 2nd Battle Squadron (five more battleships), the Battlecruiser Squadron (Hood and Renown), the 2nd Cruiser Squadron (Vice-Admiral Edward Astley-Rushton), CB, CMG aboard Dorsetshire (three cruisers), three destroyer flotillas (27), a submarine flotilla (six), two aircraft carriers and associated vessels. [21]

Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet

Post holders during the inter-war period were: [22]

RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet
1Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Kelly October 1931 – September 1933
2Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir William Boyle September 1933 – August 1935
3Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Roger Backhouse August 1935 – April 1938

Second World War

History

The Home Fleet was the Royal Navy's main battle force in European waters during the Second World War. On 3 September 1939, under Admiral Forbes flying his flag in Nelson at Scapa Flow, it consisted of the 2nd Battle Squadron, the Battle Cruiser Squadron, 18th Cruiser Squadron, Rear-Admiral, Destroyers, Rear-Admiral, Submarines (2nd Submarine Flotilla, Dundee, 6th Submarine Flotilla, Blyth, Northumberland), Vice-Admiral, Aircraft Carriers (Vice-Admiral L.V. Wells, with Ark Royal, Furious, and Pegasus), and the Orkney and Shetlands force. [24] Its chief responsibility was to keep Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine from breaking out of the North Sea. For this purpose, the First World War base at Scapa Flow was reactivated as it was well placed for interceptions of ships trying to run the blockade.

The two most surprising losses of the Home Fleet during the early part of the war were the sinking of the old battleship Royal Oak by the German submarine U-47 while supposedly safe in Scapa Flow, and the loss of the pride of the Navy, the battlecruiser Hood, to the German battleship Bismarck.

The operational areas of the Home Fleet were not circumscribed, and units were detached to other zones quite freely. However, the southern parts of the North Sea and the English Channel were made separate commands for light forces, and the growing intensity of the Battle of the Atlantic led to the creation of Western Approaches Command. Only with the destruction of the German battleship Tirpitz in 1944 did the Home Fleet assume a lower priority, and most of its heavy units were withdrawn to be sent to the Far East.

Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet

Post holders during the Second World War were: [25] [26] [27]
RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet
1Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Charles Forbes April 1938 – December 1940
2Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Tovey December 1940 – May 1943
3Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Bruce Fraser May 1943 – June 1944
4Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Henry Moore 14 June 1944 – 24 November 1945

Second in command

Post holders included: [28]

RankFlagNameTerm
Second-in-Command, Home Fleet
1Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Alban T.B. Curteis 1941 – June 1942
2Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Bruce A. Fraser June 1942 – June 1943
3Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Henry R. Moore June 1943 – June 1944
4Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Frederick H.G. Dalrymple-Hamilton June 1944 – April 1945
5Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Rhoderick R. McGrigor April – July 1945
6Vice-Admiral Flag of Vice-Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Angus E.M.B. Cunninghame Graham July 1945 – October 1946

Post-Second World War

History

After the Second World War, the Home Fleet took back all of its peacetime responsibilities for the Royal Navy forces in home waters and also in the North and South Atlantic. With the Cold War, greater emphasis was placed on protecting the North Atlantic from the Soviet Union in concert with other countries as part of NATO. Admiral Sir Rhoderick McGrigor supervised combined Western Union exercises involving ships from the British, French, and Dutch navies in June–July 1949. Admiral McGrigor flew his flag from the aircraft carrier Implacable. Also taking part in the exercises were Victorious and Anson, along with cruisers and destroyers. During the exercise, the combined force paid a visit to Mount's Bay in Cornwall from 30 June – 4 July 1949. [30]

Admiral Sir Philip Vian, who was Commander-in-Chief from 1950 to 1952, flew his flag in Vanguard. [31] In late 1951, Theseus joined the fleet as flagship of the 3rd Aircraft Carrier Squadron. [32]

From 1947 to 1957 superfluous battleships and aircraft carriers were assigned to the Home Fleet Training Squadron headquartered at Portland Dockyard to provide basic training. The carriers stationed here were mobilised as helicopter carriers for the Suez operation in 1956. In December 1951 the Admiralty authorised the creation of a new Heavy Squadron to be assigned to the Home Fleet it consisted of a battleship HMS Vanguard aircraft carriers and cruisers. [33] Its commanding officer was known as Flag Officer, Aircraft Carriers who had administrative responsibility for all the operational carriers the squadron was disbanded October 1954 [34]

The Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, gained an additional NATO responsibility as Commander-in-Chief, Eastern Atlantic, as part of SACLANT, when the NATO military command structure was established in 1953 at the Northwood Headquarters in northwest London. The Commander-in-Chief Home Fleet still flew his flag however in Tyne at Portsmouth. During Exercise Mainbrace in 1952, NATO naval forces came together for the first time to practice the defence of northern Europe; Denmark and Norway. The resulting McMahon Act difficulties caused by potential British control of the United States Navy's attack carriers armed with nuclear weapons led to the creation of a separate Striking Fleet Atlantic, directly responsible to the commander of the U.S. Navy's Atlantic Fleet, in his NATO position as SACLANT, by the end of 1952. [35]

The submarine tender Maidstone was the fleet's flagship in 1956. In 1960, C-in-C Home Fleet moved to Northwood, and in 1966 the NATO Channel Command (a post also held by C-in-C Home Fleet) moved to Northwood from Portsmouth. [36] In February 1963 all remaining frigate and destroyer squadrons in the Home, Mediterranean and Far East Fleets were merged into new Escort Squadrons. [37]

In April 1963, the naval unit at the Northwood Headquarters was commissioned as HMS Warrior under the command of the then Captain of the Fleet. In December 1966 all remaining squadrons in the Home Fleet were disbanded. [38] In 1967 the Home Fleet was amalgamated with the Mediterranean Fleet. With its area of responsibility greatly increased and no longer being just responsible for the defence of home waters of the UK, the name of the fleet was changed to the Western Fleet (1967-1971) and no squadrons existed in that Fleet. [39] Thus the famous, historic name of the Home Fleet was consigned to history.

Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet

Post holders after the Second World War were: [40] [41]

RankFlagNameTerm
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet
1Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Edward Syfret November 1945 – January 1948
2Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Rhoderick McGrigor January 1948 – January 1950
3Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Philip Vian January 1950 – June 1952
4Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir George Creasy January 1952 – January, 1954
5Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Michael Denny January 1954 – January 1956
6Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Eccles January 1956 – January 1958
7Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir William Davis January 1958 – July 1960
8Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Wilfrid Woods July 1960 – January 1963
9Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir Charles Madden January 1963 – July 1965
10Admiral Flag of Admiral - Royal Navy.svg Sir John Frewen July 1965 – October 1967

Notes

  1. Smith.2015.
  2. Matthew S. Seligmann, A prelude to the reforms of Admiral Sir John Fisher: the creation of the Home Fleet, 1902–3 [ dead link ], Historical Research, 2009
  3. Seligmann 2009, drawing upon T.N.A.: P.R.O., ADM 1/7606, docket Coast Guard, 24 March 1902, proposal by Sir Gerard Noel, 14 May 1902, and memorandum by Lord Walter Kerr, 17 May 1902.
  4. Seligmann 2009
  5. Heathcote, p. 195
  6. National Archives record searches
  7. Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Home Fleets (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". www.dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley & Lovell, 22 August 2017.
  8. Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Home Fleets (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". www.dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley & Lovell, 22 August 2017.
  9. Harley, Simon; Lovell, Tony. "Home Fleet (Royal Navy) - The Dreadnought Project". www.dreadnoughtproject.org. Harley & Lovell, 12 May 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  10. Government, H.M. (October 1913). "Flag Officers - Vice Admirals". The Navy List. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 87.
  11. Government, H.M. (October 1913). "Flag Officers - Vice Admirals". The Navy List. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 87.
  12. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie December 2107. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  13. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie. p.134. December 2107. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  14. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployments 1900-1914: January 1905-February 1907". www.naval-history.net. Graham Smith, 8 August 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  15. Smith.2015.
  16. Government, H.M. (October 1913). "Flag Officers - Vice Admirals". The Navy List. H.M. Stationery Office. p. 87.
  17. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie December 2107. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  18. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployment, Inter-War Years 1914-1918: The Home Fleets were distributed in accordance with Admiralty Fleet Order dated 8th August 1914". www.naval-history.net. Graham Smith, 27 October 2015. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  19. Smith, Gordon. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployment, Inter-War Years 1919-1939". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 2 September 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  20. Marder, Arthur (2015). From the Dardanelles to Oran: Studies of the Royal Navy in War and Peace 1915-1914. Seaforth Publishing. p. 48. ISBN   9781473849273.
  21. Home Fleet listing for 1933
  22. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  23. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Orgnisation in World War 2, 1939-1945". www.naval-history.net. Graham Smith, 19 September 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  24. Leo Niehorster, Home Fleet, 3 September 1939, accessed January 2009
  25. Whitaker's Almanacks 1939 - 1945
  26. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
  27. Unit Histories, accessed July 2009
  28. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments" (PDF). gulabin.com. Colin Mackie, p.133, December 2107. Retrieved 29 December 2017.
  29. Watson.2015.
  30. Visit of the Combined Western Union Fleet to Mount’s Bay 30 June to 4 July
  31. Biography: Philip Vian Archived 15 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine Royal Naval Museum, accessed November 2009
  32. Naval-history.net, HMS Theseus, accessed October 2011
  33. Watson, Dr Graham. "Royal Navy Organisation and Ship Deployment 1947-2013". www.naval-history.net. Gordon Smith, 12 July 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
  34. Watson.2015.
  35. Sean Maloney, Securing Command of the Sea, Masters' thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1992, p.234-247
  36. Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Northwood Headquarters, accessed July 2009
  37. Watson.2015.
  38. Watson.2015.
  39. Watson.2015.
  40. Whitaker's Almanacks 1945–1963
  41. Mackie, Colin. "Royal Navy Senior Appointments from 1865" (PDF). gulabin. Colin Mackie December 2017. Retrieved 29 December 2017.

Sources

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