Hydrogen technologies

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Hydrogen technologies are technologies that relate to the production and use of hydrogen. Hydrogen technologies are applicable for many uses.

Hydrogen Chemical element with atomic number 1

Hydrogen is the chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table. Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass. Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium, has one proton and no neutrons.

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Some hydrogen technologies are carbon neutral and could have a role in preventing climate change and a possible future hydrogen economy. Hydrogen is a chemical widely used in various applications including ammonia production, oil refining and energy. [1] Hydrogen is not a primary energy source, because it is not naturally occurring as a fuel. It is, however, widely regarded as an ideal energy storage medium, due to the ease with which electric power can convert water into its hydrogen and oxygen components through electrolysis and can be converted back to electrical power using a fuel cell. There are a wide number of different types of fuel and electrolysis cells. [2]

Climate change Change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns for an extended period

Climate change occurs when changes in Earth's climate system result in new weather patterns that last for at least a few decades, and maybe for millions of years. The climate system comprises five interacting parts, the atmosphere (air), hydrosphere (water), cryosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere. The climate system receives nearly all of its energy from the sun, with a relatively tiny amount from earth's interior. The climate system also gives off energy to outer space. The balance of incoming and outgoing energy, and the passage of the energy through the climate system, determines Earth's energy budget. When the incoming energy is greater than the outgoing energy, earth's energy budget is positive and the climate system is warming. If more energy goes out, the energy budget is negative and earth experiences cooling.

The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for heating, hydrogen vehicles, seasonal energy storage and long distance transport of energy.

Ammonia Chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. It is a common nitrogenous waste, particularly among aquatic organisms, and it contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products. It is mainly collected by downward displacement of both air and water. Ammonia is named for the Ammonians, worshipers of the Egyptian god Amun, who used ammonium chloride in their rituals.

The potential environmental impact depends primarily on the methods used to generate the hydrogen fuel.

Fuel cells

Alkaline fuel cell

The alkaline fuel cell (AFC), also known as the Bacon fuel cell) after its British inventor, Francis Thomas Bacon, is one of the most developed fuel cell technologies. NASA has used alkaline fuel cells since the mid-1960s, in Apollo-series missions and on the Space Shuttle.

Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFCs) are a subcategory of alkaline fuel cells which are directly fed by sodium borohydride or potassium borohydride as a fuel and either air/oxygen or hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. DBFCs are relatively new types of fuel cells which are currently in the developmental stage and are attractive due to their high operating potential in relation to other type of fuel cells.

A Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC) is a fuel cell that uses a carbon rich material as a fuel such as bio-mass or coal. The cell produces energy by combining carbon and oxygen, which releases carbon dioxide as a by-product. It also called coal fuel cells (CFCs), carbon-air fuel cells (CAFCs), direct carbon/coal fuel cells (DCFCs), and DC-SOFC.

Hydrogen infrastructure

Hydrogen pipeline transport

Hydrogen pipeline transport is a transportation of hydrogen through a pipe as part of the hydrogen infrastructure.

Compressed hydrogen tube trailer Semi-trailers that consist of clusters of high-pressure hydrogen storage tubes

Hydrogen tube trailers are semi-trailers that consist of 10 to 36 cluster high-pressure hydrogen tanks varying in length from 20 feet (6.10 m) for small tubes to 38 feet (11.58 m) on jumbo tube trailers. They are part of the hydrogen highway and usually precede a local hydrogen station.

Hydrogen station storage or filling station for hydrogen

A hydrogen station is a storage or filling station for hydrogen, usually located along a road or hydrogen highway, or at home as part of the distributed generation resources concept. The stations are usually intended to power hydrogen vehicles, but can also be used to power small devices. Vehicles use hydrogen as fuel in one of several ways, including fuel cells and mixed fuels like HCNG. The hydrogen fuel dispensers dispense hydrogen gas by the kilogram.

Hydrogen storage

Cryo-adsorption is a method used for hydrogen storage where gaseous hydrogen at cryogenic temperatures (150—60 K) is physically adsorbed on porous material, mostly activated carbon. The achievable storage density is between liquid-hydrogen (LH2) storage systems and compressed-hydrogen (CGH2) storage systems.

Liquid hydrogen Liquid state of the element hydrogen

Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen is found naturally in the molecular H2 form.

Slush hydrogen is a combination of liquid hydrogen and solid hydrogen at the triple point with a lower temperature and a higher density than liquid hydrogen. It is formed by bringing liquid hydrogen down to nearly the melting point that increases density by 16–20% as compared to liquid hydrogen. It is proposed as a rocket fuel in place of liquid hydrogen in order to improve tankage and thus reduce the dry weight of the vehicle.

Hydrogen vehicles

Historic hydrogen filled airships

Hydrogen powered cars

Hydrogen fueling nozzle Hydrogen fueling nozzle2.jpg
Hydrogen fueling nozzle

Audi:

Hybrid vehicle vehicle whose powertrain uses many power sources

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids.

Audi Q5 car model

The Audi Q5 is a series of compact luxury crossover SUVs produced by the German luxury car manufacturer Audi from 2008. The original first-generation model was the third member of the B8 family to be released after the Audi A5 and fourth-generation A4, all being based on the Audi MLB platform. The second generation Q5 debuted in 2016 and shares the Audi MLBevo platform with the corresponding B9 versions of the A4 and A5.

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Forze Hydrogen-Electric Racing Team Delft

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Hydrogen powered planes

Possible future aircraft using precooled jet engines include Reaction Engines Skylon and the Reaction Engines A2.

Hydrogen powered rockets

The following rockets were/are partially or completely propelled by hydrogen fuel:

Environmental

Nuclear

Organic chemistry

Miscellaneous

See also

Related Research Articles

Wankel engine internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design in place of pistons

The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into rotating motion.

Hydrogen vehicle

A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen-fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or, more commonly, by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.

North American International Auto Show Annual auto show in Detroit, Michigan

The North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) is an annual auto show held in Detroit, Michigan, at Cobo Center. The show was held in January from 1989 to 2019, but will be held in June from 2020 onwards. It is among the largest auto shows in North America. UPI says the show is "regarded as the foremost venue for [car] manufacturers to unveil new products".

Fuel cell vehicle type of vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its electric motor

A fuel cell vehicle (FCV) or fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) is a type of electric vehicle which uses a fuel cell, instead of a battery, or in combination with a battery or supercapacitor, to power its on-board electric motor. Fuel cells in vehicles generate electricity to power the motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. Most fuel cell vehicles are classified as zero-emissions vehicles that emit only water and heat. As compared with internal combustion vehicles, hydrogen vehicles centralize pollutants at the site of the hydrogen production, where hydrogen is typically derived from reformed natural gas. Transporting and storing hydrogen may also create pollutants.

New York International Auto Show Annual US auto show

The New York International Auto Show is an annual auto show that is held in Manhattan in late March or early April. It is held at the Jacob Javits Convention Center. It usually opens on or just before Easter weekend and closes on the first Sunday after Easter. In 2018, the NYIAS took place from March 30 through April 8.

International Motor Show Germany Annual German motor show

The International Motor Show Germany or simply International Motor Show, in German known as the Internationale Automobil-Ausstellung, is the world's largest motor show. It is held annually, with passenger vehicles being displayed in odd-numbered years in Frankfurt am Main, and commercial vehicles in even-numbered years in Hanover, Germany. Before 1991 the show was held solely in Frankfurt.

Tokyo Motor Show The Tokyo Motor Show is a biennial auto show held at the Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan for cars, motorcycles and commercial vehicles.

The Tokyo Motor Show (東京モーターショー) is a biennial auto show held in October–November at the Tokyo Big Sight, Tokyo, Japan for cars, motorcycles and commercial vehicles. Hosted by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA), it is a recognized international show by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, and normally sees more concept cars than actual production car introductions which is the reason why the auto press see the show as one of the motorshow's big five.

LA Auto Show Annual US auto show

The Los Angeles Auto Show is an annual auto show held at the Los Angeles Convention Center in early December. The LA Auto Show is an OICA sanctioned international exhibition and also endorsed by the Greater Los Angeles New Car Dealers Association. It is open to the public for ten days each year, filling 760,000 square feet (71,000 m2) of exhibit space.

Mild hybrids are generally internal combustion engines equipped with an electric machine allowing the engine to be turned off whenever the car is coasting, braking, or stopped, yet restart quickly. Mild hybrids may employ regenerative braking and some level of power assist to the internal combustion engine (ICE), but mild hybrids do not have an exclusive electric-only mode of propulsion.

Alternative fuel vehicle vehicle that runs on a fuel other than petroleum fuels

An alternative fuel vehicle is a vehicle that runs on a fuel other than traditional petroleum fuels ; and also refers to any technology of powering an engine that does not involve solely petroleum. Because of a combination of factors, such as environmental concerns, high oil prices and the potential for peak oil, development of cleaner alternative fuels and advanced power systems for vehicles has become a high priority for many governments and vehicle manufacturers around the world.

Toyota FCHV car model

The Toyota FCHV is a current hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicle development programme of the Toyota Motor Corporation, which was leased to a limited number of drivers in the United States and Japan beginning in 2002. "FCHV" stands for "Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle". A number of prototypes have been produced, up to the latest FCHV-adv ("advanced").

The HyNor-project was a nationally supported project which purpose was to facilitate and coordinate the introduction of hydrogen as a fuel in Norway, running from 2003 to 2012. Toward the commercial introduction of hydrogen vehicles in 2015, the HyNor-project focused on acquiring an early pre-commercial fleet of hydrogen vehicles, and keeping a close dialogue with the leading car manufacturers and other similar initiatives in the Nordic countries and around the world.

Fuel cell bus

A fuel cell bus is a bus that uses a hydrogen fuel cell as its power source for electrically driven wheels, sometimes augmented in a hybrid fashion with batteries or a supercapacitor.

Mazda RX-8 Hydrogen RE car model

The Mazda RX-8 Hydrogen RE is a 2003 bi-fuel version of the RX-8 sports car, in which the twin-rotor wankel rotary engine is configured to run on either hydrogen or gasoline. This is the fifth Mazda vehicle to be fitted with a hydrogen wankel rotary engine.

Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid

The Mazda Premacy Hydrogen RE Hybrid or Mazda5 Hydrogen RE Hybrid was a hydrogen powered hybrid car produced by Mazda. Later models were also called the Mazda Hydrogen RE Plug in Hybrid. The first car was unveiled in 2005, with an improved version shown at the 2007 Tokyo Motor Show. Mazda planned for the car to enter production and leased a few cars to end users in 2009 in 2010.

Green Car Vision Award

The Green Car Vision Award is an annual award granted by the Green Car Journal. In contrast with its Green Car of the Year award, which only considers production vehicles that make the most significant environmental advancements, the Green Car Vision Award considers pre-production vehicles with more than one functional prototype in existence and that may be in the early stages of commercialization. Vehicles that are part of a demonstration fleet or other program that finds them regularly driven by people other than employees of their manufacturer may also be considered. Nominees may also include a modification of an existing vehicle model, such as a conversion to another type of power like electric drive.

The Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle-Advanced (FCHV-adv) is a fuel cell vehicle based on the first generation Toyota FCHV.

Toyota Mirai The Toyota Mirai is a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. The Mirai was unveiled in 2014 at the Los Angeles Auto Show.

The Toyota Mirai is a mid-size hydrogen fuel cell car manufactured by Toyota, one of the first such sedan-like vehicles to be sold commercially. The Mirai was unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show. As of December 2017, global sales totaled 5,300 Mirais. The top selling markets were the U.S. with 2,900 units, Japan with 2,100 and Europe with 200.

References

  1. Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Giddey, Sarbjit; Munnings, Christopher (2013). "Hydrogen production via solid electrolytic routes". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment. 2 (5): 473–487. doi:10.1002/wene.50.
  2. Badwal, SPS (2014). "Emerging electrochemical energy conversion and storage technologies". Frontiers in Chemistry. 2: 79. Bibcode:2014FrCh....2...79B. doi:10.3389/fchem.2014.00079. PMC   4174133 . PMID   25309898.
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