|Interscope Geffen A&M Records|
Interscope Center in Santa Monica, California
|Parent company|| Universal Music Group |
a subsidiary of Vivendi S.A.
|Country of origin||United States|
|Location||Santa Monica, California|
|Official website||Official website|
Interscope Geffen A&M Records (IGA), also known as A&M Records Group, is an American umbrella label owned by Universal Music Group, consisting of record labels Interscope Records, Geffen Records, and A&M Records.
Universal Music Group is an American global music corporation that is a subsidiary of the French media conglomerate Vivendi. UMG's global corporate headquarters are located in Santa Monica, California. It is considered one of the "Big Three" music companies, along with Sony Music and Warner Music Group. Since 2004, the corporation is no longer related to the film studio Universal Studios. In 2019, Fast Company named Universal Music Group the most innovative music company and listed UMG among the Top 50 most innovative companies in the world and "amid the music industry's digital transformation, Universal is redefining what a modern label should look like." UMG has signed licensing agreements with more than 400 platforms worldwide.
A record label, or record company, is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Sometimes, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos, while also conducting talent scouting and development of new artists, and maintaining contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information. Within the mainstream music industry, recording artists have traditionally been reliant upon record labels to broaden their consumer base, market their albums, and be both promoted and heard on music streaming services, radio, and television. Record labels also provide publicists, who assist performers in gaining positive media coverage, and arrange for their merchandise to be available via stores and other media outlets.
Interscope Records is an American record label owned by Universal Music Group through its Interscope Geffen A&M imprint. It was founded in late 1990 by Jimmy Iovine and Ted Field as a $20 million joint venture with Warner Music Group's Atlantic Records. At the time, it differed from most record companies by giving decision-making authority to its A&R staff and allowing artists and producers complete creative control. It had its first hit records less than a year after it was founded, and achieved profitability in 1993. Iovine served as chairman and CEO until May 2014, when he was succeeded by John Janick.
Interscope Geffen A&M Records was established in 1999, following the PolyGram and MCA Music Entertainment merger (which created UMG). The label group was created by combining the MCA labels Interscope and Geffen Records with the PolyGram-owned A&M, which, at the time, became dormant. The label operated as one of the newly formed Universal Music Group's four umbrella companies, the other three being The Universal Motown Republic Group, Verve Records and The Island Def Jam Music Group.
PolyGram was a Dutch entertainment company and major music record label. It was founded in 1962 as the Grammophon-Philips Group by Dutch Philips and German Siemens, to be a holding for their record companies, and was renamed "PolyGram" in 1972. The name was chosen to reflect the Siemens interest Polydor Records and the Philips interest Phonogram Records. The company traced its origins through Deutsche Grammophon back to the inventor of the flat disk gramophone, Emil Berliner.
Geffen Records is an American record label, established by David Geffen and owned by Universal Music Group through its Interscope Geffen A&M Records imprint.
A&M Records was an American record label founded as an independent company by Herb Alpert and Jerry Moss in 1962. Due to the success of the discography A&M released, the label garnered interest and was acquired by PolyGram in 1989 and began distributing releases from Polydor Ltd. from the UK. Throughout its operations, A&M housed well-known acts such as Gin Blossoms, Dishwalla, Joe Cocker, Procol Harum, Captain & Tennille, Sting, Sergio Mendes, Ozark Mountain Daredevils, Supertramp, Bryan Adams, Burt Bacharach, Liza Minnelli, The Carpenters, Paul Williams, Quincy Jones, Janet Jackson, Cat Stevens, Peter Frampton, Elkie Brooks, Carole King, Styx, Extreme, Amy Grant, Joan Baez, the Human League, The Police, CeCe Peniston, Blues Traveler, Soundgarden, Duffy and Sheryl Crow.
As a result of the merger, a significant percentage of artists and bands were dropped from A&M and Geffen, and though both continued to exist as labels, 280 jobs were eliminated and A&M's Charlie Chaplin lot offices were closed. The reorganization, expected to produce $300 million in savings annually, was described by the Los Angeles Times as underscoring the "changing economics and direction of the music business."
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.
As independent labels, A&M and Geffen were revered and had achieved substantial commercial and artistic success. Both had been sold by their founders, however, and both had suffered from budget restraints and unproductive band signings over the previous years. At the time of the merger neither label had records in the Billboard Top 40 while Interscope had "defined the new sound of young America" with hit records from artists including Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Tupac Shakur, Nine Inch Nails, No Doubt, Limp Bizkit, and Bush, among others. Interscope co-founders Jimmy Iovine and Ted Field were named co-chairmen of IGA at its launch.
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, video, opinion, reviews, events, and style, and is also known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres. It also hosts events, owns a publishing firm, and operates several TV shows.
Andre Romelle Young, known professionally as Dr. Dre, is an American rapper, record producer and entrepreneur. He is the founder and CEO of Aftermath Entertainment and Beats Electronics, and was previously co-owner of Death Row Records. Dr. Dre began his career as a member of the World Class Wreckin' Cru and found fame with the influential gangsta rap group N.W.A, which popularized explicit lyrics in rap to detail the violence of street life. He is credited as a key figure in the crafting and popularization of West Coast G-funk, a hip hop subgenre characterized as synthesizer-based with slow, heavy beats. As of 2018, he is the third richest figure in hip hop, with a net worth of US$770 million.
Calvin Cordozar Broadus Jr., known professionally as Snoop Dogg, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, producer, media personality, entrepreneur, and actor. His music career began in 1992 when he was discovered by Dr. Dre and featured on Dre's solo debut, "Deep Cover", and then on Dre's solo debut album, The Chronic. He has since sold over 23 million albums in the United States and 35 million albums worldwide.
In 2000 Universal Music Group became the first music corporation to break the $1-billion mark in EBITDA (earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization). The company held the top position in music sales with 28.03% market share, and Interscope was the top-selling Universal label, with an 8.97% market share.
In 2003, UMG acquired DreamWorks Records and in 2004 DreamWorks was merged with IGA. Artists including Blink-182, Papa Roach, Rise Against, Nelly Furtado, Lifehouse, AFI, the All-American Rejects, Jimmy Eat World and Rufus Wainwright were moved to the Geffen and Interscope imprints.
DreamWorks Records was an American record label founded in 1996 by David Geffen, Steven Spielberg and Jeffrey Katzenberg as a subsidiary of DreamWorks SKG. The label operated until 2003 when it was sold to Universal Music Group. The label itself also featured a Nashville, Tennessee-based subsidiary, DreamWorks Nashville, which specialized in country music and was shut down in 2006. The company's logo was designed by Roy Lichtenstein and was his last commission before his death in 1997.
Blink-182 is an American rock band formed in Poway, California in 1992. Since 2015, the lineup of the band has consisted of bass guitarist and vocalist Mark Hoppus, drummer Travis Barker, and guitarist and vocalist Matt Skiba. Founded by Hoppus, guitarist and vocalist Tom DeLonge, and drummer Scott Raynor, the band emerged from the Southern California punk scene of the early 1990s and first gained notoriety for high-energy live shows and irreverent lyrical toilet humor.
Papa Roach is an American rock band from Vacaville, California, formed in 1993. The original lineup consisted of lead vocalist Jacoby Shaddix, guitarist Jerry Horton, drummer Dave Buckner, bassist Will James, and trombonist Ben Luther.
In 2010, IGA and 19 Entertainment announced a strategic alliance to develop, distribute and globally market records by American Idol finalists and winning contestants.In 2013, it fully acquired Octone Records, which had been established as a joint venture in 2007.
Iovine served as chairman and CEO of IGA until May 2014. He was succeeded by John Janick.
MCA Records was an American record label owned by MCA Inc., which later gave way to the larger MCA Music Entertainment Group, which the label was part of until its dissolution in 2003. The label's country division MCA Nashville is a still active imprint of Universal Music Group Nashville.
DGC Records is an American record label that currently operates as a division of Interscope Geffen A&M Records, which is owned by the Vivendi-based Universal Music Group.
Hip-O Records is a record label that specializes in reissues and compilations. It is part of Universal Music Group. Established in 1996, the label has distributed releases from 'out of style' genres such as disco and early hip-hop music as well as publishing film soundtracks. The label's name is a pun on the name 'hippo'.
Universal Music Group Nashville is Universal Music Group's country music subsidiary. Some of the labels in this group include MCA Nashville Records, Mercury Nashville Records, Lost Highway Records, Capitol Records Nashville and EMI Records Nashville. UMG Nashville not only handles these imprints, but also manages the country music catalogues of record labels Universal Music and predecessor companies acquired over the years including ABC Records, Decca Records, Dot Records, DreamWorks Records, Kapp Records, MGM Records and Polydor Records.
Irving Azoff is an American entertainment executive and chairman of Full Stop Management, which represents recording artists.
Universal Music Distribution was the primary music distribution unit of parent company Universal Music Group until 2015 when the company was dismantled.
Capitol Music Group is an American front line umbrella label owned by the Universal Music Group (UMG). It oversees handling of record labels assigned to UMG's Capitol Records division and was inherited from its acquisition of EMI's catalog. It is one of five umbrella labels owned by UMG, the other four being Interscope Geffen A&M, Island Records, Def Jam Recordings and Republic Records. Labels distributed under the CMG brand include Capitol Records, Virgin Records, Motown Records, Blue Note Records, Astralwerks, Harvest Records, Capitol Christian Music Group, Priority Records, Atom Factory Entertainment and Deep Well Records.
A&M Octone Records was an American record label owned as a joint venture between Universal Music Group and Octone Records. A full-service artist development label, it was founded in 2007 as a merger between Octone and Interscope Geffen A&M's defunct A&M Records label. For its six years of existence, A&M Octone operated music publishing, merchandising, and touring entities, in addition to specializing in recorded music.
James Diener is an American entertainment and music executive.
John Janick is an American record executive. He is the chairman and CEO of Interscope Geffen A&M Records.
Jordan Schur is co-chairman and CEO of the film production company Mimran Schur Pictures. He is also the former President of Geffen Records and the founder of Flip Records and Suretone Records.
Luke Wood is president of Beats Electronics, a producer of audio products and equipment founded by musician Andre "Dr. Dre" Young and Jimmy Iovine, co-founder of Interscope Records. Wood is also a Beats Electronics board member. He is a former music industry executive and was a guitarist for the 1990s alt-rock band Sammy. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in American Studies in 1991 from Wesleyan University and currently sits on the Board of Trustees.
Aaron Bay-Schuck is an American music industry executive. The CEO and co-chairman of Warner Records, he was previously the president of A&R at Interscope Geffen A&M and the senior vice president of A&R at Atlantic Records.