Kiss Me, Kate

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Kiss Me, Kate
Kiss Me Kate 1950 LP Cover.jpg
Music Cole Porter
LyricsCole Porter
Book Bella and Samuel Spewack
Basis The Taming of the Shrew
by William Shakespeare
Productions1948 Broadway
1951 West End
1999 Broadway revival
2001 West End revival
2007 Italian Version
2012 West End revival
2019 Broadway revival
Awards1949 Tony Award for Best Musical
1949 Tony Award for Composer and Lyricist
1949 Tony Award for Best Author
1999 Tony Award for Best Revival

Kiss Me, Kate is a musical written by Bella and Samuel Spewack with music and lyrics by Cole Porter. The story involves the production of a musical version of William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew and the conflict on and off-stage between Fred Graham, the show's director, producer, and star, and his leading lady, his ex-wife Lilli Vanessi. A secondary romance concerns Lois Lane, the actress playing Bianca, and her gambler boyfriend, Bill, who runs afoul of some gangsters. The original production starred Alfred Drake, Patricia Morison, Lisa Kirk and Harold Lang.

Musical theatre work that combines songs, music, spoken dialogue, acting, and dance

Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, pathos, love, anger – are communicated through the words, music, movement and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue, movement and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have generally been called, simply, musicals.

Bella and Samuel Spewack American husband-and-wife stage and screenwriter duo

Bella and Samuel Spewack were a husband-and-wife writing team.

Cole Porter American composer and songwriter

Cole Albert Porter was an American composer and songwriter. Many of his songs became standards noted for their witty, urbane lyrics, and many of his scores found success on Broadway and in film.

Contents

Kiss Me, Kate was Porter's response to Rodgers and Hammerstein's Oklahoma! and other integrated musicals; it was the first show he wrote in which the music and lyrics were firmly connected to the script. The musical premiered in 1948 and proved to be Porter's only show to run for more than 1,000 performances on Broadway. [1] [2] In 1949, it won the first Tony Award for Best Musical.

Rodgers and Hammerstein 20th-century American songwriting team

Rodgers and Hammerstein refers to the duo of composer Richard Rodgers (1902–1979) and lyricist-dramatist Oscar Hammerstein II (1895–1960), who together were an influential, innovative and successful American musical theatre writing team. They created a string of popular Broadway musicals in the 1940s and 1950s, initiating what is considered the "golden age" of musical theatre. Five of their Broadway shows, Oklahoma!, Carousel, South Pacific, The King and I and The Sound of Music, were outstanding successes, as was the television broadcast of Cinderella (1957). Of the other four that the team produced on Broadway during their lifetimes, Flower Drum Song was well-received, and none was an outright flop. Most of their shows have received frequent revivals around the world, both professional and amateur. Among the many accolades their shows garnered were thirty-four Tony Awards, fifteen Academy Awards, the Pulitzer Prize, and two Grammy Awards.

<i>Oklahoma!</i> Rodgers and Hammerstein musical

Oklahoma! is the first musical written by the team of composer Richard Rodgers and librettist Oscar Hammerstein II. The musical is based on Lynn Riggs' 1931 play, Green Grow the Lilacs. Set in farm country outside the town of Claremore, Indian Territory, in 1906, it tells the story of farm girl Laurey Williams and her courtship by two rival suitors, cowboy Curly McLain and the sinister and frightening farmhand Jud Fry. A secondary romance concerns cowboy Will Parker and his flirtatious fiancée, Ado Annie.

Broadway theatre class of professional theater presented in New York City, New York, USA

Broadway theatre, also known simply as Broadway, refers to the theatrical performances presented in the 41 professional theatres, each with 500 or more seats located in the Theater District and Lincoln Center along Broadway, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Along with London's West End theatre, Broadway theatre is widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world.

Inspiration

The musical was inspired by the on-stage/off-stage battling of husband-and-wife actors Alfred Lunt and Lynn Fontanne during their 1935 production of Shrew, witnessed by future Broadway producer Arnold Saint-Subber. In 1947 he asked the Spewacks (undergoing their own marital woes at the time) to write the script; Bella Spewack in turn enlisted Cole Porter to write the music and lyrics. [3]

Alfred Lunt actor

Alfred Davis Lunt, Jr. was an American stage director and actor who had a long-time professional partnership with his wife, actress Lynn Fontanne. Broadway's Lunt-Fontanne Theatre was named for them. Lunt was one of 20th century Broadway's leading male stars.

Lynn Fontanne actress

Lynn Fontanne was a British-born American-based actress for over 40 years. She teamed with her husband, Alfred Lunt. Lunt and Fontanne were given special Tony Awards in 1970. They both won Emmy Awards in 1965, and Broadway's Lunt-Fontanne Theatre was named for them. Fontanne is regarded as one of the American theater's great leading ladies of the 20th century.

Arnold Saint-Subber, usually known as Saint Subber, was an American theatrical producer.

Productions

Original Broadway production

After a 3½-week pre-Broadway tryout at the Shubert Theatre in Philadelphia starting December 2, 1948, the original Broadway production opened on December 30, 1948, at the New Century Theatre, where it ran for nineteen months before transferring to the Shubert, for a total run of 1,077 performances. Directed by John C. Wilson with choreography by Hanya Holm, the original cast included Alfred Drake, Patricia Morison, Lisa Kirk, [4] Harold Lang, Charles Wood and Harry Clark. The 1949 original cast recording has been inducted into the Library of Congress's National Recording Registry for the album's "cultural, artistic and/or historical significance to American society and the nation's audio legacy". [5]

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania, United States

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

The New Century Theatre was a legitimate Broadway theatre located at 932 Seventh Avenue at West 58th Street in midtown Manhattan.

John C. Wilson was an American theatre director and producer.

Original London and Australian productions

The original West End production opened on March 8, 1951, at the Coliseum Theatre, and ran for 400 performances. Directed by Sam Spewack with choreography again by Holm, this production starred Patricia Morison, Bill Johnson, Adelaide Hall and Julie Wilson.

West End theatre term for mainstream professional theatre staged in and near the West End of London

West End theatre is a common term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres in and near the West End of London. Along with New York City's Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. Seeing a West End show is a common tourist activity in London.

Bill Johnson (musical theatre actor) American actor and singer

William Johnson was an American actor and singer of the stage and screen.

Adelaide Hall singer and entertainer

Adelaide Louise Hall was an American-born UK-based jazz singer and entertainer. Her long career spanned more than 70 years from 1921 until her death and she was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Hall entered the Guinness Book of World Records in 2003 as the world's most enduring recording artist having released material over eight consecutive decades. She performed with major artists such as Art Tatum, Ethel Waters, Josephine Baker, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Cab Calloway, Fela Sowande, Rudy Vallee and Jools Holland, and recorded as a jazz singer with Duke Ellington and with Fats Waller.

The original Australian production played from February 1952 at His Majesty's Theatre, Melbourne, before seasons in Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide until 1954. The production featured Hayes Gordon and Joy Turpin (later replaced by Evie Hayes). [6] [7] [8]

Her Majestys Theatre, Melbourne

Her Majesty's Theatre is a 1,700 seat theatre in Melbourne's East End Theatre District, Australia. Built in 1886, it is located at 219 Exhibition Street, Melbourne. It is classified by the National Trust of Australia and is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.

Hayes Gordon AO OBE was an American actor, stage director and acting teacher with a considerable career in Australia.

Evie Hayes American actress and singer

Vina Evelyn Hayes, better known as Evie Hayes, was an American-born actor and singer, best known for her stage success in Australia. She was once described as "the most popular box office attraction in Australian musical comedy since Gladys Moncrieff."

1970 London and 1987 UK revivals

A London revival opened in December 1970 at the London Coliseum, in a production by the Sadler's Wells Opera. The cast featured Emile Belcourt (Petruchio), Judith Bruce, Eric Shilling, Ann Howard (Kate), Francis Egerton and Robert Lloyd, with direction by Peter Coe and choreography by Sheila O'Neill. Coe did a translation for British audiences, including having "a tea wagon", and included "traditional English music hall jokes". [9] This revival had a "brief run", according to the Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre. [10] [11]

The Royal Shakespeare Company staged a production which opened at the Royal Shakespeare Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon, on February 10, 1987, [12] toured the UK from March to May, [13] and then played at London's Old Vic Theatre from May 19, 1987. [14] Directed by Adrian Noble and staged by Ron Field, the production starred Nichola McAuliffe and Paul Jones as Lilli/Kate and Fred/Petruchio, with Tim Flavin and Fiona Hendley as Bill/Lucentio and Lois/Bianca. The gangsters were played by Emil Wolk and John Bardon, who shared the 1987 Olivier Award for Outstanding Performance of the Year by an Actor in a Musical, while McAuliffe won the Olivier for Outstanding Performance of the Year by an Actress in a Musical. [15] The production moved to the Savoy Theatre on January 15, 1988, with a new cast. [16]

1952 and 1999 Broadway revivals

A short-lived Broadway revival ran at the Broadway Theatre in January 1952. It was directed by John C. Wilson and choreographed by Hanya Holm. Holly Harris and Robert Wright starred as Lilli and Fred. [17]

A Broadway revival opened at the Martin Beck Theatre on November 18, 1999 and closed on December 30, 2001 after 881 performances and 28 previews. Directed by Michael Blakemore, Produced by Richard Godwin, and choreographed by Kathleen Marshall and Rob Ashford, the opening night cast included Marin Mazzie, Brian Stokes Mitchell, Amy Spanger, Michael Berresse, Ron Holgate, Lee Wilkof and Michael Mulheren. This production won the Tony Awards for Best Revival of a Musical and Best Actor in a Musical for Mitchell; Marin Mazzie received a Tony nomination for Best Actress in a Musical, and Michael Berresse, Lee Wilkof and Michael Mulheren received Tony nominations for Best Featured Actor in a Musical.

2001 and 2012 London revivals

A West End revival opened at the Victoria Palace Theatre on October 30, 2001, and closed on August 24, 2002. As with the 1999 Broadway revival, Michael Blakemore was the director with choreography by Kathleen Marshall. Brent Barrett and Marin Mazzie co-starred. [18]

Chichester Festival Theatre's 2012 revival of the show transferred to the Old Vic Theatre on London's South Bank in November 2012, with an official opening in December. [19] It starred Hannah Waddingham as Lili/Kate and Alex Bourne as Fred Graham. The production was directed by Trevor Nunn. The show received positive reviews from critics and audiences. [20] Hannah Waddingham and Alex Bourne were both nominated for the 2013 Olivier Awards as Best Actress/Actor in a Musical for their performances.

2015 Opera North production

In September 2015 Opera North presented a revival directed by Jo Davies, choreographed by Will Tuckett. The production opened at the Leeds Grand Theatre before touring to Theatre Royal Newcastle, The Lowry Salford, and Theatre Royal Nottingham. [21] The production was co-produced with the Welsh National Opera who continued to tour it in 2016, first as part of the Shakespeare400 season at the Wales Millennium Centre, Cardiff, and then to Liverpool Empire Theatre, Bristol Hippodrome, New Theatre Oxford, Mayflower Theatre Southampton, Birmingham Hippodrome, and Venue Cymru Llandudno, before returning to Cardiff. [22] The production was revived at London Coliseum briefly in June 2018, following a return visit to Leeds Grand Theatre in May 2018.

2019 Broadway revival

The Roundabout Theatre Company presents a revised third Broadway revival of Kiss Me, Kate with Kelli O'Hara as Lilli Vanessi/Kate, Will Chase as Fred Graham/Petruchio, Stephanie Styles as Lois Lane/Bianca, and Corbin Bleu as Bill Calhoun/Lucentio. The production is directed by Scott Ellis and choreographed by Warren Carlyle, [23] with minor "feminist" updates by Amanda Green to make the musical "more accessible for today’s audiences". [24] Roundabout produced a benefit concert of the show with O'Hara, Ellis, and Carlyle in 2016. [25] The revival has a limited run at Studio 54. The first preview was held on February 14, 2019, with an official opening on March 14 and a planned closing in June. [26] [27]

Casts

Original casts for long-running major productions

CharacterOriginal Broadway Cast (1948) [28] 1999 Broadway Revival [29] 2019 Broadway Revival [30]
Fred Graham/Petruchio Alfred Drake Brian Stokes Mitchell Will Chase
Lilli Vanessi/Katharine Patricia Morison Marin Mazzie Kelli O'Hara
Bill Calhoun/Lucentio Harold Lang Michael Berresse Corbin Bleu
Lois Lane/Bianca Lisa Kirk Amy Spanger Stephanie Styles
First Man Harry Clark Lee Wilkof John Pankow
Second ManJack Diamond Michael Mulheren Lance Coadie Williams
Harrison HowellDenis Green Ron Holgate Terence Archie
Henry Trevor/BaptistaThomas Holer John Horton Mel Johnson, Jr.
HattieAnnabelle Hill Adriane Lenox Adrienne Walker
Paul Lorenzo Fuller Stanley Wayne Mathis James T. Lane

Plot

Act I

The cast of a musical version of William Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew is rehearsing for the opening of the show that evening ("Another Op'nin', Another Show"). Egotistical Fred Graham is the director and producer and is starring as Petruchio, and his movie-star ex-wife, Lilli Vanessi, is playing Katherine. The two seem to be constantly arguing, and Lilli is particularly angry that Fred is pursuing the sexy young actress Lois Lane, who is playing Bianca. After the rehearsal, Lois's boyfriend Bill appears; he is playing Lucentio, but he missed the rehearsal because he was gambling. He tells her that he signed a $10,000 IOU in Fred's name, and Lois reprimands him ("Why Can't You Behave?").

Before the opening, Fred and Lilli meet backstage, and Lilli shows off her engagement ring from Washington insider Harrison Howell, reminding Fred that it's the anniversary of their divorce. They recall the operetta in which they met, which included "Wunderbar", a Viennese waltz; they end up fondly reminiscing and singing and dancing. Two gangsters show up to collect the $10,000 IOU, and Fred replies that he never signed it. The gangsters obligingly say they will give him time to remember it and will return later. In her dressing room, Lilli receives flowers from Fred, and she declares that she is still "So In Love" with him. Fred tries to keep Lilli from reading the card that came with the flowers, which reveals that he really intended them for Lois. However, Lilli takes the card with her onstage, saying she will read it later.

The show begins ("We Open in Venice"). Baptista, Katherine and Bianca's father, will not allow his younger daughter Bianca to marry until his older daughter Katherine is married. However, she is shrewish and ill-tempered, and no man desires to marry her. Three suitors – Lucentio, Hortensio, and Gremio – try to woo Bianca, and she says that she would marry any of them ("Tom, Dick, or Harry"). Petruchio, a friend of Lucentio, expresses a desire to marry into wealth ("I've Come to Wive it Wealthily in Padua" [4] ). The suitors hatch a plan for him to marry Kate, as Baptista is rich. Kate, however, has no intentions of getting married ("I Hate Men"). Petruchio attempts to woo her ("Were Thine That Special Face"). Offstage, Lilli has an opportunity to read the card. She walks on stage off-cue and begins hitting Fred, who, along with the other actors, tries to remain in character as Baptista gives Petruchio permission to marry Kate. Lilli continues to strike Fred, and he ends up spanking her. Offstage, Lilli furiously declares she is leaving the show. However, the gangsters have reappeared, and Fred tells them that if Lilli quits, he'll have to close the show and won't be able to pay them the $10,000. The gangsters force her to stay at gunpoint. Back onstage, Bianca and Lucentio dance while the chorus performs "We Sing of Love", covering a scene change. The curtain opens, revealing the exterior of a church; Petruchio and Kate have just been married, and they exit the church; the gangsters, dressed in Shakespearean costume, are onstage to make sure that Lilli stays. Petruchio implores for Kate to kiss him, and she refuses. He lifts her over his shoulder and carries her offstage while she pummels his shoulder with her fists ("Kiss Me Kate").

Act II

During the show's intermission, the cast and crew relax in the alley behind the theater. Paul (Fred's assistant), along with a couple other crew members, lament that it's "Too Darn Hot" to meet their lovers that night. The play continues, and Petruchio tries to 'tame' Katherine and mourns for his now-lost bachelor life ("Where Is the Life That Late I Led?"). Off-stage, Lilli's fiancé Harrison Howell is looking for Lilli. He runs into Lois, and she recognizes him as a former lover but promises not to tell Lilli. Bill is shocked to overhear this, but Lois tells him that even if she is involved with other men, she is faithful to him in her own way ("Always True to You in My Fashion" [4] ). Lilli tries to explain to Howell that she is being forced to stay at the theatre by the gangsters, but Howell doesn't believe her and wants to discuss wedding plans. Fred insidiously points out how boring Lilli's life with Howell will be compared to the theatre. Bill sings a love song he has written for Lois ("Bianca").

The gangsters discover that their boss has been killed, so the IOU is no longer valid. Lilli leaves—without Howell—as Fred unsuccessfully tries to convince her to stay ("So in Love" (Reprise)). The gangsters get caught on stage and improvise a tribute to Shakespeare in which they explain that knowing Shakespeare is the key to romance ("Brush Up Your Shakespeare"). The company prepares for the conclusion of the play, the wedding of Bianca and Lucentio, even though they are now missing one of the main characters. However, just in time for Katherine's final speech, Lilli arrives onstage ("I Am Ashamed That Women Are So Simple"). Fred and Lilli wordlessly reconcile on stage, and the play ends ("Kiss Me Kate" (Finale)) with them, as well as Bill and Lois, kissing passionately.

Song list

Notes

Film and television

A film version of the same name was released in 1953. There have been at least four television productions, the first on Hallmark Hall of Fame in 1958, with Drake and Morison reprising their Broadway roles, the second recorded for the launch of BBC Two in the UK in 1964, starring Howard Keel, Patricia Morison and Millicent Martin, the third in 1968 with then husband-and-wife team Robert Goulet and Carol Lawrence, and the fourth in 2003 on Great Performances , a high-definition shot performance of the London revival with Brent Barrett and Rachel York.

Awards and nominations

Original Broadway production

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
1949 Tony Award Best Musical Won
Best Author (Musical) Samuel and Bella Spewack Won
Best Original Score Cole Porter Won
Best Costume Design Lemuel AyersWon
Best Producer of a Musical Saint Subber and Lemuel AyersWon

1987 Royal Shakespeare Company UK revival

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
1988 Laurence Olivier Award Best Musical Revival Nominated
Outstanding Performance of the Year by an Actor in a Musical John Bardon and Emil Wolk Won
Outstanding Performance of the Year by an Actress in a Musical Nichola McAuliffe Won

1999 Broadway revival

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
2000 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actor in a Musical Brian Stokes Mitchell Won
Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Musical Marin Mazzie Nominated
Best Performance by a Featured Actor in a Musical Michael Berresse Nominated
Lee Wilkof Nominated
Michael Mulheren Nominated
Best Direction of a Musical Michael Blakemore Won
Best Choreography Kathleen Marshall Nominated
Best Orchestrations Don Sebesky Won
Best Scenic Design Robin Wagner Nominated
Best Costume Design Martin Pakledinaz Won
Best Lighting Design Peter Kaczorowski Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical Won
Outstanding Actor in a Musical Brian Stokes Mitchell Won
Outstanding Actress in a Musical Marin Mazzie Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Michael Mulheren Nominated
Lee Wilkof Nominated
Outstanding Director of a Musical Michael Blakemore Nominated
Outstanding Choreography Hanya Holm Nominated
Outstanding Orchestrations Don Sebesky Won
Outstanding Set Design Robin Wagner Won
Outstanding Costume Design Martin Pakledinaz Won

2001 London revival

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
2002 Laurence Olivier Award Best Musical Revival Nominated
Best Actor in a Musical Brent Barrett Nominated
Best Actress in a Musical Marin Mazzie Nominated
Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical Nancy AndersonNominated
Michael Berresse Nominated
Best Director of a Musical Michael Blakemore Nominated
Best Theatre Choreographer Kathleen Marshall Nominated
Best Set Design Robin Wagner Nominated
Best Costume Design Martin Pakledinaz Nominated
Evening Standard Award Best MusicalWon
Critics Circle Award Best MusicalWon

2012 London revival

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
2013 [31] Laurence Olivier Award Best Musical Revival Nominated
Best Actor in a Musical Alex BourneNominated
Best Actress in a Musical Hannah Waddingham Nominated
Best Performance in a Supporting Role in a Musical Adam Garcia Nominated
Best Theatre Choreographer Stephen Mear Nominated

2019 Broadway revival

YearAwardCategoryNomineeResult
2019 Tony Award Best Revival of a Musical Nominated
Best Actress in a Musical Kelli O'Hara Nominated
Best Choreography Warren Carlyle Nominated
Best Orchestrations Larry Hochman Nominated
Drama Desk Award Outstanding Revival of a Musical Nominated
Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical Corbin Bleu Nominated
Outstanding Choreography Warren CarlyleWon
Drama League Awards [32] Outstanding Revival of a Broadway or Off-Broadway MusicalWon
Distinguished Performance AwardKelli O’HaraNominated
Outer Critics Circle Awards [33] Outstanding Revival of a Musical (Broadway or Off-Broadway)Nominated
Outstanding ChoreographerWarren CarlyleWon
Outstanding Actress in a MusicalKelli O’HaraNominated

Notes

  1. "theatrehistory".
  2. Stempel, 322-324
  3. Royston, Peter. "Kiss Me, Kate: The Love Connection", Portwashington.com (Center Stage Magazine, Winter/Spring 2002), accessed October 5, 2015
  4. 1 2 3 Gilliland, John (1994). Pop Chronicles the 40s: The Lively Story of Pop Music in the 40s (audiobook). ISBN   978-1-55935-147-8. OCLC   31611854. Tape 4, side B.
  5. "National Recording Registry To 'Ac-Cent-Tchu-Ate the Positive'". Library of Congress. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  6. "OTAGE "Kiss Me,Kate", has something new". The Argus (32, 892). Melbourne. 4 February 1952. p. 2. Retrieved 10 June 2017 via National Library of Australia.
  7. "AusStage – Kiss Me, Kate". www.ausstage.edu.au. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
  8. "'Kiss Me, Kate' for Adelaide". The News . 60 (9, 238). Adelaide. 19 March 1953. p. 11. Retrieved 10 June 2017 via National Library of Australia.
  9. Lewis, Anthony. "Sadler's Wells Scores Triumph With Kiss Me, Kate in London", The New York Times, December 26, 1970, p. 10
  10. Green, Stanley.Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre, Da Capo Press, 1980, ISBN   0-306-80113-2, p. 237
  11. "Musicals – 1970s".
  12. RSC Performances Kiss Me Kate, Stratford-upon-Avon, retrieved January 1, 2019
  13. RSC Performances Kiss Me Kate, UK Tour, retrieved January 1, 2019
  14. RSC Performances Kiss Me Kate, Old Vic, retrieved January 1, 2019
  15. Olivier Winners 1987, retrieved January 1, 2019
  16. RSC Performances Kiss Me Kate, Savoy Theatre, retrieved January 1, 2019
  17. "Kiss Me, Kate". IBDB.com. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  18. "Kiss Me, Kate listing, Victoria Palace Theatre, 2001. albemarle-london.com (archive), retrieved August 27, 2010
  19. "Kiss Me, Kate". Old Vic Theatre. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  20. "Kiss Me, Kate". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  21. "Kiss Me, Kate". Kiss Me, Kate. Retrieved 2016-10-04.
  22. "Cole Porter's Kiss Me, Kate | Welsh National Opera". www.wno.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-10-04.
  23. Gans, Andrew. "Corbin Bleu and More Will Join Kelli O'Hara and Will Chase in Broadway's 'Kiss Me, Kate'", Playbill, October 10, 2018
  24. Clemen, Olivia. "Reworking Broadway's Kiss Me, Kate for 2019 Audiences", Playbill, February 12, 2019
  25. Clement, Olivia. "Kelli O’Hara to Return to Broadway in Kiss Me, Kate", Playbill, November 6, 2017
  26. "Kelli O'Hara Led Kiss Me Kate to Begin Performances February 14 at Studio 54; Full Creative Team Announced", BroadwayWorld.com, June 11, 2018
  27. Clement, Olivia. "Kiss Me, Kate Begins on Broadway February 14", Playbill, February 14, 2019
  28. "Kiss Me, Kate". IBDB.com. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  29. "Kiss Me, Kate". IBDB.com. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  30. "Kiss Me, Kate". IBDB.com. The Broadway League. Retrieved February 16, 2019.
  31. "2014 New Musical – Official Site". Archived from the original on October 16, 2014.
  32. Lefkowitz, Andy (2019-04-17). "Nominations Announced for 85th Annual Drama League Awards". Broadway.com. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
  33. Lefkowitz, Andy (2019-04-23). "Hadestown, Tootsie & Oklahoma! Lead 2019 Outer Critics Circle Award Nominations". Broadway.com. Retrieved 2019-04-23.

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Bianca Minola fictional character in Shakespeares "The Taming of the Shrew"

Bianca Minola is a character in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew (c.1590–1594). She is the younger daughter of Baptista Minola and the sister of Kate, the "shrew" of the title. The lovely Bianca has several admirers in the play, but Baptista has refused to allow her to marry until his shrewish daughter Kate has found a husband. When Kate marries, Bianca is united with her lover, Lucentio. Theatrically, Bianca is the ingenue in Shrew and the female lead in the play's subplot.

Tom, Dick or Harry is a show tune from the Cole Porter musical, Kiss Me, Kate, introduced on Broadway on December 30, 1948 by Lisa Kirk ; Harold Lang ; Edwin Clay ; and Charles Wood. In the 1953 Hollywood film version, "Tom, Dick or Harry" was performed by Ann Miller, Tommy Rall, Bobby Van and Bob Fosse.

"Another Op'nin', Another Show" is the opening number of Cole Porter's 1948 musical Kiss Me, Kate.

There have been numerous on screen adaptations of Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. The best known cinematic adaptations are Sam Taylor's 1929 The Taming of the Shrew and Franco Zeffirelli's 1967 The Taming of the Shrew, both of which starred the most famous celebrity couples of their era; Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks in 1929 and Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton in 1967. On television, perhaps the most significant adaptation is the 1980 BBC Television Shakespeare version, directed by Jonathan Miller and starring John Cleese and Sarah Badel.

The Taming of the Shrew in performance has had an uneven history. Popular in Shakespeare's day, the play fell out of favour during the seventeenth century, when it was replaced on the stage by John Lacy's Sauny the Scott. The original Shakespearean text was not performed at all during the eighteenth century, with David Garrick's adaptation Catharine and Petruchio dominating the stage. After over two hundred years without a performance, the play returned to the British stage in 1844, the last Shakespeare play restored to the repertory. However, it was only in the 1890s that the dominance of Catharine and Petruchio began to wain, and productions of The Shrew become more regular. Moving into the twentieth century, the play's popularity increased considerably, and it became one of Shakespeare's most frequently staged plays, with productions taking place all over the world. This trend has continued into the twenty-first century, with the play as popular now as it was when first written.

The Taming of the Shrew is a ballet in two acts choreographed by John Cranko to keyboard works by Domenico Scarlatti arranged and orchestrated by Kurt-Heinz Stolze. With scenery and costumes designed by Elizabeth Dalton, it was first presented as Der Widerspenstigen Zähmung by the Stuttgart Ballet at the Wṻrtembergische Staatstheater in Stuttgart on 16 March 1969.

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