List of tropical cyclone records

Last updated

This is a condensed list of worldwide tropical cyclone records set by different storms and seasons. [1]

Tropical cyclone Rotating storm system with a closed, low-level circulation

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Contents

Colour scheme used in this table:
Hydrological records
Impact records
Intensity records
Longevity records
Size records
Velocity records
Other records

Major records

CharacteristicRecordDateLocationRef(s)
Highest overall rainfall6,083 mm (239.5 in)January 14 – 28, 1980 Cyclone Hyacinthe in Reunion Island [2]
Highest storm surge 14.5 m (47.6 ft)March 5, 1899 Cyclone Mahina in Bathurst Bay, Queensland, Australia [3]
Highest confirmed wave height α 30 m (98.4 ft)September 11, 1995 Hurricane Luis on Queen Elizabeth 2 in the north Atlantic Ocean [4]
Costliest tropical cyclone$125 billion (2017 USD) in damagesAugust 29, 2005
August 25, 2017
Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Harvey in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States [5]
Costliest tropical cyclone season ≥$282.27 billion (2017 USD) in damages during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season April 19 – November 9, 2017North Atlantic Ocean [6]
Deadliest tropical cyclonec. 500,000+ fatalitiesNovember 12, 1970 Bhola cyclone in East Pakistan [7] [8]
Deadliest tropical cyclone seasonc. 500,805+ fatalities during the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season May 2 – November 29, 1970 North Indian Ocean [ citation needed ]
Most tornadoes spawned120 confirmed tornadoesSeptember 15 – 18, 2004 Hurricane Ivan in the southern and eastern United States [9]
Highest wind gusts113.3 m/s (255 mph; 220 kn; 410 km/h)April 10, 1996 Cyclone Olivia in Barrow Island, Western Australia [10]
Highest Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for a tropical cyclone82August 20 – September 7, 2006 Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [11]
Highest Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for a season600 (estimated) during the 1965 Pacific typhoon season January 16 – December 21, 1965Northwest Pacific Ocean [12]
Most intense
(1-minute maximum sustained surface winds)
96.2 m/s (215 mph; 185 kn; 345 km/h)October 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [13]
Most intense
(10-minute maximum sustained winds)
78.2 m/s (175 mph; 150 kn; 280 km/h)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in the south Pacific Ocean [14]
Most intense
(lowest central pressure)
870 mb (870.0 hPa; 25.7 inHg)October 12, 1979 Typhoon Tip in the northwest Pacific Ocean [15] [16]
Most intense at landfall
(1-minute maximum sustained winds)
86 m/s (190 mph; 165 kn; 310 km/h)November 7, 2013
September 13, 2016
Typhoon Haiyan in Samar, Philippines
Typhoon Meranti in Itbayat, Philippines
[17]
Most intense at landfall
(10-minute maximum sustained winds)
78.2 m/s (175 mph; 150 kn; 280 km/h)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in Viti Levu, Fiji. [14]
Most intense at landfall
(pressure)
884 mb (884.0 hPa; 26.1 inHg)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in Viti Levu, Fiji. [14]
Longest lasting tropical cyclone31 daysAugust 11 – September 10, 1994 Hurricane/Typhoon John in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [18] [19]
Longest distance traveled by tropical cyclone13,180 km (8,190 mi)August 11 – September 10, 1994 Hurricane/Typhoon John in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [20]
Longest lasting Category 4 or 5 winds8.25 consecutive daysAugust 24 – September 2, 2006 Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [21]
Longest lasting Category 5 winds β 5.50 consecutive daysSeptember 9 – 14, 1961 Typhoon Nancy in the northwest Pacific Ocean [22]
Largest tropical cyclone
(radius of winds from center)
Gale winds 17.5 m/s (40 mph; 35 kn; 65 km/h) extending 1,086 km (675 mi) from centerOctober 12, 1979 Typhoon Tip in the northwest Pacific Ocean [15] [23]
Smallest tropical cyclone
(radius of winds from center)
Gale winds 17.5 m/s (40 mph; 35 kn; 65 km/h) extending 18.5 km (11.5 mi) from centerOctober 7, 2008 Tropical Storm Marco in Bay of Campeche [24]
Largest eye
370 km (230 mi)August 20, 1960
August 17, 1997
Typhoon Carmen and Typhoon Winnie in the northwest Pacific Ocean [25] [26]
Smallest eye
3.7 km (2.3 mi)October 19, 2005 Hurricane Wilma in the Caribbean Sea [27]
Fastest intensification
(1-minute sustained surface winds)
54 m/s (120 mph; 105 kn; 195 km/h), from 38 m/s (85 mph; 75 kn; 135 km/h) to 91.6 m/s (205 mph; 180 kn; 330 km/h) in under 24 hOctober 22 – 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [13]
Fastest intensification
(pressure)
100 mb (100 hPa), from 976 mb (976.0 hPa; 28.8 inHg) to 876 mb (876.0 hPa; 25.9 inHg) in under 24 hSeptember 22 – 23, 1983 Typhoon Forrest in the northwest Pacific Ocean [28] [29]
Fastest seafloor current produced by a tropical cyclone2.25 m/s (5 mph; 5 kn; 10 km/h)September 16, 2004 Hurricane Ivan in the north Atlantic Ocean [30] [31]
Fastest updraft produced in a tropical cyclone27.4 m/s (60 mph; 55 kn; 100 km/h)October 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [32]
Highest forward speed31.18 m/s (70 mph; 60 kn; 110 km/h)September 15, 1961 Tropical Storm Six in the north Atlantic Ocean [33]
Closest proximity to the equator 1.4°  N December 26, 2001 Tropical Storm Vamei in the South China Sea [34]
Heaviest natural object moved177 short tons (161 t)November 8, 2013 Typhoon Haiyan in Samar, Philippines [35]
Highest number of tropical storms in a season39 official and 1 unofficial storms during the 1964 Pacific typhoon season May 12 – December 17, 1964Northwest Pacific Ocean [36]
Warmest eye34.0 °C (93.2 °F) at 700 hPa heightAugust 19, 1979 Typhoon Judy in the northwest Pacific Ocean [37]

See also

Tornado records

This article lists various tornado records. The most "extreme" tornado in recorded history was the Tri-State Tornado, which spread through parts of Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana on March 18, 1925. It is considered an F5, even though tornadoes were not ranked on any scale at the time. It holds records for longest path length at 219 miles (352 km), longest duration at about 3½ hours, and fastest forward speed for a significant tornado at 73 mph (117 km/h) anywhere on Earth. In addition, it is the deadliest single tornado in United States history with 695 fatalities. It was also the third-costliest tornado in history at the time, but has been surpassed by several others non-normalized. When costs are normalized for wealth and inflation, it still ranks third today.

Notes

 Although Luis produced the highest confirmed wave height for a tropical cyclone, it is possible that Hurricane Ivan produced a wave measuring 131 feet (40 m). [38]
 It is believed that reconnaissance aircraft overestimated wind speeds in tropical cyclones from the 1940s to the 1960s, and data from this time period is generally considered unreliable. Consequently, Typhoon Nancy may not have sustained Category 5 winds for such a long duration.

Related Research Articles

Cyclone large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low pressure

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes, and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars, Jupiter, and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream.

Tropical cyclone warnings and watches are two levels of alert issued by national weather forecasting bodies to coastal areas threatened by the imminent approach of a tropical cyclone of tropical storm or hurricane intensity. They are notices to the local population and civil authorities to make appropriate preparation for the cyclone, including evacuation of vulnerable areas where necessary. It is important that interests throughout the area of an alert make preparations to protect life and property, and do not disregard it on the strength of the detailed forecast track. Tropical cyclones are not points, and forecasting their track remains an uncertain science.

1858 San Diego hurricane Category 1 Pacific hurricane in 1858

The 1858 San Diego hurricane was a very rare California hurricane. It is the only known tropical cyclone to directly impact California as a hurricane, although other systems have impacted California as tropical storms. The storm caused damage to many homes and other constructions in San Diego. San Pedro experienced heavy rainfall, El Monte experienced high winds that damaged its corn crops and trees, and Los Angeles and Visalia experienced large amounts of rain but low wind. A later estimate indicated that if a similar storm happened in 2004, it would have caused $500 million in damage.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Atlantic hurricane tropical cyclone that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.

Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project

The Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seeks to correct and add new information about past North Atlantic hurricanes. It was started around 2000 to update HURDAT, the official hurricane database for the Atlantic Basin, which has become outdated since its creation due to various systematic errors introduced into the database over time. This effort has involved reanalyses of ship observations from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) as well as reanalyses done by other researchers over the years. It has been ongoing as of 2016, and should last another four years.

Tropical cyclone windspeed climatology

Tropical cyclone windspeed climatology is the study wind distribution amongst tropical cyclones, a significant threat to land and people. Since records began in 1851, winds from hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones have been responsible for fatalities and damage in every basin. Major hurricanes usually cause the most wind damage. Hurricane Andrew for example caused $45 billion in damage, most of it wind damage.

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.

Cyclone Hyacinthe South-West Indian cyclone in 1980

Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe was the wettest tropical cyclone on record worldwide. The eighth named storm of the season, Hyacinthe formed on January 15, 1980, to the northeast of Mauritius in the southern Indian Ocean. Initially it moved to the west-southwest, and while slowly intensifying it passed north of the French overseas department of Réunion. On January 19, Météo-France estimated that the storm had intensified to a tropical cyclone. Hyacinthe looped to the south of eastern Madagascar and weakened, although it restrengthened after turning to the east. The storm executed another loop to the southwest of Réunion, passing near the island for a second and later third time. Hyacinthe became extratropical on January 29 after turning southward, dissipating two days later.

References

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World Meteorological Organization Specialised agency of the United Nations

The World Meteorological Organization is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 193 Member States and Territories. Its current Secretary-General is Petteri Taalas and the President of the World Meteorological Congress, its supreme body, is David Grimes. The Organization is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML), a federal research laboratory, is part of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), located in Miami, Florida. AOML's research spans tropical cyclone and hurricanes, coastal ecosystems, oceans and human health, climate studies, global carbon systems, and ocean observations. It is one of seven NOAA Research Laboratories (RLs).