List of tropical cyclone records

Last updated

This is a condensed list of worldwide tropical cyclone records set by different storms and seasons. [1]

Contents

Colour scheme used in this table:
Hydrological records
Impact records
Intensity records
Longevity records
Size records
Velocity records
Other records

Major records

CharacteristicRecordDateLocationRef(s)
Highest overall rainfall6,083 mm (239.5 in)January 14 – 28, 1980 Cyclone Hyacinthe in Reunion Island [2]
Highest storm surge 14.5 m (47.6 ft)March 5, 1899 Cyclone Mahina in Bathurst Bay, Queensland, Australia [3]
Highest confirmed wave height α 30 m (98.4 ft)September 11, 1995 Hurricane Luis on Queen Elizabeth 2 in the north Atlantic Ocean [4]
Costliest tropical cyclone$125 billion (2017 USD) in damagesAugust 29, 2005
August 25, 2017
Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Harvey in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States [5]
Costliest tropical cyclone season ≥$294.92 billion (2017 USD) in damages during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season April 19 – November 9, 2017North Atlantic Ocean [6]
Deadliest tropical cyclonec. 500,000+ fatalitiesNovember 12, 1970 Bhola cyclone in East Pakistan [7] [8]
Deadliest tropical cyclone seasonc. 500,805+ fatalities during the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season May 2 – November 29, 1970 North Indian Ocean [9]
Most tornadoes spawned120 confirmed tornadoesSeptember 15 – 18, 2004 Hurricane Ivan in the southern and eastern United States [10]
Highest wind gusts113.3 m/s (255 mph; 220 kn; 410 km/h)April 10, 1996 Cyclone Olivia in Barrow Island, Western Australia [11]
Highest Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for a tropical cyclone82August 20 – September 7, 2006 Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [12]
Highest Accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for a season571 during the 1997 Pacific typhoon season January 19 – December 23, 1997Northwest Pacific Ocean [13]
Most intense
(1-minute maximum sustained surface winds)
96.2 m/s (215 mph; 185 kn; 345 km/h)October 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [14]
Most intense
(10-minute maximum sustained winds)
78.2 m/s (175 mph; 150 kn; 280 km/h)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in the south Pacific Ocean [15]
Most intense
(lowest central pressure)
870 mb (870.0 hPa; 25.7 inHg)October 12, 1979 Typhoon Tip in the northwest Pacific Ocean [16] [17]
Most intense at landfall
(1-minute maximum sustained winds)
86 m/s (190 mph; 165 kn; 310 km/h)November 7, 2013
September 13, 2016
Typhoon Haiyan in Samar, Philippines
Typhoon Meranti in Itbayat, Philippines
[18]
Most intense at landfall
(10-minute maximum sustained winds)
78.2 m/s (175 mph; 150 kn; 280 km/h)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in Viti Levu, Fiji. [15]
Most intense at landfall
(pressure)
884 mb (884.0 hPa; 26.1 inHg)February 20, 2016 Cyclone Winston in Viti Levu, Fiji. [15]
Longest lasting tropical cyclone31 daysAugust 11 – September 10, 1994 Hurricane/Typhoon John in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [19] [20]
Longest distance traveled by tropical cyclone13,180 km (8,190 mi)August 11 – September 10, 1994 Hurricane/Typhoon John in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [21]
Longest lasting Category 4 or 5 winds8.25 consecutive daysAugust 24 – September 2, 2006 Hurricane/Typhoon Ioke in the northeast and northwest Pacific Ocean [22]
Longest lasting Category 5 winds β 5.50 consecutive daysSeptember 9 – 14, 1961 Typhoon Nancy in the northwest Pacific Ocean [23]
Largest tropical cyclone
(radius of winds from center)
Gale winds 17.5 m/s (40 mph; 35 kn; 65 km/h) extending 1,086 km (675 mi) from centerOctober 12, 1979 Typhoon Tip in the northwest Pacific Ocean [16] [24]
Smallest tropical cyclone
(radius of winds from center)
Gale winds 17.5 m/s (40 mph; 35 kn; 65 km/h) extending 18.5 km (11.5 mi) from centerOctober 7, 2008 Tropical Storm Marco in Bay of Campeche [25]
Largest eye
370 km (230 mi)August 20, 1960
August 17, 1997
Typhoon Carmen and Typhoon Winnie in the northwest Pacific Ocean [26] [27]
Smallest eye
3.7 km (2.3 mi)October 19, 2005 Hurricane Wilma in the Caribbean Sea [28]
Fastest intensification
(1-minute sustained surface winds)
54 m/s (120 mph; 105 kn; 195 km/h), from 38 m/s (85 mph; 75 kn; 135 km/h) to 91.6 m/s (205 mph; 180 kn; 330 km/h) in under 24 hOctober 22 – 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [14]
Fastest intensification
(pressure)
100 mb (100 hPa), from 976 mb (976.0 hPa; 28.8 inHg) to 876 mb (876.0 hPa; 25.9 inHg) in under 24 hSeptember 22 – 23, 1983 Typhoon Forrest in the northwest Pacific Ocean [29] [30]
Fastest seafloor current produced by a tropical cyclone2.25 m/s (5 mph; 5 kn; 10 km/h)September 16, 2004 Hurricane Ivan in the north Atlantic Ocean [31] [32]
Fastest updraft produced in a tropical cyclone27.4 m/s (60 mph; 55 kn; 100 km/h)October 23, 2015 Hurricane Patricia in the northeast Pacific Ocean [33]
Highest forward speed31.18 m/s (70 mph; 60 kn; 110 km/h)September 15, 1961 Tropical Storm Six in the north Atlantic Ocean [34]
Closest proximity to the equator 1.4°  N December 26, 2001 Tropical Storm Vamei in the South China Sea [35]
Heaviest natural object moved177 short tons (161 t)November 8, 2013 Typhoon Haiyan in Samar, Philippines [36]
Highest number of tropical storms in a season39 official and 1 unofficial storms during the 1964 Pacific typhoon season May 12 – December 17, 1964Northwest Pacific Ocean [37]
Warmest eye34.0 °C (93.2 °F) at 700 hPa heightAugust 19, 1979 Typhoon Judy in the northwest Pacific Ocean [38]

See also

Notes

 Although Luis produced the highest confirmed wave height for a tropical cyclone, it is possible that Hurricane Ivan produced a wave measuring 131 feet (40 m). [39]
 It is believed that reconnaissance aircraft overestimated wind speeds in tropical cyclones from the 1940s to the 1960s, and data from this time period is generally considered unreliable. Consequently, Typhoon Nancy may not have sustained Category 5 winds for such a long duration.

Related Research Articles

Cyclone large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low pressure

In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiraling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are polar vortices and extratropical cyclones of the largest scale. Warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes, and dust devils lie within smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the tropical upper tropospheric trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere. Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars, Jupiter, and Neptune. Cyclogenesis is the process of cyclone formation and intensification. Extratropical cyclones begin as waves in large regions of enhanced mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract and form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their life cycle, extratropical cyclones occlude as cold air masses undercut the warmer air and become cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the subtropical jet stream.

Pacific hurricane mature tropical cyclone that develops within the eastern and central Pacific Ocean

A Pacific hurricane is a mature tropical cyclone that develops within the northeastern and central Pacific Ocean to the east of 180°W, north of the equator. For tropical cyclone warning purposes, the northern Pacific is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western, while the southern Pacific is divided into 2 sections, the Australian region and the southern Pacific basin between 160°E and 120°W. Identical phenomena in the western north Pacific are called typhoons. This separation between the two basins has a practical convenience, however, as tropical cyclones rarely form in the central north Pacific due to high vertical wind shear, and few cross the dateline.

Typhoon tropical cyclone that forms in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year.

Atlantic hurricane tropical cyclone that forms in the North Atlantic Ocean

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.

Tropical cyclone forecast model

A tropical cyclone forecast model is a computer program that uses meteorological data to forecast aspects of the future state of tropical cyclones. There are three types of models: statistical, dynamical, or combined statistical-dynamic. Dynamical models utilize powerful supercomputers with sophisticated mathematical modeling software and meteorological data to calculate future weather conditions. Statistical models forecast the evolution of a tropical cyclone in a simpler manner, by extrapolating from historical datasets, and thus can be run quickly on platforms such as personal computers. Statistical-dynamical models use aspects of both types of forecasting. Four primary types of forecasts exist for tropical cyclones: track, intensity, storm surge, and rainfall. Dynamical models were not developed until the 1970s and the 1980s, with earlier efforts focused on the storm surge problem.

Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project

The Atlantic hurricane reanalysis project of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seeks to correct and add new information about past North Atlantic hurricanes. It was started around 2000 to update HURDAT, the official hurricane database for the Atlantic Basin, which has become outdated since its creation due to various systematic errors introduced into the database over time. This effort has involved reanalyses of ship observations from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) as well as reanalyses done by other researchers over the years. It has been ongoing as of 2016, and should last another four years.

Hurricane Ioke Category 5 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 2006

Hurricane Ioke, also referred to as Typhoon Ioke, was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Central Pacific, as well as the fifth-most intense Pacific hurricane on record, tied with 1973's Hurricane Ava. The first storm to form in the Central Pacific in the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Ioke was a record breaking, long-lived and extremely powerful storm that traversed the Pacific for 17 days, reaching the equivalent of Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on three different occasions.

Tropical cyclone windspeed climatology

Tropical cyclone windspeed climatology is the study of wind distribution among tropical cyclones, a significant threat to land and people. Since records began in 1851, winds from hurricanes, typhoons and cyclones have been responsible for fatalities and damage in every basin. Major hurricanes usually cause the most wind damage. Hurricane Andrew for example caused $45 billion in damage, most of it wind damage.

Tropical cyclone rotating storm system with a closed, low-level circulation

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Tropical cyclone basins area of tropical cyclone formation

Traditionally, areas of tropical cyclone formation are divided into seven basins. These include the north Atlantic Ocean, the eastern and western parts of the northern Pacific Ocean, the southwestern Pacific, the southwestern and southeastern Indian Oceans, and the northern Indian Ocean. The western Pacific is the most active and the north Indian the least active. An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense tropical cyclones, super typhoons, or major hurricanes.

The Hurricane Databases (HURDAT), managed by the National Hurricane Center, are two separate databases that contain details on tropical cyclones, that have occurred within the Atlantic Ocean and Eastern Pacific Ocean since either 1851 or 1949.

Hurricane Ekeka Category 3 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1992

Hurricane Ekeka was the most intense off-season tropical cyclone on record in the northeastern Pacific basin. The first storm of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Ekeka developed on January 28 well to the south of Hawaii. It gradually intensified to reach major hurricane status on February 2, although it subsequently began to weaken due to unfavorable wind shear. It crossed the International Date Line as a weakened tropical storm, and shortly thereafter degraded to tropical depression status. Ekeka continued westward, passing through the Marshall Islands and later over Chuuk State, before dissipating on February 9 about 310 miles (500 km) off the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The storm did not cause any significant damage or deaths.

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